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Cardiovascular Journal of Africa

Zdravko Z Taralov, Peter K Dimov, Kiril V Terziyski, Blagoi I Marinov, Mariyan K Topolov, Stefan S Kostianev
AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) using heart rate variability (HRV) in 'healthy' young smokers and non-smokers before, during and after exogenous hypoxic provocation. METHODS: Twenty-one healthy non-smoking males aged 28.0 ± 7.4 years (mean ± SD) and 14 'healthy' smoking males aged 28.1 ± 4.3 years with 9.2 ± 5.6 pack-years were subjected to one-hour hypoxic exposure (Fi O2 = 12.3 ± 1.5%) via a hypoxicator...
February 14, 2019: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
J Bolon, K McCutcheon, E Klug, D Smith, P Manga
BACKGROUND: Despite the significant clinical benefits of beta-blockers in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), prescription for and adherence to these agents is reported to be poor. There are few data on the use and tolerance of beta-blocker therapy in patients with HFrEF in South Africa and it is unknown whether these patients would benefit from further heart rate-lowering therapy. METHODS: Data from all patients with HFrEF attending the heart failure clinic of Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital from January 2000 to December 2014 were retrospectively collected...
February 11, 2019: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Zehra Bayramoglu, Kerem Oral, Mehmet Ezelsoy, Belhhan Akpinar
Sporadic ca rdiac myxomas rarely recur, however recurrence rates are higher in patients with a familial aggregation or Carney complex. Carney complex is characterised by multiple mucocutaneous lesions and accounts for up to two-thirds of familial cardiac myxomas. A second recurrence is very rare, even in the case of Carney complex. We report on two cases of recurrent cardiac myxoma, a mother and daughter, who concurrently presented with a second recurrence of atrial myxomas. The time interval between the first and second recurrence following surgery was four years in both...
February 6, 2019: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Mustafa Yolcu, Mehmet Salih Bilal, Mustafa Kemal Avsar, Ozgur Yildirim
Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) or Bland-White-Garland syndrome is a rarely seen congenital anomaly. Adult and infantile types are defined according to the degree of collateral development between the left coronary artery (LCA) and right coronary artery (RCA). If left untreated, ALCAPA has a 90% mortality rate in the first year of life, primarily due to myocardial ischaemia and heart failure. The degree of collateral development and the related LCA perfusion in ALCAPA syndrome determine the occurrence of symptoms...
February 6, 2019: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Kenneth Juma, Roseanne Nyabera, Sylvia Mbugua, George Odinya, James Jowi, Mzee Ngunga, David Zakus, Gerald Yonga
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and their association with antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-infected adults in a rural sub-county hospital in Kenya. METHODS: This was a descriptive survey of patient charts characterising cardiovascular risk among adult patients (> 18 years) at Ukwala sub-county hospital between June 2013 and January 2015. Post-stratification survey weights were applied to obtain prevalence levels. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for each variable related to cardiovascular risk factors were calculated using logistic regression models...
January 24, 2019: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Nnabuike C Ngene, Jagidesa Moodley
Measurement of blood pressure is essential for clinical management of patients. To obtain an accurate blood pressure reading, the use of a validated device and an appropriate technique are required. This is of particular importance in pregnancy where the physiological changes affect vessel wall compliance. Moreover, currently it is difficult to predict in early pregnancy (prior to 20 weeks of gestation) which women would develop hypertension or pre-eclampsia. For this reason, blood pressure devices require validation in pregnancy and in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy to ensure that accurate readings are obtained and utilised for clinical decisions, otherwise the safety of the mother or the foetus/neonate or both may be compromised...
January 23, 2019: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Bartosz Uchmanowicz, Anna Szymańska-Chabowska, Beata Jankowska-Polańska
The effectiveness of treatment and prevention of chronic illnesses can be optimised with adherence to medication treatment. This is very often assessed by means of a self-report. However, the challenge here is to choose the most suitable questionnaire or the one that is best overall in a given situation. The aim of this systematic review was to assess existing self-reported medication adherence scales, which measure adherence to treatment for cardiovascular disease. The review demonstrated that relatively few disease-specific adherence scales exist...
