Read by QxMD icon Read

Drug Target Insights

Jagannadha Avasarala
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Zinbryta, an interleukin-2 receptor blocking antibody (daclizumab; Biogen and AbbVie) for the treatment of adults with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) in May, 2016. It was also approved by the European Union in July, 2016. Zinbryta is a long-acting, self-administered monthly injection that was branded as a new MS drug for patients who needed a "new option for treatment." It blocks interleukin-2 receptor alpha (CD25) and modulates T-cell expansion...
2018: Drug Target Insights
Takuya Murakami, Tetsu Akimoto, Mari Okada, Erika Hishida, Taro Sugase, Atsushi Miki, Marina Kohara, Hiromichi Yoshizawa, Takahiro Masuda, Takahisa Kobayashi, Osamu Saito, Shigeaki Muto, Daisuke Nagata
A 66-year-old women with no history of renal disease was admitted due to a coma and acute kidney injury with a serum creatinine level of 7.44 mg/dL which were ascribed to valacyclovir neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, respectively. She had received valacyclovir at a standard dosage for the treatment of herpes zoster and was finally discharged, having fully returned to her normal baseline mental status with a recovered serum creatinine level of 0.68 mg/dL. We feel that awareness of this pathology remains a challenge for physicians and therefore strongly recommend the further accumulation of experiences similar to our own...
2018: Drug Target Insights
Jagannadha Avasarala
Anti-CD 20 therapies have found significant uses in multiple sclerosis (MS). Based singularly on the accumulated evidence with the use of rituximab (RTX; Rituxan, Genentech, and Biogen) in neuroimmunological diseases, ocrelizumab (OCR; Ocrevus, Genentech) was developed as a treatment option for MS and selectively targets CD20 B cells, a cell surface antigen found on pre-B cells, mature, and memory B cells, but not on lymphoid stem cells and plasma cells. On the basis of indirect evidence, elimination of the antigen-presenting capabilities and antigen nonspecific immune functions of B cells appear to be central to the therapeutic efficacy of anti-CD20 B-cell therapies...
2017: Drug Target Insights
Olayinka O Otegbade, Johnson A Ojo, Dolapo I Adefokun, Oyindamola O Abiodun, Bolaji N Thomas, Olusola Ojurongbe
This work explores the antiplasmodial potential of ethanol extract of Blighia sapida (Lin. Sapindaceae) in chloroquine (CQ)-resistant Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain)-infected mice. Chloroquine-resistant (ANKA) strain of P berghei was inoculated intraperitoneally into Swiss albino mice. Mice were treated orally for 4 consecutive days, before and after inoculation (prophylactic, suppressive, and curative models) with graded doses of the plant extracts with Artemether-Lumefantrine (Coartem) as control. Prophylactically, the extract showed a remarkable activity in the chemosuppression of P berghei parasites (P < ...
2017: Drug Target Insights
Usman Sumo Friend Tambunan, Mochammad Arfin Fardiansyah Nasution, Fauziah Azhima, Arli Aditya Parikesit, Erwin Prasetya Toepak, Syarifuddin Idrus, Djati Kerami
Dengue fever is still a major threat worldwide, approximately threatening two-fifths of the world's population in tropical and subtropical countries. Nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) methyltransferase enzyme plays a vital role in the process of messenger RNA capping of dengue by transferring methyl groups from S-adenosyl-l-methionine to N7 atom of the guanine bases of RNA and the RNA ribose group of 2'OH, resulting in S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH). The modification of SAH compound was screened using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation, along with computational ADME-Tox (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity) test...
2017: Drug Target Insights
Cristiano Spadaccio, Francesco Nappi, Nawwar Al-Attar, Raffaella Coccia, Marzia Perluigi, Fabio Di Domenico
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Drug Target Insights
Hilyatuz Zahroh, Ahmad Ma'rup, Usman Sumo Friend Tambunan, Arli Aditya Parikesit
Meningitis infection is one of the major threats during Hajj season in Mecca. Meningitis vaccines are available, but their uses are limited in some countries due to religious reasons. Furthermore, they only give protection to certain serogroups, not to all types of meningitis-inducing bacteria. Recently, research on epitope-based vaccines has been developed intensively. Such vaccines have potential advantages over conventional vaccines in that they are safer to use and well responded to the antibody. In this study, we developed epitope-based vaccine candidates against various meningitis-inducing bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b...
