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Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30720477/technological-advances-shaping-diabetes-care
#1
Halis Kaan Akturk, Satish Garg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To emphasize the current unmet needs for patients with diabetes and evaluate the recent technological advances in the diabetes field and summarize upcoming technologies in diabetes care. This review highlights emerging diabetes technologies and patient-centered diabetes management. RECENT FINDINGS: A review of the literature showed that there is a clear benefit of using diabetes technologies in diabetes care. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) created a new category of Class II integrated continuous glucose monitoring (iCGM) devices and announced new guidelines to accelerate the approval of future products...
January 31, 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30694830/risk-factors-for-valvular-calcification
#2
Hao Yu Chen, James C Engert, George Thanassoulis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent literature is examined to identify established and emerging risk factors for valvular calcification, specifically calcific aortic valve disease and mitral annular calcification. RECENT FINDINGS: Strong evidence implicates older age, male sex, cigarette smoking, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, adiposity, and mineral metabolism as risk factors for calcific aortic valve disease. Emerging evidence suggests family history and lipoprotein(a) are additional risk factors...
January 28, 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30694829/rationally-designed-small-molecules-to-prevent-type-1-diabetes
#3
David A Ostrov, Peter A Gottlieb, Aaron W Michels
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent findings that small 'drug-like' compounds block disease-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules in type 1 diabetes (T1D). RECENT FINDINGS: The predominant genetic risk for developing T1D, the immune-mediated form of diabetes, is conferred through HLA genes. One such gene, termed HLA-DQ8, is present in 50-60% of patients with T1D and those at-risk. DQ8 presents disease-relevant peptides to T cells, which mediate tissue-specific destruction of pancreatic islets...
January 28, 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30694828/are-newer-insulins-always-the-better-option
#4
Samir Malkani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since its discovery almost a century ago, there have been numerous advancements in the formulations of insulin. The newer insulin analogs have structural modifications with the goal of altering pharmacokinetics to achieve either quick onset and offset of action (mealtime bolus analogs), or a prolonged steady action (basal analogs). These analogs offer many advantages over older human insulins but are several-fold more expensive. The aim of this review is to evaluate reasons for the exorbitant price of the newer insulins, to examine the evidence regarding their clinical advantages and to make value-based prescribing recommendations...
January 28, 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30694827/triglycerides-and-triglyceride-rich-lipoproteins-in-the-development-and-progression-of-atherosclerosis
#5
Giuliano Generoso, Carolina C P S Janovsky, Marcio S Bittencourt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we intend to show the heterogenicity of the triglyceride group, including the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and its subparticles, apolipoproteins, and its role in atherogenesis through epidemiological and genetic studies, observing the association of these various components and subclasses with subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Also, we reevaluated the moment of blood collection for the triglyceride measurement and its repercussion in atherosclerosis...
January 28, 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30694826/controversy-over-the-atherogenicity-of-lipoprotein-x
#6
Takashi Miida, Satoshi Hirayama
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lipoprotein-X (Lp-X) is an abnormal lipoprotein containing abundant free cholesterol and phospholipids, as well as some apolipoprotein E (apoE). Serum Lp-X increases in patients with cholestasis and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency, as well as in those receiving intravenous lipid emulsion. Lp-X is often associated with skin xanthomas in cholestatic patients. However, earlier studies showed that Lp-X is not taken up by murine macrophages, but exerts antiatherogenic actions...
January 28, 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30694825/dyslipidemia-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
Antonio J Amor, VerĂ³nica Perea
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent findings regarding the characterization of lipoprotein disturbances in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and their relationship with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and make recommendations for the management of this situation. RECENT FINDINGS: Advanced lipoprotein profile (using NMR spectroscopy) has shown profound lipoprotein derangements which are overlooked with conventional analyses: increased number and size of very low-density lipoproteins particles, increased number of low-density lipoprotein particles (especially small sized), smaller high-density lipoprotein particles, and an increase in the triglyceride content of all these lipoproteins...