January 23, 2019: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Ayşehan Akinci, Cemşit Karakurt, Vivian Hwa, Ismail Dündar, Emine Çamtosun
Laron syndrome, also known as growth hormone insensitivity, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by short stature due to mutations or deletions in the growth hormone receptor (GHR), leading to congenital insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) deficiency. Cardiac abnormalities, such as patent ductus arteriosus or peripheral vascular disease are rare in patients with Laron syndrome, but cardiac hypertrophy has been observed after IGF1 therapy. In this report, we present a 10-year-and-5-month-old girl with severe peripheral-type pulmonary artery hypoplasia and Laron syndrome related to homozygous GHR c...
January 22, 2019: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Lebo F Gafane-Matemane, Johannes M van Rooyen, Rudolph Schutte, Aletta E Schutte
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension, particularly in black populations, is often accompanied by augmented sympathetic nervous system activity and suppressed renin activity, indicative of possible blood pressure (BP) dysregulation. The potential role of the interrelationship between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and the sympathetic nervous system in the context of low-renin conditions is unclear. We therefore explored whether surrogate measures of sympathetic activity [noradrenaline, 24-hour heart rate (HR) and percentage (%) dipping of night-time HR] relate to renin, aldosterone and aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) in black and white South Africans...
January 22, 2019: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Dirk J Blom, Frederick Raal, Aslam Amod, Poobalan Naidoo, Yen-Yu Evelyn Lai
The International Cholesterol Management Practice Study (ICLPS) South Africa investigated achievement of European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) guideline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in real-world clinical practice. Demographic data, clinical characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, lipid-modifying medications, lipid values and investigator's assessment of cardiovascular risk were recorded for 396 patients on stable lipid-modifying therapy. Most (98...
January 16, 2019: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Ashraf Reda, Mohamed Ashraf, Mahmoud Soliman, Hany Ragy, Ahmed El Kersh, Waleed Abdou, Tamer Mostafa, Mohammed Hassan, Elsayed Farag, Hazem Khamis, Moheb Wadie, Atef Elbahry, Sameh Salama, Ghada Kazamel, Mohammed Sadaka, Morsy Mostafa, Akram Abd El-Bary, Osama Sanad, Samir Rafla, Yaser Abd El-Hady, Mohammed Selim, Nabil Farag, Helmy El-Ghawaby, Hosam El-Araby, Sameh Emil, Morad Beshay, Ahmed Shawky, Mahmoud Yusef, Mohammed Abd El-Ghany, Awni Gamal, Yaser Baghdady, Taymour Mostafa, Mohammed Zahran, Khaled El Rabat, Ahmed Bendary, Amany El Shorbagy
BACKGROUND: Egypt is the most populous country in the Middle East and North Africa and has more than 15% of the cardiovascular deaths in the region, but little is known about the prevalence of traditional risk factors and treatment strategies in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients across Egypt. METHODS: From November 2015 to August 2017, data were collected from 1 681 patients with ACS in 30 coronary care centres, covering 11 governorates across Egypt, spanning the Mediterranean coast, Nile Delta and Upper Egypt, with a focus on risk factors and management strategies...
January 16, 2019: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Erhan Kaya, Omer Isik
OBJECTIVE: The rate of patients with diffuse left anterior descending artery (LAD) disease being referred for surgery has increased as a result of advances in endovascular techniques. In surgery of diffuse or multisegment LAD disease, surgical procedures with or without endarterectomy can be performed. In this article, we report our results of longsegment onlay patchplasty of the LAD with a left internal thoracic artery (LITA) graft without endarterectomy, on the beating heart, in patients with multisegment LAD disease...
January 7, 2019: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Mohamed Hasham Varwani, Mohamed Jeilan, Mzee Ngunga, Anders Barasa
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease and its acute presentation are being increasingly recognised and treated in sub-Saharan Africa. It is just over a decade since the introduction of interventional cardiology for coronary artery disease in Kenya. Local and regional data, and indeed data from sub-Saharan Africa on long-term outcomes of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are lacking. METHODS: A retrospective review of all ACS admissions to the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi (AKUHN) between January 2012 and December 2013 was carried out to obtain data on patient characteristics, treatment and in-patient outcomes...
