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Microbial Biotechnology

Kenneth Timmis, Franziska Jebok, Manfred Rohde, Gabriella Molinari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2019: Microbial Biotechnology
Kyeong Rok Choi, Sang Yup Lee
Pseudomonas putida has emerged as a promising host for the production of chemicals and materials thanks to its metabolic versatility and cellular robustness. In particular, P. putida KT2440 has been officially classified as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) strain, which makes it suitable for the production of compounds that humans directly consume, including secondary metabolites of high importance. Although various tools and strategies have been developed to facilitate metabolic engineering of P. putida, modification of large genes/clusters essential for heterologous expression of natural products with large biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) has not been straightforward...
February 14, 2019: Microbial Biotechnology
Maria José Huertas, Carmen Michán
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2019: Microbial Biotechnology
Laura Martinelli, Pablo I Nikel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2019: Microbial Biotechnology
Yi-Jiun Pan, Tzu-Lung Lin, Yi-Yin Chen, Peng-Hsuan Lai, Yun-Ting Tsai, Chun-Ru Hsu, Pei-Fang Hsieh, Yi-Tsung Lin, Jin-Town Wang
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important human pathogen causing opportunistic nosocomial and community-acquired infections. A major public health concern regarding K. pneumoniae is the increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant strains. Here, we isolated three novel Klebsiella bacteriophages, KN1-1, KN3-1 and KN4-1, which infect KN1, KN3 and K56, and KN4 types respectively. We determined their genome sequences and conducted a comparative analysis that revealed a variable region containing capsule depolymerase-encoding genes...
January 31, 2019: Microbial Biotechnology
Maarten G K Ghequire, René De Mot
Bacteriocins are secreted bacterial proteins that selectively kill related strains. Lectin-like bacteriocins are atypical bacteriocins not requiring a cognate immunity factor and have been primarily studied in Pseudomonas. These so-called LlpAs are composed of a tandem of B-lectin domains. One domain interacts with d-rhamnose residues in the common polysaccharide antigen of Pseudomonas lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The other lectin domain is crucial for interference with the outer membrane protein assembly machinery by interacting with surface-exposed loops of its central component BamA...
January 31, 2019: Microbial Biotechnology
Daniel Bustamante, Silvia Segarra, Marta Tortajada, Daniel Ramón, Carlos Del Cerro, María Auxiliadora Prieto, José Ramón Iglesias, Antonia Rojas
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters of microbial origin that can be synthesized by prokaryotes from noble sugars or lipids and from complex renewable substrates. They are an attractive alternative to conventional plastics because they are biodegradable and can be produced from renewable resources, such as the surplus of whey from dairy companies. After an in silico screening to search for ß-galactosidase and PHA polymerase genes, several bacteria were identified as potential PHA producers from whey based on their ability to hydrolyse lactose...
January 31, 2019: Microbial Biotechnology
Jun-Zhou Li, Li-Ying Zhou, You-Liang Peng, Jun Fan
Bacteriocins are regarded as important factors mediating microbial interactions, but their exact role in community ecology largely remains to be elucidated. Here, we report the characterization of a mutant strain, derived from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst), that was incapable of growing in plant extracts and causing disease. Results showed that deficiency in a previously unannotated gene saxE led to the sensitivity of the mutant to Ca2+ in leaf extracts. Transposon insertions in the bacteriocin gene syrM, adjacent to saxE, fully rescued the bacterial virulence and growth of the ΔsaxE mutant in plant extracts, indicating that syrM-saxE encode a pair of bacteriocin immunity proteins in Pst...
January 22, 2019: Microbial Biotechnology
Yunxue Guo, Yangmei Li, Waner Zhan, Thomas K Wood, Xiaoxue Wang
C-tail anchored inner membrane proteins are a family of proteins that contain a C-terminal transmembrane domain but lack an N-terminal signal sequence for membrane targeting. They are widespread in eukaryotes and prokaryotes and play critical roles in membrane traffic, apoptosis and protein translocation in eukaryotes. Recently, we identified and characterized in Escherichia coli a new C-tail anchored inner membrane, ElaB, which is regulated by the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS. ElaB is important for resistance to oxidative stress but the exact mechanism is unclear...
January 17, 2019: Microbial Biotechnology
Dipesh Kumar Verma, Ishita Baral, Atul Kumar, Senthil E Prasad, Krishan Gopal Thakur
Interesting optical and photochemical properties make microbial rhodopsin a promising biological material suitable for various applications, but the cost-prohibitive nature of production has limited its commercialization. The aim of this study was to explore the natural biodiversity of Indian solar salterns to isolate natural bacteriorhodopsin (BR) variants that can be functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. In this study, we report the isolation, functional expression and purification of BRs from three pigmented haloarchaea, wsp3 (water sample Pondicherry), wsp5 and K1T isolated from two Indian solar salterns...
January 16, 2019: Microbial Biotechnology
Gayatri Athalye-Jape, Sanjay Patole
Mortality, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), late onset sepsis (LOS) and feeding intolerance are significant issues for very preterm (< 32 weeks) and extremely preterm (< 28 weeks) infants. The complications of ≥ Stage II NEC [e.g. Resection of the gangrenous gut, survival with intestinal failure, recurrent infections, prolonged hospital stay, and long-term neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI)] impose a significant health burden. LOS also carries significant burden including long-term NDI due to adverse effects of inflammation on the preterm brain during the critical phase of development...
