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Forensic Toxicology

Richard C Kevin, Alexander L Kovach, Timothy W Lefever, Thomas F Gamage, Jenny L Wiley, Iain S McGregor, Brian F Thomas
Purpose: The use of novel synthetic cannabinoids as intoxicants continues in spite of associated health risks. These compounds are typically smoked or vaporized, but many synthetic cannabinoids contain thermally labile chemical moieties. This study investigated the thermal stability six carboxamide-type synthetic cannabinoids (CUMYL-PICA, 5F-CUMYL-PICA, AMB-FUBINACA, MDMB-FUBINACA, NNEI, and MN-18) in order to characterise potential user exposure to thermolysis products. Methods: Compounds were heated sequentially to 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C using a thermolysis probe, and the resultant thermolysis products were analysed via GC-MS...
January 2019: Forensic Toxicology
Karolina Nowak, Paweł Szpot, Marcin Zawadzki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Forensic Toxicology
Nektaria Misailidi, Sotiris Athanaselis, Panagiota Nikolaou, Maria Katselou, Yannis Dotsikas, Chara Spiliopoulou, Ioannis Papoutsis
Purpose: Fentanyl analogues are popular in recent years among drug addicts and have been related to many overdoses and deaths worldwide. Furanylfentanyl, ocfentanil, acetylfentanyl and butyrfentanyl are among the most common of these drugs. Methods for the determination of furanylfentanyl and ocfentanil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in biological samples do not exist, and therefore, their development would be extremely useful for routine toxicological analysis. Methods: A GC-MS method was developed and fully validated for the determination of furanylfentanyl and ocfentanil in whole blood...
2019: Forensic Toxicology
Piotr Kuś, Hubert Hellwig, Joachim Kusz, Maria Książek, Marcin Rojkiewicz, Aleksander Sochanik
Purpose: Three compounds obtained from ephedrine were identified and characterized by various instrumental analytical methods. Ephedrone (methcathinone) hydrochloride and its fundamental derivatives N -acetylephedrine and N -acetylephedrone were analyzed as precursors of a cathinone derivative. Methods: The obtained samples were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography...
2019: Forensic Toxicology
Toshiyuki Kimura, Makiko Takaya, Noriyuki Usami, Kazuhito Watanabe, Ikuo Yamamoto
Purpose: ∆9 - Tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9 -THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), major psychoactive constituents of marijuana, induce potentiation of pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. We have elucidated the mechanism of enhancement of the anesthetic effect of pentobarbital by cannabinoids. Methods: We carried out pharmacological experiment and cannabinoid1 (CB1 ) receptor binding assay using CB1 antagonists to clarify whether the CB1 receptor is involved in the synergism or not...
2019: Forensic Toxicology
Akina Nara, Kanju Saka, Chiho Yamada, Takanori Kodama, Tetsuya Takagi
Purpose: The potato glycoalkaloids (PGAs), α-solanine and α-chaconine can exert adverse effects on human health when consumed in excess. This study aimed to investigate the optimal extraction method for the quantitative analysis of PGAs in whole blood by using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and to apply this validated method to postmortem blood. Methods: A total of 200 µL of human whole blood was prepared for PGA extraction...
2019: Forensic Toxicology
Verena Angerer, Florian Franz, Bjoern Moosmann, Philippe Bisel, Volker Auwärter
Purpose: In recent years e-liquids used in electronic cigarettes have become an attractive alternative to smoking tobacco. A new trend is the use of e-liquids containing synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) instead of smoking cannabis or herbal mixtures laced with SCs. In the frame of a systematic monitoring of the online market of 'legal high' products, e-liquids from online retailers who also sell herbal blends were bought. Methods: The products were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
2019: Forensic Toxicology
Kayoko Minakata, Koutaro Hasegawa, Hideki Nozawa, Itaru Yamagishi, Takeji Saitoh, Atsuto Yoshino, Masako Suzuki, Takuya Kitamoto, Osamu Suzuki, Kanako Watanabe
Purpose: A synthetic cannabinoid BB-22 and its metabolite BB-22 3-carboxyindole have not yet been quantified in human urine. The aim of this study is to establish a sensitive analytical method for the quantification of BB-22 and its 3-carboxyindole in human serum and urine specimens, and the characterization of the unreported metabolites of BB-22 in authentic urine specimens from three individuals. Methods: These compounds were extracted from β-glucuronide-hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed urine and/or serum via liquid-liquid extraction...