2016: Drug Target Insights
Yuichiro Ueda, Hiroki Ishii, Taisuke Kitano, Mitsutoshi Shindo, Haruhisa Miyazawa, Kiyonori Ito, Keiji Hirai, Yoshio Kaku, Honami Mori, Taro Hoshino, Susumu Ookawara, Masafumi Kakei, Kaoru Tabei, Yoshiyuki Morishita
BACKGROUND: We investigated the effects and safety of linagliptin as an add-on therapy in patients with advanced-stage diabetic nephropathy (DMN) taking renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers. METHOD: Twenty advanced-stage DMN patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): 24.5 ± 13.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) taking RAAS blockers were administered 5 mg/day linagliptin for 52 weeks. Changes in glucose and lipid metabolism and renal function were evaluated...
2016: Drug Target Insights
Filippo Rapetto, Vito D Bruno, Gustavo Guida, Roberto Marsico, Pierpaolo Chivasso, Carlo Zebele
Sternal wound infections represent one of the most frequent complications after cardiac surgery and are associated with high postoperative mortality. Several preventive methods have been introduced, and recently, gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponges (GICSs) have shown a promising effect in reducing the incidence of this type of complications. Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that has been widely used to treat infections caused by multiresistant bacteria; despite its effectiveness, its systemic use carries a risk of toxicity...
2016: Drug Target Insights
Paraskevi Fragkou, Maria Souli, Maria Theochari, Christina Kontopoulou, Stelios Loukides, Anna Koumarianou
Until recently, chemotherapy for metastatic melanoma had disappointing results. The identification of immune checkpoints such as CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 has led to the development of an array of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs). These immunologic approaches against tumoral cells come with a novel kind of side effects that the clinician needs to be familiarized with. Herein, we report for the first time a case of organizing pneumonia, based on imaging and cytological analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage, possibly associated with the use of pembrolizumab, an anti-PD-1 Mab recently approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma...
2016: Drug Target Insights
Junichi Kitanaka, Nobue Kitanaka, F Scott Hall, George R Uhl, Motohiko Takemura
Stereotypical behaviors induced by methamphetamine (METH) overdose are one of the overt symptoms of METH abuse, which can be easily assessed in animal models. Currently, there is no successful treatment for METH overdose. There is increasing evidence that elevated levels of brain histamine can attenuate METH-induced behavioral abnormalities, which might therefore constitute a novel therapeutic treatment for METH abuse and METH overdose. In mammals, histamine N-methyltransferase (HMT) is the sole enzyme responsible for degrading histamine in the brain...
2016: Drug Target Insights
Cristiano Spadaccio, Francesco Nappi, Federico De Marco, Pietro Sedati, Fraser W H Sutherland, Massimo Chello, Marcella Trombetta, Alberto Rainer
In this study, we tested in vivo effectiveness of a previously developed poly-l-lactide/poly-ε-caprolactone armored vascular graft releasing heparin. This bioprosthesis was designed in order to overcome the main drawbacks of tissue-engineered vascular grafts, mainly concerning poor mechanical properties, thrombogenicity, and endothelialization. The bioprosthesis was successfully implanted in an aortic vascular reconstruction model in rabbits. All grafts implanted were patent at four weeks postoperatively and have been adequately populated by endogenous cells without signs of thrombosis or structural failure and with no need of antiplatelet therapy...
2016: Drug Target Insights
Usman Sf Tambunan, Hilyatuz Zahroh, Arli A Parikesit, Syarifuddin Idrus, Djati Kerami
Dengue is an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) and transmitted between human hosts by mosquitoes. Recently, Indonesia was listed as a country with the highest cases of dengue by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The current treatment for dengue disease is supportive therapy; there is no antiviral drug available in the market against dengue. Therefore, a research on antiviral drug against dengue is very important, especially to prevent outbreak explosion. In this research, the development of dengue antiviral is performed through the inhibition of n-octyl-β-D-glucoside (β-OG) binding pocket on envelope protein of DENV by using analogs of β-OG pocket binder...
