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Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health

Jonilda Kushta, Georgios K Georgiou, Yiannis Proestos, Theodoros Christoudias, Philippe Thunis, Chrysanthos Savvides, Christos Papadopoulos, Jos Lelieveld
We evaluate air quality modeling over the East Mediterranean using the benchmarking methodology developed in the framework of the Forum for Air Quality Modelling in Europe (FAIRMODE). FAIRMODE aims to provide a harmonized approach of model evaluation for regulatory purposes. We test the methodology by assessing the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) against ground-based air quality observations over Cyprus, a member state of the European Union. Two nested domains are used (at 50- and 10-km horizontal grid spacing) with the comparison performed over the innermost domain...
2019: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Sheena E Martenies, Chad W Milando, Stuart A Batterman
The development of air quality management (AQM) strategies provides opportunities to improve public health and reduce health inequalities. This study evaluates health and inequality impacts of alternate SO2 control strategies in Detroit, MI, a designated non-attainment area. Control alternatives include uniform reductions across sources, ranking approaches based on total emissions and health impacts per ton of pollutant emitted, and optimizations that meet concentration and health goals. Using dispersion modeling and quantitative health impact assessment (HIA), these strategies are evaluated in terms of ambient concentrations, health impacts, and the inequality in health risks...
May 2018: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Anne Steinemann
Fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies, air fresheners, and personal care products, can have adverse effects on both air quality and health. This study investigates the effects of fragranced products on autistic individuals ages 18-65 in the United States, Australia, and United Kingdom. Nationally representative population surveys ( n  = 1137; 1098; 1100) found that, across the three countries, 4.3% of adults ( n  = 142) report medically diagnosed autism (2.3%), an autism spectrum disorder (2...
2018: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Emanuela Peduzzi, Enrico Pisoni, Alain Clappier, Philippe Thunis
Poor air quality and related health impacts are still an issue in many cities and regions worldwide. Integrated assessment models (IAMs) can support the design of measures to reduce the emissions of precursors affecting air pollution. In this study, we apply the SHERPA (screening for high emission reduction potentials for air quality) model to compare spatial and sectoral emission reductions, given country-scale emission targets. Different approaches are tested: (a) country "uniform" emission reductions, (b) emission reductions targeting urban areas, (c) emission reductions targeting preferential sectors...
2018: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Attarad Ali, Maohua Pan, Trevor B Tilly, Muhammad Zia, Chang Yu Wu
To overcome limitations of existing air-cleaning filters in capturing and deactivating aerosolized microorganisms, this study was embarked to evaluate novel Ag, Zn, and Fe nanoparticle-doped cotton filters (AgCt, ZnCt, FeCt), as biocidal filters for bioaerosol attenuation. To evaluate the biocidal activity of the nanocomposite filters, the survival of lab-generated E. coli after collection on each filter material was compared to collection on an undoped cotton control filter and in a BioSampler. Relative humidity (RH) affected the survival of bacteria on the filters, and the optimal RH was found to be 50 ± 5%...
2018: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Daniel Croft, Robert Block, Scott J Cameron, Kristin Evans, Charles J Lowenstein, Frederick Ling, Wojciech Zareba, Philip K Hopke, Mark J Utell, Sally W Thurston, Kelly Thevenet-Morrison, David Q Rich
Previously, we found short-term increases in ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollutant concentrations were associated with increased serum fibrinogen levels in patients with cardiac disease. We now studied whether high blood levels of omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids blunted this fibrinogen response to increased PM concentrations in these same patients. Plasma fibrinogen and ω-3 fatty acid levels (% of total identified fatty acids) were measured in blood samples collected from 135 patients treated at the University of Rochester Medical Center for myocardial infarction or stable ischemic heart disease requiring cardiac catheterization...