2019: Forensic Toxicology
Lukas Mogler, Sebastian Halter, Maurice Wilde, Florian Franz, Volker Auwärter
Purpose: 5F-CUMYL-PEGACLONE is a recently emerged γ -carbolinone derived synthetic cannabinoid. The present study aimed to identify phase I metabolites to reliably prove consumption of the substance by urine analysis and to differentiate from the uptake of the non-fluorinated analog CUMYL-PEGACLONE. Methods: For metabolite characterization, phase I metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry after incubation with pooled human liver microsomes...
2019: Forensic Toxicology
Akira Tsujita, Hidehiko Okazaki, Asami Nagasaka, Akinaga Gohda, Mitsushi Matsumoto, Toshiro Matsui
Purpose: In this study, we proposed a new sensitive quantitative method for detecting helium in human blood by gas chromatography-selected-ion monitoring (SIM)-mass spectrometry (GC-SIM-MS) using naturally existing neon-21 in air as internal standard (IS). Methods: GC-SIM-MS analysis was performed on a double TC-Molsieve 5A capillary column (total length 60 m) for the separation of permanent gases by a single-run experiment. By using hydrogen as the carrier gas, the analyte (helium) and IS (neon-21) were separated on the double column, and detected at m/z  4 and 21, respectively...
2019: Forensic Toxicology
Karolina Noworyta-Sokołowska, Katarzyna Kamińska, Joanna Rzemieniec, Agnieszka Wnuk, Jakub Wojcieszak, Anna Maria Górska, Grzegorz Kreiner, Małgorzata Kajta, Krystyna Gołembiowska
Purpose: Tryptamine hallucinogen 5-methoxy- N,N -diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT) is a serotonin transporter inhibitor with high affinity for serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/C receptors. We showed previously that 5-MeO-DIPT in a single dose increased neurotransmitter release in brain regions of rats and elicited single- and double-strand DNA breaks. Herein we investigated the effects of repeated-intermittent 5-MeO-DIPT administration in adolescence on dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and glutamate release in brain regions of adult rats...
2019: Forensic Toxicology
Akira Mochizuki, Hiroko Nakazawa, Noboru Adachi, Kenichi Takekawa, Hideki Shojo
Purpose: Mepirapim is a new synthetic cannabinoid. We previously reported that the concentrations of unchanged mepirapim in whole blood and urine were much higher than those of other synthetic cannabinoids. To determine the postmortem distribution of mepirapim and acetyl fentanyl in the deceased individual, we established a standard addition method for detailed analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for quantification of these drugs. Methods: The LC-MS method was fully validated for linearity, extraction recovery, matrix effect and repeatability...
2019: Forensic Toxicology
Kirti Kumari Sharma, Tim G Hales, Vaidya Jayathirtha Rao, Niamh NicDaeid, Craig McKenzie
Purpose: A detailed review on the chemistry and pharmacology of non-fentanil novel synthetic opioid receptor agonists, particularly N -substituted benzamides and acetamides (known colloquially as U-drugs) and 4-aminocyclohexanols, developed at the Upjohn Company in the 1970s and 1980s is presented. Method: Peer-reviewed literature, patents, professional literature, data from international early warning systems and drug user fora discussion threads have been used to track their emergence as substances of abuse...