January 13, 2019: Microbial Biotechnology
Aina Gotoh, Miriam Nozomi Ojima, Takane Katayama
The human body houses a variety of microbial ecosystems, such as the microbiotas on the skin, in the oral cavity and in the digestive tract. The gut microbiota is one such ecosystem that contains trillions of bacteria, and it is well established that it can significantly influence host health and diseases. With the advancement in bioinformatics tools, numerous comparative studies based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences, metabolomics, pathological and epidemical analyses have revealed the correlative relationship between the abundance of certain taxa and disease states or amount of certain causative bioactive compounds...
January 13, 2019: Microbial Biotechnology
Guo Shuqi, Wang Zeyu, Liu Beiling, Gao Jiangtao, Fang Xiangling, Qian Tang, Bilal Muhammad, Wang Yonghong, Zhang Xing
CpxR is a global response regulator that negatively influences the antimicrobial activities of Xenorhabdus nematophila. Herein, the wildtype and ΔcpxR mutant of X. nematophila were cultured in a 5-l and 70-l bioreactor. The kinetic analysis showed that ΔcpxR significantly increased the cell biomass and antibiotic activity. The maximum dry cell weight (DCW) and antibiotic activity of ΔcpxR were 20.77 ± 1.56 g L-1 and 492.0 ± 31.2 U ml-1 and increased by 17.28 and 97.33% compared to the wildtype respectively...
January 8, 2019: Microbial Biotechnology
Abel Moreno, Nicola Demitri, Estela Ruiz-Baca, Arturo Vega-González, Maurizio Polentarutti, Mayra Cuéllar-Cruz
The aim of the present work was to evaluate whether Candida species can reduce both precious and toxic pure metals from the respective molecular ions. From these results, the nanoparticles formed were studied using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation. Our results showed that the metal ions were reduced to their corresponding metallic nanoconglomerate or nanoparticles by Candida species. This is the first report on how yeasts of this genus are capable of achieving homeostasis (resilience) in the presence of metal ions of both precious and toxic metals by reducing them to a metallic state...
January 7, 2019: Microbial Biotechnology
Shaojie Shan, Wenwu Wang, Chunxu Song, Minggang Wang, Bingjiao Sun, Yang Li, Yaqi Fu, Xinghui Gu, Weibin Ruan, Sergio Rasmann
Soil-dwelling entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) kill arthropod hosts by injecting their symbiotic bacteria into the host hemolymph and feed on the bacteria and the tissue of the dying host for several generations cycles until the arthropod cadaver is completely depleted. The EPN-bacteria-arthropod cadaver complex represents a rich energy source for the surrounding opportunistic soil fungal biota and other competitors. We hypothesized that EPNs need to protect their food source until depletion and that the EPN symbiotic bacteria produce volatile and non-volatile exudations that deter different soil fungal groups in the soil...
January 7, 2019: Microbial Biotechnology
Jan M Klenk, Paulina Dubiel, Mahima Sharma, Gideon Grogan, Bernhard Hauer
One of the major challenges in chemical synthesis is the selective oxyfunctionalization of non-activated C-H bonds, which can be enabled by biocatalysis using cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. In this study, we report on the characterization of the versatile CYP109Q5 from Chondromyces apiculatus DSM436, which is able to functionalize a wide range of substrates (terpenes, steroids and drugs), including the ring of β-ionone in non-allylic positions. The crystal structure of CYP109Q5 revealed flexibility within the active site pocket that permitted the accommodation of bulky substrates, and enabled a structure-guided approach to engineering the enzyme...
December 27, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Audrey Magnin, Lucie Hoornaert, Eric Pollet, Stéphanie Laurichesse, Vincent Phalip, Luc Avérous
As a highly resistant polymer family, polyurethanes (PU) are responsible for increasing environmental issues. Then, PU biodegradation is a challenging way to develop sustainable waste management processes based on biological recycling. Since the metabolic diversity of fungi is a major asset for polymer degradation, nearly thirty strains were isolated from sampling on six different PU wastes-containing environments. A screening of the fungi on four thermoplastic PU (TPU) with different macromolecular architectures led to the selection of three strains able to use two polyester PU as sole carbon source: Alternaria sp...
December 27, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Kaleb Z Abram, Zulema Udaondo
Highlight of the work of Calero and Nikel published in Microbial Biotechnology journal a few months ago.
December 27, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Shripada C Rao, Sanjay K Patole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Gerard D Wright
The natural product specialized metabolites produced by microbes and plants are the backbone of our current drugs. Despite their historical importance, few pharmaceutical companies currently emphasize their exploitation in new drug discovery and instead favour synthetic compounds as more tractable alternatives. Ironically, we are in a Golden Age of understanding of natural product biosynthesis, biochemistry and engineering. These advances have the potential to usher in a new era of natural product exploration and development taking full advantage of the unique and favourable properties of natural products compounds in drug discovery...
December 19, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
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