2018: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Neda Nematollahi, Augustine Doronila, Patrick J Mornane, Alex Duan, Spas D Kolev, Anne Steinemann
Fragranced consumer products have been associated with adverse effects on human health. Babies are exposed to a variety of fragranced consumer products, which can emit numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), some considered potentially hazardous. However, fragranced baby products are exempt from disclosure of all ingredients. Consequently, parents and the public have little information on product emissions. This study investigates VOCs emitted from a range of fragranced baby products, including baby hair shampoos, body washes, lotions, creams, ointments, oils, hair sprays, and fragrance...
2018: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Barbara K Butland, H Ross Anderson, Aaron van Donkelaar, Elaine Fuertes, Michael Brauer, Bert Brunekreef, Randall V Martin
Whether exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in children is unclear. Using data from Phase Three of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in childhood (ISAAC), we investigated associations of rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence in adolescents with model-based estimates of ozone, and satellite-based estimates of fine (diameter < 2.5 μm) particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ). Information on rhinoconjunctivitis (defined as self-reported nose symptoms without a cold or flu accompanied by itchy watery eyes in the past 12 months) was available on 505,400 children aged 13-14 years, in 183 centres in 83 countries...
2018: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Anne Steinemann, Amanda J Wheeler, Alexander Larcombe
Exposure to fragranced consumer products, such as air fresheners and cleaning supplies, is associated with adverse health effects such as asthma attacks, breathing difficulties, and migraine headaches. This study investigated the prevalence and types of health problems associated with exposure to fragranced products among asthmatic Australians. Nationally representative cross-sectional data were obtained in June 2016 with an online survey of adult Australians ( n  = 1098), of which 28.5% were medically diagnosed with asthma or an asthma-like condition...
2018: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
David Q Rich, Mark J Utell, Daniel P Croft, Sally W Thurston, Kelly Thevenet-Morrison, Kristin A Evans, Frederick S Ling, Yilin Tian, Philip K Hopke
Prior work has reported acute associations between ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and short-term increases in airborne particulate matter. Subsequently, the association between STEMI and hourly measures of Delta-C (marker of woodsmoke) and black carbon (marker of traffic pollution) measured at a central site in Rochester, NY, were examined, but no association was found. Therefore, land use regression estimates of Delta-C and black carbon concentrations at each patient's residence were developed for 246 STEMI patients treated at the University of Rochester Medical Center during the winters of 2008-2012...
2018: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Carlyn J Matz, David M Stieb, Marika Egyed, Orly Brion, Markey Johnson
Exposure to traffic and traffic-related air pollution is associated with a wide array of health effects. Time spent in a vehicle, in active transportation, along roadsides, and in close proximity to traffic can substantially contribute to daily exposure to air pollutants. For this study, we evaluated daily time spent in transportation and traffic-influenced microenvironments by urban Canadians using the Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey (CHAPS) 2 results. Approximately 4-7% of daily time was spent in on- or near-road locations, mainly associated with being in a vehicle and smaller contributions from active transportation...
2018: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Fraser Torpy, Nicholas Clements, Max Pollinger, Andy Dengel, Isaac Mulvihill, Chuan He, Peter Irga
In recent years, research into the efficacy of indoor air biofiltration mechanisms, notably living green walls, has become more prevalent. Whilst green walls are often utilised within the built environment for their biophilic effects, there is little evidence demonstrating the efficacy of active green wall biofiltration for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at concentrations found within an interior environment. The current work describes a novel approach to quantifying the VOC removal effectiveness by an active living green wall, which uses a mechanical system to force air through the substrate and plant foliage...
2018: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Anne Steinemann
Fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies, air fresheners, and personal care products, can emit a range of air pollutants and trigger adverse health effects. This study investigates the prevalence and types of effects of fragranced products on asthmatics in the American population. Using a nationally representative sample ( n  = 1137), data were collected with an on-line survey of adults in the USA, of which 26.8% responded as being medically diagnosed with asthma or an asthma-like condition...