December 4, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Levent Cerit, Zeynep Cerit
INTRODUCTION: Coronary tortuosity (CorT) is a common coronary angiographic finding. The aetiology, clinical implication and long-term prognosis are not well clarified. Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is one of the most common cardiac structural abnormalities on echocardiographic examination. MAC and CorT are associated with atherosclerotic risk factors such as advanced age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolaemia, female gender and chronic kidney disease. There are few data on the co-existence of MAC and CorT in the literature...
November 30, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Anastase Dzudie, Andre Pascal Kengne, Kim Lamont, Bonaventure Suiru Dzekem, Leopold Ndemnge Aminde, Martin Hongieh Abanda, Friedrich Thienemann, Karen Sliwa
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has progressively moved from an orphan disease to a significant global health problem with a major disease burden in limited7hyphen;resource countries, where over 97% of patients live. The aetiologies of PH differ between high- and low-income nations, but PH due to left heart disease is credited to be the most frequent contemporary form. Although a straightforward diagnosis of PH requires the use of right heart catheterisation (RHC), access to equipment for RHC is a deterrent. Furthermore, the risk associated with RHC limits its uptake to a selection of specialised centres...
November 30, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Nadia Beringer, Antoinette Cilliers
BACKGROUND: A right-sided heart (RSH) has three main causes: dextrocardia, dextroposition and dextroversion. It may be associated with cardiac malformation, extra-cardiac abnormalities and adverse patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, demographics, associated cardiac malformations (ACM) and outcome of paediatric patients diagnosed with a RSH at a South African tertiary hospital. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed over a 22-year period...
November 21, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Ali Bedjaoui, Karima Allal, Mohamed Sofiane Lounes, Chams Eddine Belhadi, Abdelmoumen Mekarnia, Saber Sediki, Maamar Kara, Adel Azaza, Jean-Jacques Monsuez, Salim Benkhedda
OBJECTIVE: To test whether aspiration thrombectomy with intracoronary (IC) instead of intravenous (IV) administration of abciximab could reduce the no-reflow phenomenon in patients undergoing primary percutaneous intervention (PCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). BACKGROUND: Despite recanalisation with PCI, failure to restore microvascular flow may affect the prognosis of patients with STEMI. A combination of aspiration thrombectomy with IC abciximab may improve distal perfusion...
November 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Hakan Akbayrak, Hayrettin Tekumit
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a potentially correctable cause of secondary pulmonary hypertension. Surgical treatment remains the primary treatment for patients with CTEPH. Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PEA) with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest is the standard and recommended surgical technique for the treatment of these patients. The prevalence of CTEPH after an acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) has been found in various studies to be between 0.6 and 8.8%. Mortality rates in elective PEA cases with CTEPH are reported to be between 1...
November 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Yun-Seok Song, Sang-Hoon Seol, Seung-Hwan Kim, Dong-Kie Kim, Ki-Hun Kim, Doo-Il Kim, Hee-Jae Jun
Left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm is a rare complication that usually occurs after myocardial infarction or cardiac surgery. Sometimes it is related to cardiac rupture. We report on surgical management for a left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm that developed four years after surgery for ventricular septal defect in a patient with acute myocardial infarction.
November 6, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Min-Ho Lee, Duk Won Bang, Byung Won Park, Byung-Ryul Cho, Seung-Woon Rha, Myung Ho Jeong, Junghan Yoon, Jon Suh, Kyoo-Rok Han, Min Su Hyon
INTRODUCTION: Although the implementation of transradial intervention (TRI) has increased over the last few years, there are limited data on the impact of TRI on efficacy and safety in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). We sought to compare one-year clinical outcomes and bleeding complications of TRI with those of transfemoral intervention (TFI) in patients with NSTE-ACS. METHODS: The Korean TRI registry was a cohort of 20 centres from 2012 to 2015...
November 6, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
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