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Gut and Liver

Jun Ki Min, Min Seob Kwak, Jae Myung Cha
Artificial intelligence is likely to perform several roles currently performed by humans, and the adoption of artificial intelligence-based medicine in gastroenterology practice is expected in the near future. Medical image-based diagnoses, such as pathology, radiology, and endoscopy, are expected to be the first in the medical field to be affected by artificial intelligence. A convolutional neural network, a kind of deep-learning method with multilayer perceptrons designed to use minimal preprocessing, was recently reported as being highly beneficial in the field of endoscopy, including esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, and capsule endoscopy...
January 11, 2019: Gut and Liver
Namyoung Paik, Eun Ran Kim, Tae Jun Kim, Sung Noh Hong, Dong Kyung Chang, Young-Ho Kim
Background/Aims: The quality of bowel preparation is important for optimal colonoscopy. It is influenced by medical and personal factors. We aimed to evaluate the effect of bowel habit on the quality of bowel preparation and to identify predictors of inadequate bowel preparation among bowel habit factors. Methods: From June 2017 to September 2017, 90 volunteers were enrolled in this study. Each participant answered a questionnaire consisting of multiple questions about personal bowel habits, including stool form, frequency of bowel movements per week, duration, and degree of straining for bowel movement...
January 3, 2019: Gut and Liver
Hosim Soh, Jaeyoung Chun, Kyungdo Han, Seona Park, Gukhwan Choi, Ji Hye Kim, Jooyoung Lee, Jong Pil Im, Joo Sung Kim
Background/Aims: The risk of herpes zoster (HZ) among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unclear in terms of age and metabolic comorbidities, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or dyslipidemia. We conducted a nationwide population-based study to investigate the risk of HZ in patients with IBD. Methods: From 2010 to 2013, a retrospective study was performed using claims data in Korea. We compared the incidence of HZ between 30,100 IBD patients (10,517 Crohn's disease [CD] and 19,583 ulcerative colitis [UC] patients) and 150,500 non-IBD controls matched by age and sex...
December 24, 2018: Gut and Liver
Jin-Seok Park, Kang Hyuck Yim, Seok Jeong, Don Haeng Lee, Dong Gon Kim
Background/Aim: Radiopaque metal markers are required to improve X-ray absorption by self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) to enable precise stent placement. A new tantalum radiopaque marker was recently developed using an ultrasonic spray technique. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and visibility of tantalum markers. Methods: A total of three beagle dogs were used for a gastrointestinal tract absorption test. Five tantalum markers were placed in the stomach of each dog endoscopically...
December 24, 2018: Gut and Liver
Takeshi Takajo, Kengo Tomita, Hanae Tsuchihashi, Shingo Enomoto, Masaaki Tanichi, Hiroyuki Toda, Yoshikiyo Okada, Hirotaka Furuhashi, Nao Sugihara, Akinori Wada, Kazuki Horiuchi, Kenichi Inaba, Yoshinori Hanawa, Naoki Shibuya, Kazuhiko Shirakabe, Masaaki Higashiyama, Chie Kurihara, Chikako Watanabe, Shunsuke Komoto, Shigeaki Nagao, Katsunori Kimura, Soichiro Miura, Kunio Shimizu, Ryota Hokari
Background/Aims: Although studies using conventional animal models have shown that specific stressors cause irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), it is unclear whether depression itself causes IBS. Our aim was to establish a rat model to determine if depression itself promotes the onset of IBS and to elucidate the role of gut microbiota in brain-gut axis pathogenesis during coincident depression and IBS. Methods: Rat models of depression were induced using our shuttle box method of learned helplessness...
December 24, 2018: Gut and Liver
Ja Yoon Heo, Beom Kyung Kim, Jun Yong Park, Do Young Kim, Sang Hoon Ahn, Won Young Tak, Young Oh Kweon, Kwang-Hyub Han, Soo Young Park, Seung Up Kim
Background/Aims: Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography predicts the presence of esophageal varices (EVs). We investigated whether an ARFI-based prediction model can assess EV bleeding (EVB) risk in patients with cirrhosis. Methods: The records of 262 patients with cirrhosis who underwent ARFI elastography and endoscopic surveillance at two institutions in 2008 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed, and ARFI-spleen diameter-to-platelet ratio scores (ASPS) were calculated...
December 24, 2018: Gut and Liver
Yeon Ji Chae, Dae Won Jun, Jai Sun Lee, Waqar Khalid Saeed, Hyeon Tae Kang, Kiseok Jang, Jin Ho Lee
Background/Aims: For the clinical application of stem cell therapy, functional enhancement is needed to increase the survival rate and the engraftment rate. The purpose of this study was to investigate functional enhancement of the paracrine effect using stem cells and hepatocyte-like cells and to minimize stem cell homing by using a scaffold system in a liver disease model. Methods: A microporator was used to overexpress Foxa2 in adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), which were cultured in a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffold...
