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Seminars in Immunopathology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31101976/the-role-of-interleukin-6-in-glucose-homeostasis-and-lipid-metabolism
#1
REVIEW
Louise Lang Lehrskov, Regitse Højgaard Christensen
Low-grade inflammation is recognized as an important factor in the development and progression of a multitude of diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The potential of using antibody-based therapies that neutralize key players of low-grade inflammation has gained scientific momentum as a novel therapeutic strategy in metabolic diseases. As interleukin-6 (IL-6) is traditionally considered a key pro-inflammatory factor, the potential of expanding the use of anti-IL-6 therapies to metabolic diseases is intriguing...
May 17, 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31049647/transcriptional-control-of-macrophage-polarisation-in-type-2-diabetes
#2
REVIEW
Karima Drareni, Jean-François Gautier, Nicolas Venteclef, Fawaz Alzaid
Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is considered today as an inflammatory disease. Inflammatory processes in T2D are orchestrated by macrophage activation in different organs. Macrophages undergo classical M1 pro-inflammatory or alternative M2 anti-inflammatory activation in response to tissue microenvironmental signals. These subsets of macrophages are characterised by their expression of cell surface markers, secreted cytokines and chemokines. Transcriptional regulation is central to the polarisation of macrophages, and several major pathways have been described as essential to promote the expression of specific genes, which dictate the functional polarisation of macrophages...
May 2, 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31037390/correction-to-the-pathogenicity-of-th17-cells-in-autoimmune-diseases
#3
Keiko Yasuda, Yusuke Takeuchi, Keiji Hirota
Unfortunately, an error occurred in the following passus of the article. The word "receptor" was missing in the sentence "Because T cells do not express GM-CSF receptor [41], GM-CSF affects non-T cells."
April 29, 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31028434/t-cell-pathology-in-skin-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
Robert Sabat, Kerstin Wolk, Lucie Loyal, Wolf-Dietrich Döcke, Kamran Ghoreschi
Forming the outer body barrier, our skin is permanently exposed to pathogens and environmental hazards. Therefore, skin diseases are among the most common disorders. In many of them, the immune system plays a crucial pathogenetic role. For didactic and therapeutic reasons, classification of such immune-mediated skin diseases according to the underlying dominant immune mechanism rather than to their clinical manifestation appears to be reasonable. Immune-mediated skin diseases may be mediated mainly by T cells, by the humoral immune system, or by uncontrolled unspecific inflammation...
April 26, 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31025085/impact-of-bariatric-surgery-on-type-2-diabetes-contribution-of-inflammation-and-gut-microbiome
#5
REVIEW
Jean Debédat, Chloé Amouyal, Judith Aron-Wisnewsky, Karine Clément
Obesity is a chronic low-grade inflammatory disease (both at the systemic and adipose tissue level) that continues to rise worldwide. It is associated with an abundance of comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Bariatric surgery, which induces modifications of the intestinal tract, is to date the most successful treatment for obesity. Its use has dramatically increased in number as it enables both weight reduction and metabolic improvements, with 60% of patients even achieving diabetes remission. Several mechanisms are actually demonstrated to be involved in those clinical improvements...
April 25, 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31025084/treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-by-targeting-interleukin-1-a-meta-analysis-of-2921-patients
#6
REVIEW
Yachana Kataria, Christina Ellervik, Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen
With obesity and type 2 diabetes prevalence steadily increasing and no effective means in sight to support the population in obtaining and maintaining stable weight loss, there is an imminent need for pharmacological therapy to treat and prevent type 2 diabetes. Current anti-diabetic treatment is symptomatic, and very few drugs have both a strong preclinical rationale and clinical proof-of-principle as therapies targeting pathogenic processes in type 2 diabetes. The emerging appreciation of low-grade inflammation as a significant cause of insulin resistance and beta cell failure warrants exploring anti-inflammatory compounds as drug candidates...