2018: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Mary M Lynam, J Timothy Dvonch, John M Turlington, David Olson, Matthew S Landis
Accurate characterization of the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) is essential for improved understanding of source attribution and resultant health impacts. To explore this we conducted ambient monitoring of a suite of 15 combustion-related organic species in temporally resolved PM 2.5 samples during an ongoing animal exposure study in a near source environment in Detroit, MI. All of the 15 species detected were above the method detection limit in 8 hour samples. This study focused on two molecular classes: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Hopanes measured in samples...
October 2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Jennifer Richmond-Bryant, R Chris Owen, Stephen Graham, Michelle Snyder, Stephen McDow, Michelle Oakes, Sue Kimbrough
This paper describes a new regression modeling approach to estimate on-road nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and oxides of nitrogen (NOX ) concentrations and near-road spatial gradients using data from a near-road monitoring network. Field data were collected in Las Vegas, NV at three monitors sited 20, 100, and 300 m from Interstate-15 between December, 2008 and January, 2010. Measurements of NO2 and NOX were integrated over 1-hour intervals and matched with meteorological data. Several mathematical transformations were tested for regressing pollutant concentrations against distance from the roadway...
June 2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Ewa Błaszczyk, Wioletta Rogula-Kozłowska, Krzysztof Klejnowski, Piotr Kubiesa, Izabela Fulara, Danuta Mielżyńska-Švach
More than 80% of people living in urban areas who monitor air pollution are exposed to air quality levels that exceed limits defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Although all regions of the world are affected, populations in low-income cities are the most impacted. According to average annual levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, ambient particles with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less) presented in the urban air quality database issued by WHO in 2016, as many as 33 Polish cities are among the 50 most polluted cities in the European Union (EU), with Silesian cities topping the list...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Alain Robichaud
The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of initializing GEM-MACH, Environment and Climate Change Canada's air quality (AQ) forecast model, with multi-pollutant surface objective analyses (MPSOA). A series of 48-h air quality forecasts were launched for July 2012 (summer case) and January 2014 (winter case) for ozone, NO2 , and PM2.5 . In this setup, the GEM-MACH model (version was initialized with surface analysis increments (from MPSOA) which were projected in the vertical by applying an appropriate fractional weighting in order to obtain 3D analyses in the lower troposphere...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Jose M Baldasano, Jordi Massagué
Air quality trends and patterns in the coastal city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) for the period 2011-2015 were analyzed. The orographic and meteorological characteristics, the proximity to the African continent, and the influence of the Azores anticyclone in combination with the anthropogenic (oil refinery, road/maritime traffic) and natural emissions create specific dispersion conditions. SO2 , NO2 , PM10 , PM2.5 , and O3 pollutants were assessed. The refinery was the primary source of SO2 ; EU hourly and daily average limit values were exceeded during 2011 and alert thresholds were reached in 2011 and 2012...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Kinga Wiśniewska, Anita Urszula Lewandowska, Agnieszka Witkowska
The purpose of this study was to find out what factors determine the deposition levels of mercury and organic carbon in household dust in the Tri-city region (southern Baltic Sea coast). Analyses were performed on samples collected over the period of 2 years, from 2013 to 2015, always in the heating season. The deposition of organic carbon was between 4and 210 mg m-2  month-1 , while mercury deposition ranged from 4 to 1336 ng m-2  month-1 . Deposition of mercury in household dust during the heating season was three times lower and deposition of organic carbon one and a half times lower than outdoor deposition obtained in the Baltic Sea region by other researchers...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Yuichi Miyake, Masahiro Tokumura, Qi Wang, Zhiwei Wang, Takashi Amagai
The Industrial Safety and Health Law in Japan established administrative levels for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air. In the present study, these 49 VOCs were extracted from the absorbents of commercial active samplers from Sibata Scientific Technology (carbon-bead active sampler), SKC Inc. (Anasorb CSC sorbent tube), and Gastec (bead-shaped activated carbon tube) using carbon disulfide, and the recovery rates were compared. The VOCs were added to the adsorbents at three concentration levels relative to the administrative levels (×0...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
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