December 24, 2018: Gut and Liver
Sung Hwan Lee, Ho Kyoung Hwang, Woo Jung Lee, Mijin Yun, Chang Moo Kang
Background/Aims: 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (18 F-FDG-PET) reflects biological aggressiveness and predicts prognoses in various tumors. Evaluating the oncologic significance of the preoperative metabolic phenotype might be necessary for planning the surgical strategy in resectable pancreatic cancer. Methods: From January 2010 to December 2015, a total of 93 patients with pathologic T3 (pT3) pancreatic cancer were included in this study...
December 24, 2018: Gut and Liver
Jong Jin Hyun, Nadav Sahar, Anand Singla, Andrew S Ross, Shayan S Irani, S Ian Gan, Michael C Larsen, Richard A Kozarek, Michael Gluck
Background/Aims: Acute pancreatitis complicated by walled-off necrosis (WON) is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and if infected, this condition typically necessitates intervention. Clinical outcomes of infected WON have been described as poorer than those of symptomatic sterile WON in surgical series. With the evolution of minimally invasive therapy, we sought to compare outcomes of infected and symptomatic sterile WON. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study examining patients who were undergoing dual-modality drainage as minimally invasive therapy for WON and who were maintained in a prospectively collected institutional database at our high-volume tertiary pancreatic center...
December 21, 2018: Gut and Liver
Mi Na Kim, Seong Gyu Hwang, Beom Kyung Kim, Jun Yong Park, Do Young Kim, Kwang-Hyub Han, Seung Up Kim, Sang Hoon Ahn
Background/Aims: Antiviral therapy (AVT) reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This multicenter retrospective study investigated the effects of AVT and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related factors on the risk of HCC development in a cohort with heterogeneous HBV status. Methods: A total of 1,843 patients with CHB from two institutions were included in this study. Ultrasound and laboratory tests, including the α-fetoprotein test, were conducted regularly to detect HCC development...
December 21, 2018: Gut and Liver
Shinya Fujie, Hirotoshi Ishiwatari, Keiko Sasaki, Junya Sato, Hiroyuki Matsubayashi, Masao Yoshida, Sayo Ito, Noboru Kawata, Kenichiro Imai, Naomi Kakushima, Kohei Takizawa, Kinichi Hotta, Hiroyuki Ono
Background/Aim: To compare the diagnostic yield of a 20-gauge forward-bevel core biopsy needle (CBN) and a 22-gauge needle for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of a solid pancreatic mass. Methods: The use of 20-gauge CBN was prospectively evaluated for 50 patients who underwent EUS-FNA from June 2016 to December 2016. Data were compared with those obtained by a retrospective study of 50 consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA using standard 22-gauge needles between December 2016 and April 2017...
December 19, 2018: Gut and Liver
Byung Gon Kim, Hyuk Soon Choi, Sei Hoon Park, Jun Ho Hong, Jung Min Lee, Seung Han Kim, Hoon Jai Chun, Daehie Hong, Bora Keum
Background/Aims: Endoscopic assistive devices have been developed to reduce the complexity and improve the safety of surgeries involving the use of endoscopes. We developed an assistive robotic arm for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and evaluated its efficiency and safety in this in vitro pilot study. Methods: ESD was performed using an auxiliary transluminal endoscopic robot. An in vitro test bed replicating the intra-abdominal environment and pig stomachs were used for the experiment...
December 19, 2018: Gut and Liver
Bo Hyun Kim, Joong-Won Park, Jin Sook Kim, Sook-Kyung Lee, Eun Kyung Hong
Background/Aims: Sorafenib remains the only approved molecular targeted agent for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, reliable biomarkers that predict its efficacy are still lacking. The aim of this study was to explore whether cancer stem cell (CSC) markers have a predictive role with regard to the sorafenib response in HCC patients. Methods: We enrolled 47 patients with HCC for whom tumor samples obtained before starting sorafenib treatment were available...
December 19, 2018: Gut and Liver
Min Su You, Sang Hyub Lee, Jinwoo Kang, Young Hoon Choi, Jin Ho Choi, Bang-Sup Shin, Gunn Huh, Woo Hyun Paik, Ji Kon Ryu, Yong-Tae Kim, Dong Kee Jang, Jun Kyu Lee
Background/Aims: Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (RPC) is a chronic, progressive disease frequently accompanied by cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). This study aimed to investigate the natural course of RPC and identify factors associated with CCA. Methods: From January 2005 to December 2016, 310 patients with RPC at Seoul National University Hospital were included. Complications and management during follow-up were recorded. CCA-free probability was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and risk factors associated with CCA were analyzed using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression model...