April 25, 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30989321/cd8-t-cell-exhaustion
#7
REVIEW
Makoto Kurachi
CD8+ T cells are important for the protective immunity against intracellular pathogens and tumor. In the case of chronic infection or cancer, CD8+ T cells are exposed to persistent antigen and/or inflammatory signals. This excessive amount of signals often leads CD8+ T cells to gradual deterioration of T cell function, a state called "exhaustion." Exhausted T cells are characterized by progressive loss of effector functions (cytokine production and killing function), expression of multiple inhibitory receptors (such as PD-1 and LAG3), dysregulated metabolism, poor memory recall response, and homeostatic proliferation...
April 15, 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30989320/islet-inflammation-in-type-2-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Marianne Böni-Schnetzler, Daniel T Meier
Metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes are associated with meta-inflammation. β-Cell failure is a major component of the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. It is now well established that increased numbers of innate immune cells, cytokines, and chemokines have detrimental effects on islets in these chronic conditions. Recently, evidence emerged which points to initially adaptive and restorative functions of inflammatory factors and immune cells in metabolism. In the following review, we provide an overview on the features of islet inflammation in diabetes and models of prediabetes...
April 15, 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30989319/the-role-of-invariant-t-cells-in-inflammation-of-the-skin-and-airways
#9
REVIEW
Kwok Ho Yip, Magdalene Papadopoulos, Harshita Pant, Damon J Tumes
Invariant and semi-invariant T cells are emerging as important regulators of host environment interactions at barrier tissues such as the airway and skin. In contrast to conventional T cells, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express T cell receptors of very limited diversity. iNKT and MAIT cells recognise antigens presented by the MHC class 1-like monomorphic molecules CD1d and MR1, respectively. Both iNKT cells and MAIT cells have been identified in the skin and airways and can rapidly produce cytokines after activation...
April 15, 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30968186/the-immunopathology-of-lung-fibrosis-amphiregulin-producing-pathogenic-memory-t-helper-2-cells-control-the-airway-fibrotic-responses-by-inducing-eosinophils-to-secrete-osteopontin
#10
REVIEW
Kiyoshi Hirahara, Ami Aoki, Yuki Morimoto, Masahiro Kiuchi, Mikiko Okano, Toshinori Nakayama
Fibrosis is defined as excessive deposition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the parenchyma of various organs, and sometimes leads to irreversible organ malfunction such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a fatal disorder of the lung. Chronic inflammatory stimuli induce fibrotic responses in various organs. Various immune cells, including T helper (Th) cells in the lung, protect the host from different harmful particles, including pathogenic microorganisms. However, the dysregulation of the function of these immune cells in the lung sometimes causes inflammatory diseases, such as lung fibrosis...
April 9, 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30963214/regulation-of-t-cell-differentiation-and-function-by-epigenetic-modification-enzymes
#11
REVIEW
Huicheng Liu, Pingfei Li, Zhengping Wei, Cai Zhang, Minghui Xia, Qiuyang Du, Yufei Chen, Na Liu, Huabin Li, Xiang-Ping Yang
Peripheral naive CD4+ and CD8+ cells are developed in the thymus and proliferate and differentiate into various specialized T cell subsets upon activation by peptide-major histocompatibility complexes in periphery to execute different functions during immune responses. Cytokines, transcription factors, and a large number of intracellular molecules have been shown to affect T cell development, activation, and function. In addition, epigenetic modifications, such as histone modification and DNA methylation, regulate T cell biology...
April 8, 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30953162/treg-cells-in-autoimmunity-from-identification-to-treg-based-therapies
#12
REVIEW
Lisa Göschl, Clemens Scheinecker, Michael Bonelli
Regulatory (Treg) cells are key regulators of inflammation and important for immune tolerance and homeostasis. A major progress has been made in the identification and classification of Treg cells. Due to technological advances, we have gained deep insights in the epigenetic regulation of Treg cells. The use of fate reporter mice allowed addressing the functional consequences of loss of Foxp3 expression. Depending on the environment Treg cells gain effector functions upon loss of Foxp3 expression. However, the traditional view that Treg cells become necessarily pathogenic by gaining effector functions was challenged by recent findings and supports the notion of Treg cell lineage plasticity...