2019: Forensic Toxicology
Milena Majchrzak, Rafał Celiński, Teresa Kowalska, Mieczysław Sajewicz
Purpose: Similar to synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinone derivatives are the most popular compounds among novel psychoactive substances. Along with a growing number of new cathinones, the number of consumers wishing to enrich their experience with these compounds is also growing, and the same can be said about the growing numbers of poisonings. The reason for overdosing is a lack of consumer awareness regarding composition of the product, with which they experiment, and even more, regarding concentration of psychoactive substances contained in the taken product...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
Shuntaro Matsuta, Noriaki Shima, Hidenao Kakehashi, Hiroe Kamata, Shihoko Nakano, Keiko Sasaki, Tooru Kamata, Hiroshi Nishioka, Akihiro Miki, Kei Zaitsu, Hitoshi Tsuchihashi, Munehiro Katagi
Purpose: This study aims to investigate the urinary metabolites of two common α-pyrrolidinophenones (PPs), α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone (α-PHP) and α-pyrrolidinoheptanophenone (α-PHPP). This report also aims to discuss the effects of alkyl chain lengths on the metabolism of PPs. Methods: Urinary metabolites of α-PHP and α-PHPP have been investigated by analyzing urine samples from their users ( n  = 13 each) by liquid chromatography-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry using reference standards of the metabolites synthesized in our laboratory...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
Ewa Tomczak, Mateusz Kacper Woźniak, Marzena Kata, Marek Wiergowski, Beata Szpiech, Marek Biziuk
Purpose: The 4-chloromethcathinone (4-CMC) is a synthetic derivative of cathinone and belongs to new psychoactive substances. Neither data on the effects of 4-CMC on the human body, nor on nontoxic, toxic and lethal concentrations in biological materials have been published in the literature. This paper describes the results of an analysis of the blood concentrations of 4-CMC determined in 15 forensic cases related to nonfatal intoxication including driving under the influence, and fatalities including overdoses, suicide and traffic accidents...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
Tatsuyuki Kanamori, Yuko Togawa-Iwata, Hiroki Segawa, Tadashi Yamamuro, Kenji Kuwayama, Kenji Tsujikawa, Hiroyuki Inoue
Purpose: The usefulness of hepatocytes isolated from a liver-humanized mouse (PXB-cells) as a model in vitro system for the prediction of the in vivo metabolism of new drugs of abuse was evaluated. Methods: For the drug metabolism study, fentanyl, a powerful synthetic opioid, and acetylfentanyl, an N -acetyl analog of fentanyl, were selected as model drugs. PXB-cells were cultured with the drug for 24-48 h and then the media were collected and analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after deproteinization with acetonitrile...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
Shimpei Watanabe, Unnikrishnan Kuzhiumparambil, Shanlin Fu
Purpose: Identifying intake of synthetic cannabinoids generally requires the metabolism data of the drugs so that appropriate metabolite markers can be targeted in urine testing. However, the continuous appearance of new cannabinoids during the last decade has made it difficult to keep up with all the compounds including {1-[(1-methylpiperidin-2-yl)methyl]-1 H -indol-3-yl}(naphthalen-1-yl)methanone (AM1220). In this study, metabolism of AM1220 was investigated with human liver microsomes and the fungus Cunninghamella elegans ...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
Michal P Dybowski, Andrzej L Dawidowicz
Purpose: Analysis of drugs and their metabolites in biofluids usually demands the application of sample preparation methods that allow for full isolation of analyzed substances from the matrix. The purpose of this study was to develop a method using the QuEChERS procedure for analysis of Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (11-COOH-THC). Methods: THC, 11-OH-THC and 11-COOH-THC were quantified in whole blood samples using QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
Clara T Schoeder, Cornelius Hess, Burkhard Madea, Jens Meiler, Christa E Müller
Purpose: In the present study we characterized a series of synthetic cannabinoids containing various heterocyclic scaffolds that had been identified as constituents of "Spice", a preparation sold on the illicit drug market. All compounds were further investigated as potential ligands of the orphan receptors GPR18 and GPR55 that interact with some cannabinoids. Methods: The compounds were studied in radioligand binding assays to determine their affinity for human cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors expressed in CHO cells, and in cAMP accumulation assays to study their functionality...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
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