December 19, 2018: Gut and Liver
Linyan Zhou, Dongyan Liu, Ying Xie, Xinjie Yao, Yan Li
Background/Aims: The current study aims to investigate the protective effects of Bifidobacterium infantis on the abnormal immune response to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Methods: Eight-week-old BALB/c mice were separated into five groups at random (control, DSS, DSS+B9 [ B. infantis 1×109 CFU], DSS+B8 [ B. infantis 1×108 CFU], and DSS+B7 [ B. infantis 1×107 CFU]). Colitis was induced by 5% DSS ad libitum for 7 days, at which time we assessed weight, the disease activity index (DAI) score, and the histological damage score...
December 19, 2018: Gut and Liver
Andrew J Yang, Seo Hee Choi, Hwa Kyung Byun, Hyun Ju Kim, Jinhyun Choi, Yong Chan Lee, Sang Kil Lee, Kyung Ran Park, Chang Geol Lee
Background/Aims: Endoscopic resection is a standard treatment for stage T1a esophageal cancer, with esophagectomy or radical radiation therapy (RT) performed for stage T1b lesions. This study aimed to compare treatment outcomes of each modality for clinical stage T1 esophageal cancer. Methods: In total, 179 patients with clinical T1N0M0-stage esophageal cancer treated from 2006 to 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. Sixty-two patients with clinical T1a-stage cancer underwent endoscopic resection...
December 19, 2018: Gut and Liver
Kentaro Yamashita, Ryo Suzuki, Toshiyuki Kubo, Kei Onodera, Tomoya Iida, Mayuko Saito, Yoshiaki Arimura, Takao Endo, Masanori Nojima, Hiroshi Nakase
Background/Aims: Fundic gland polyps (FGPs), hyperplastic polyps (HPs) and xanthomas (XTs) are common benign gastric lesions that can be diagnosed by endoscopic appearance alone in most cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between gastric cancer and these benign lesions. Methods: Two expert endoscopists reviewed a series of gastroscopy images. FGPs, HPs, and XTs were diagnosed by endoscopic appearance, whereas all gastric cancers were confirmed pathologically...
December 19, 2018: Gut and Liver
In Suk Min, Chang Hun Lee, Ik Sang Shin, Na Eun Lee, Hong Seon Son, Seung Bum Kim, Seung Young Seo, Seong Hun Kim, Sang Wook Kim, Seung Ok Lee, Soo Teik Lee, In Hee Kim
Background/Aims: To investigate the treatment efficacy and renal safety of long-term tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) therapy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with preserved renal function. Methods: The medical records of 919 CHB patients who were treated with TDF therapy were reviewed. All patients had preserved renal function with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of at least 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 . Results: A total of 426 patients (184 treatment-naïve and 242 treatment-experienced) were included for analysis...
December 14, 2018: Gut and Liver
Shailja C Shah, Jason Glass, Gennaro Giustino, Joren R Ten Hove, Daniel Castaneda, Joana Torres, Akash Kumar, Jordan Elman, Thomas A Ullman, Steven H Itzkowitz
Background/Aims: Statins have been postulated to lower the risk of colorectal neoplasia. No studies have examined any possible chemopreventive effect of statins in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) undergoing colorectal cancer (CRC) surveillance. This study examined the association of statin exposure with dysplasia and CRC in patients with IBD undergoing dysplasia surveillance colonoscopies. Methods: A cohort of patients with IBD undergoing colonoscopic surveillance for dysplasia and CRC at a single academic medical center were studied...
December 14, 2018: Gut and Liver
Naohisa Yoshida, Osamu Dohi, Ken Inoue, Ritsu Yasuda, Takaaki Murakami, Ryohei Hirose, Ken Inoue, Yuji Naito, Yutaka Inada, Kiyoshi Ogiso, Yukiko Morinaga, Mitsuo Kishimoto, Rafiz Abdul Rani, Yoshito Itoh
A laser endoscopy system was developed in 2012. The system allows blue laser imaging (BLI), BLI-bright, and linked color imaging (LCI) to be performed as modes of narrow-band light observation; these modes have been reported to be useful for tumor detection and characterization. Furthermore, an innovative endoscopy system using four-light emitting diode (LED) multilight technology was released in 2016 to 2017 in some areas in which laser endoscopes have not been approved for use, including the United States and Europe...
December 4, 2018: Gut and Liver
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