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Neural Regeneration Research

Ulfuara Shefa, Junyang Jung
A Schwann cell has regenerative capabilities and is an important cell in the peripheral nervous system. This microarray study is part of a bioinformatics study that focuses mainly on Schwann cells. Microarray data provide information on differences between microarray-based and experiment-based gene expression analyses. According to microarray data, several genes exhibit increased expression (fold change) but they are weakly expressed in experimental studies (based on morphology, protein and mRNA levels). In contrast, some genes are weakly expressed in microarray data and highly expressed in experimental studies; such genes may represent future target genes in Schwann cell studies...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Qin-Yi Chen, Chao-Yang Tan, Yang Wang, Ke-Tao Ma, Li Li, Jun-Qiang Si
Transmembrane member 16A (TMEM16A) is involved in many physiological functions, such as epithelial secretion, sensory conduction, nociception, control of neuronal excitability, and regulation of smooth muscle contraction, and may be important in peripheral pain transmission. To explore the role of TMEM16A in the persistent hyperalgesia that results from chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain, a rat model of the condition was established by ligating the left sciatic nerve. A TMEM16A selective antagonist (10 μg T16Ainh-A01) was intrathecally injected at L5-6...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Cheng-Cheng Ying, Mei Yang, Yong Wang, Yong-Lian Guo, Wan-Li Hu, Xin-Min Zheng
Although the remaining nerve tissue can regenerate and partly restore erectile function when the cavernous nerve is compressed/severed and function lost, the limited regenerative ability of these nerve tissues often fails to meet clinical needs. Adipose-derived stem cells are easy to obtain and culture, and can differentiate into neural cells. Their proliferation rate is easy to control and they may be used to help restore injured cavernous nerve function. Sprague-Dawley male rats (n = 45) were equally randomized into three groups: fifteen rats as a sham-operated group, fifteen rats as a bilateral nerve crush (BINC) group (with no further intervention), fifteen rats as a BINC with intracavernous injection of one million neural-like cells from adipose-derived stem cells (NAS) (BINC + NAS) group...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Alessandro Crosio, Benedetta Elena Fornasari, Giovanna Gambarotta, Stefano Geuna, Stefania Raimondo, Bruno Battiston, Pierluigi Tos, Giulia Ronchi
Nerve regeneration after delayed nerve repair is often unsuccessful. Indeed, the expression of genes associated with regeneration, including neurotrophic and gliotrophic factors, is drastically reduced in the distal stump of chronically transected nerves; moreover, Schwann cells undergo atrophy, losing their ability to sustain regeneration. In the present study, to provide a three-dimensional environment and trophic factors supporting Schwann cell activity and axon re-growth, we combined the use of an effective conduit (a chitosan tube) with a promising intraluminal structure (fresh longitudinal skeletal muscle fibers)...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Tao Wang, Li-Ni Zeng, Zhe Zhu, Yu-Hui Wang, Lu Ding, Wei-Bin Luo, Xiao-Min Zhang, Zhi-Wei He, Hong-Fu Wu
Brachial plexus avulsion often results in massive motor neuron death and severe functional deficits of target muscles. However, no satisfactory treatment is currently available. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α is a critical molecule targeting several genes associated with ischemia-hypoxia damage and angiogenesis. In this study, a rat model of brachial plexus avulsion-reimplantation was established, in which C5-7 ventral nerve roots were avulsed and only the C6 root reimplanted. Different implants were immediately injected using a microsyringe into the avulsion-reimplantation site of the C6 root post-brachial plexus avulsion...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.4103/1673-5374.245480].
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Elisa García, Roxana Rodríguez-Barrera, Vinnitsa Buzoianu-Anguiano, Adrian Flores-Romero, Emanuel Malagón-Axotla, Marco Guerrero-Godinez, Estefanía De la Cruz-Castillo, Laura Castillo-Carvajal, Monserrat Rivas-Gonzalez, Paola Santiago-Tovar, Ivis Morales, Cesar Borlongan, Antonio Ibarra
Spinal cord injury is a very common pathological event that has devastating functional consequences in patients. In recent years, several research groups are trying to find an effective therapy that could be applied in clinical practice. In this study, we analyzed the combination of different strategies as a potential therapy for spinal cord injury. Immunization with neural derived peptides (INDP), inhibition of glial scar formation (dipyridyl: DPY), as well as the use of biocompatible matrix (fibrin glue: FG) impregnated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were combined and then its beneficial effects were evaluated in the induction of neuroprotection and neuroregeneration after acute SCI...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Antonio Merolli, Yong Mao, Gregory Voronin, Joseph A M Steele, N Sanjeeva Murthy, Joachim Kohn
Information from the brain travels back and forth along peripheral nerves in the form of electrical impulses generated by neurons and these impulses have repetitive patterns. Schwann cells in peripheral nerves receive molecular signals from axons to coordinate the process of myelination. There is evidence, however, that non-molecular signals play an important role in myelination in the form of patterned electrical impulses generated by neuronal activity. The role of patterned electrical impulses has been investigated in the literature using co-cultures of neurons and myelinating cells...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Lir-Wan Fan, Kathleen Carter, Abhay Bhatt, Yi Pang
We previously reported that intranasal insulin protects substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons against 6-hydroxydopamine neurotoxicity in rats. This study aimed to assess insulin pharmacokinetics in the rat brain following intranasal application. Recombinant human insulin (rh-Ins) or phosphate buffer solution was administered to both nostrils of rats. Animals were sacrificed at 15 minutes, 1, 2, and 6 hours to determine insulin levels in different brain regions by an ultrasensitive, human-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Ning Li, Yang Li, Li-Juan Li, Ke Zhu, Yan Zheng, Xiao-Min Wang