2015: Drug Target Insights
Toshimi Imai, Tetsu Akimoto, Chiharu Ito, Takahiro Masuda, Daisuke Nagata
A 48-year-old female was admitted to our hospital presenting with a chief complaint of progressive swelling because of diabetic nephrotic syndrome. Dapagliflozin seemed to play a role in accelerating the patient's urinary sodium excretion as well as reducing gross fluid retention despite the fact that her nephrotic condition was resistant to furosemide. Our experience emphasizes a potential novel approach to overcoming loop diuretic resistance using this agent among some subsets of type 2 diabetic subjects complicated with severe volume accumulation...
2015: Drug Target Insights
Bodil Ohlsson, Olle Melander
Evidence of interactions between the enteric nervous system, neuropeptides, and the immune system is growing. The aim of this study was to examine basal plasma levels of a variety of peptide precursors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In two middle-aged cohorts, Malmö Preventive Medicine (n = 5,415) and Malmö Diet and Cost Study (n = 6,103), individuals with the diagnosis of IBD were identified. Medical records were scrutinized. Three controls were matched for each patient. Copeptin, midregional fragments of adrenomedullin, pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, and proenkephalin A, as well as N-terminal protachykinin A and proneurotensin were analyzed in the plasma...
2015: Drug Target Insights
Ihsan N Zulkipli, Sheba R David, Rajan Rajabalaya, Adi Idris
Modern medicinal plant drug discovery has provided pharmacologically active compounds targeted against a multitude of conditions and diseases, such as infection, inflammation, and cancer. To date, natural products from medicinal plants remain a solid niche as a source from which cancer therapies can be derived. Among other properties, one favorable characteristic of an anticancer drug is its ability to block the uncontrollable process of cell division, as cancer cells are notorious for their abnormal cell division...
2015: Drug Target Insights
Oguz Mutlu, Furuzan Akar, Ipek Komsuoglu Celikyurt, Pelin Tanyeri, Guner Ulak, Faruk Erden
Nitric oxide (NO) is an atypical neurotransmitter that causes changes in cognition. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitors have been shown to exert some effects on cognition in previous studies; however, the findings have been controversial. This study was aimed at understanding the effects of an NOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), and a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), on spatial memory in modified elevated plus maze (mEPM), Morris water maze (MWM), and radial arm maze (RAM) tests...
2015: Drug Target Insights
Md Masud Parvege, Monzilur Rahman, Mohammad Shahnoor Hossain
Ever increasing propensity of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria raises the demand for the development of novel therapeutic agents to control this grave problem. Advances in the field of bioinformatics, genomics, and proteomics have greatly facilitated the discovery of alternative drugs by swift identification of new drug targets. In the present study, we employed comparative genomics and metabolic pathway analysis with an aim of identifying therapeutic targets in Mycoplasma hominis. Our study has revealed 40 annotated metabolic pathways, including five unique pathways of M...
2014: Drug Target Insights
Bodil Roth, Kerstin Berntorp, Bodil Ohlsson
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) 1 and 2 and luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors have been described in the gastrointestinal tract. We have previously demonstrated antibodies in serum against GnRH1 in patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction and diabetes mellitus, and antibodies against GnRH receptor, LH, and LH receptor in patients with infertility. The aim of this study was to search for the expression of serum antibodies against GnRH1 with an improved enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA), and antibodies against progonadoliberin-2, GnRH2, GnRH receptor, LH, and LH receptor with newly developed ELISAs, in patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction or diabetes mellitus...
2014: Drug Target Insights
Tetsu Akimoto, Yoshiyuki Morishita, Chiharu Ito, Osamu Iimura, Sadao Tsunematsu, Yuko Watanabe, Eiji Kusano, Daisuke Nagata
Febuxostat is a nonpurine xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor, which recently received marketing approval. However, information regarding the experience with this agent among advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is limited. In the current study, we investigated the effects of oral febuxostat in patients with advanced CKD with asymptomatic hyperuricemia. We demonstrated, for the first time, that not only the serum levels of uric acid (UA) but also those of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, an oxidative stress marker, were significantly reduced after six months of febuxostat treatment, with no adverse events...
2014: Drug Target Insights
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"