April 5, 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30953161/role-of-innate-immune-cells-in-metabolism-from-physiology-to-type-2-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
Elise Dalmas
Growing evidence suggests that components of the innate immune system play a crucial role in regulating metabolic homeostasis. Macrophages were the primary immune cells to be described in both the white adipose tissue and the pancreatic islets. Therein, their functions, beneficial or detrimental, are extending under steady state and in the context of obesity-induced type 2 diabetes. Other populations, including innate lymphoid cells, are emerging as key sentinels of metabolic tissues and privileged partners of macrophages...
April 5, 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30953160/a-new-therapeutic-target-the-cd69-myl9-system-in-immune-responses
#14
REVIEW
Motoko Y Kimura, Ryo Koyama-Nasu, Ryoji Yagi, Toshinori Nakayama
CD69 is an activation marker on leukocytes. Early studies showed that the CD69+ cells were detected in the lung of patients with asthmatic and eosinophilic pneumonia, suggesting that CD69 might play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of such inflammatory diseases, rather than simply being an activation marker. Intensive studies using mouse models have since clarified that CD69 is a functional molecule regulating the immune responses. We discovered that Myosin light chain 9, 12a, 12b (Myl9/12) are ligands for CD69 and that platelet-derived Myl9 forms a net-like structure (Myl9 nets) that is strongly detected inside blood vessels in inflamed lung...
April 5, 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30891628/epigenetic-regulation-of-t-helper-cells-and-intestinal-pathogenicity
#15
REVIEW
Yuya Hagihara, Yusuke Yoshimatsu, Yohei Mikami, Yoshiaki Takada, Shinta Mizuno, Takanori Kanai
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are characterized by relapsing and remitting chronic intestinal inflammation. Previous studies have demonstrated the contributions of genetic background, environmental factors (food, microbiota, use of antibiotics), and host immunity in the development of IBDs. More than 200 genes have been shown to influence IBD susceptibility, most of which are involved in immunity. The vertebrate immune system comprises a complex network of innate and adaptive immune cells that protect the host from infection and cancer...
March 19, 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30891627/the-pathogenicity-of-th17-cells-in-autoimmune-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Keiko Yasuda, Yusuke Takeuchi, Keiji Hirota
IL-17-producing T helper (Th17) cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Targeting the effector cytokines IL-17 and GM-CSF secreted by autoimmune Th17 cells has been shown to be effective for the treatment of the diseases. Understanding a molecular basis of Th17 differentiation and effector functions is therefore critical for the regulation of the pathogenicity of tissue Th17 cells in chronic inflammation. Here, we discuss the roles of proinflammatory cytokines and environmental stimuli in the control of Th17 differentiation and chronic tissue inflammation by pathogenic Th17 cells in humans and in mouse models of autoimmune diseases...
March 19, 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31065764/pathogenicity-of-acquired-immunity-in-human-diseases
#17
EDITORIAL
Kiyoshi Hirahara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742253/sex-differences-in-immunity
#18
EDITORIAL
Hanna Lotter, Marcus Altfeld
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30361803/sex-differences-in-tuberculosis
#19
REVIEW
David Hertz, Bianca Schneider
Tuberculosis is the most prevalent bacterial infectious disease in humans and the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, ranking above HIV/AIDS. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is carried by an estimated two billion people globally and claims more than 1.5 million lives each year. Tuberculosis rates are significantly higher in men than in women, reflected by a male-to-female ratio for worldwide case notifications of 1.7. This phenomenon is not new and has been reported in various countries and settings over the last century...
March 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30361800/sex-differences-in-autoimmune-disorders-of-the-central-nervous-system
#20
Stefan M Gold, Anne Willing, Frank Leypoldt, Friedemann Paul, Manuel A Friese
Stronger adaptive immune responses in females can be observed in different mammals, resulting in better control of infections compared to males. However, this presumably evolutionary difference likely also drives higher incidence of autoimmune diseases observed in humans. Here, we summarize sex differences in the most common autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and discuss recent advances in the understanding of possible underlying immunological and CNS intrinsic mechanisms. In multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common inflammatory disease of the CNS, but also in rarer conditions, such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) or neuronal autoantibody-mediated autoimmune encephalitis (AE), sex is one of the top risk factors, with women being more often affected than men...
March 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
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