Mounting evidence suggests that synaptic plasticity provides the cellular biological basis of learning and memory, and plasticity deficits play a key role in dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanisms by which synaptic dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease remain unclear. In the present study, Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice were used to determine the relationship between decreased hippocampal synaptic plasticity and pathological changes and cognitive-behavioral deterioration, as well as possible mechanisms underlying decreased synaptic plasticity in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease-like diseases...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Zi-Fang Zhao, Lei Du, Teng Gao, Lin Bao, Yuan Luo, Yi-Qing Yin, Yong-An Wang
The α5 subunit-containing gamma-amino butyric acid type A receptors (α5 GABAARs) are a distinct subpopulation that are specifically distributed in the mammalian hippocampus and also mediate tonic inhibitory currents in hippocampal neurons. These tonic currents can be enhanced by low-dose isoflurane, which is associated with learning and memory impairment. Inverse agonists of α5 GABAARs, such as L-655,708, are able to reverse the short-term memory deficit caused by low-dose isoflurane in young animals. However, whether these negative allosteric modulators have the same effects on aged rats remains unclear...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Raffaele Nardone, Patrick B Langthaler, Andrea Orioli, Viviana Versace, Giuditta Ilaria Scarano, Francesco Brigo, Leopold Saltuari, Luca Carnicelli, Eugen Trinka, Luca Sebastianelli
The role of the ipsilaterally descending motor pathways in the recovery mechanisms after unilateral hemispheric damage is still poorly understood. Motor output reorganization was investigated in a 56-year-old male patient with acquired unilateral hemispheric atrophy due to Rasmussen encephalitis. In particular, the ipsilateral corticospinal pathways were explored using focal transcranial magnetic stimulation. In the first dorsal interosseous and wrist extensors muscles, the median amplitudes of the ipsilateral motor evoked potentials induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation in the patient were higher than those of 10 age-matched healthy control subjects...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Yang Wang, De-Jun Bao, Bin Xu, Chuan-Dong Cheng, Yong-Fei Dong, Xiang-Pin Wei, Chao-Shi Niu
The Wnt/Frizzled signaling pathway participates in many inflammation-linked diseases. However, the inflammatory response mediated by the Wnt/Frizzled signaling pathway in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been thoroughly investigated. Consequently, in this study, we examined the potential role of the Wnt/Frizzled signaling pathway in early brain injury in rat models of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Simultaneously, possible neuroprotective mechanisms were also investigated. Experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage rat models were induced by injecting autologous blood into the prechiasmatic cistern...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Wen-Li Chen, Qian Ye, Si-Cong Zhang, Yang Xia, Xi Yang, Ti-Fei Yuan, Chun-Lei Shan, Jian-An Li
When watching someone performs an action, mirror neurons are activated in a way that is very similar to the activation that occurs when actually performing that action. Previous single-sample case studies indicate that hand-action observation training may lead to activation and remodeling of mirror neuron systems, which include important language centers, and may improve language function in aphasia patients. In this randomized-block-design experiment, we recruited 24 aphasia patients from, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, China...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Si-Yi Xu, Min Liu, Yang Gao, Yang Cao, Jin-Gang Bao, Ying-Ying Lin, Yong Wang, Qi-Zhong Luo, Ji-Yao Jiang, Chun-Long Zhong
While animal models of controlled cortical impact often display short-term motor dysfunction after injury, histological examinations do not show severe cortical damage. Thus, this model requires further improvement. Mice were subjected to injury at three severities using a Pin-Point™ -controlled cortical impact device to establish secondary brain injury mouse models. Twenty-four hours after injury, hematoxylin-eosin staining, Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry were performed for brain slices...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Ji-Peng Jiang, Xue-Gang Niu, Chen Dai, Ke Ma, Hui-You Xu, Shi-Xiang Cheng, Zhi-Wen Zhang, Feng Duan, Xu Zhu, Yu-Ting Wang, Xu-Yi Chen, Sai Zhang
An accurate and effective neurological evaluation is indispensable in the treatment and rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury. However, most of the existing evaluation methods in basic research and clinical practice are not objective or intuitive for assessing the neurological function of big animals, and are also difficult to use to qualify the extent of damage and recovery. In the present study, we established a big animal model of traumatic brain injury by impacting the cortical motor region of beagles...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Hui-Jie Wei, Li Liu, Fang-Lian Chen, Dong Wang, Liang Wang, Zeng-Guang Wang, Rong-Cai Jiang, Jing-Fei Dong, Jie-Li Chen, Jian-Ning Zhang
Hyperglycemia reduces the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, accelerates their senescence and impairs their function. However, the relationship between blood glucose levels and endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral blood of patients with traumatic brain injury is unclear. In this study, 101 traumatic brain injury patients admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital or the Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital, China, were enrolled from April 2005 to March 2007...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Ryszard Pluta, Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Joaquín Fernández-Irigoyen, Enrique Santamaría
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Lakshini Y Herat, Markus P Schlaich, Vance B Matthews
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
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