January 28, 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30507698/ethical-issues-with-early-genitoplasty-in-children-with-disorders-of-sex-development
#8
Rebecca M Harris, Yee-Ming Chan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genitoplasty in children with disorders of sex development (DSD) is an ethically complex issue. From a surgical perspective, genitoplasty in early childhood is preferred because it is felt to be associated with improved tissue healing, decreased risk of complications, and reduced psychological impact of genital surgery. However, advocacy groups and recent ethics literature have argued for deferring genitoplasty until a child reaches decisional maturity. This article reviews these arguments using an ethical framework and discusses the application and challenges of recent disorders of sex development research...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30507695/physical-activity-in-adolescents-and-children-and-relationship-to-metabolic-health
#9
Rachel Whooten, Liya Kerem, Takara Stanley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the recent developments relating to the role of physical activity in improving insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. RECENT FINDINGS: The current literature strengthens previous findings on the relationship between physical activity and metabolic health in children; suggests a protective role for physical activity in the setting of obesity; examines population-specific findings; addresses specific effects of different modalities of physical activity in improving health; reveals potential mediators in the relationship between physical activity and metabolic health; and suggests new markers of metabolic health that could potentially be used as outcomes in future physical activity studies...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30585905/editorial-introductions
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30516551/tumor-risk-and-surveillance-for-children-with-hereditary-disorders-affecting-growth
#11
Jack Brzezinski, Orli Michaeli, Jonathan D Wasserman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hereditary disorders affecting growth (both overgrowth and growth retardation) are frequently associated with heightened risk of neoplastic disease. This review summarizes the tumor spectra associated with these conditions and identifies disease-specific screening approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: An understanding of the molecular events underlying many of these growth disorders has evolved significantly over the past several years. Recognition of genotype-phenotype associations, in many cases, informs the cancer risk profile...
February 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30516550/weight-stigma-and-its-impact-on-paediatric-care
#12
Carl J Palad, Siddharth Yarlagadda, Fatima Cody Stanford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to evaluate current research findings relevant to weight stigmatization, to acknowledge the deleterious impact it has on the health of the paediatric population and to provide insight to optimize future guidelines for the treatment of individuals with overweight and obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity prevalence continues to rise in the USA with estimates in children from ages 2-19 years of 18.5%, an all-time high. With the increase in obesity, there has been a concomitant increase in weight stigma, which affects both youth and general population across varied levels of socioeconomic status and body sizes...
February 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30507702/endocrine-aspects-of-klinefelter-syndrome
#13
Adriana Herrera Lizarazo, Michelle McLoughlin, Maria G Vogiatzi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Klinefelter syndrome is the most common sex chromosome abnormality in men. Hypogonadism and testicular degeneration are almost universal. Truncal adiposity, metabolic syndrome and low bone mass occur frequently. This review summarizes the most recent advances in the pathogenesis and management of the endocrine abnormalities in Klinefelter syndrome. It is expected that optimal endocrine management will improve outcomes and quality of life in Klinefelter syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: In Klinefelter syndrome, testosterone replacement is routinely prescribed despite lack of evidence on the optimal dose and time for initiation of therapy...
February 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30507701/editorial-converting-organized-knowledge-to-wisdom
#14
Lynne L Levitsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30507700/editorial-overview-gastrointestinal-regulatory-peptides
#15
H Christian Weber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30507699/genetic-evaluation-of-disorders-of-sex-development-current-practice-and-novel-gene-discovery
#16
Jessica Kremen, Yee-Ming Chan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the pace of genetic discovery accelerates, genetic sequencing is increasingly applied to rare disease such as DSD (differences or disorders of sex development,) which has led to an increase in the number of novel variant-containing candidate genes identified. In this review, we will discuss several candidate genes which have recently been proposed as causative of DSD, as well as novel work in understanding gene regulation in the mouse gonad that may have implications for the DSD phenotype in humans...
February 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30507697/undernutrition-and-growth-in-the-developing-world
#17
Jasreena K Nijjar, Diane Stafford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite targeted interventions, an estimated 150.8 million children under 5 years globally are still stunted, of which more than half live in Asia and more than one-third live in Africa. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding how longitudinal bone growth is regulated by nutritional intake in the developing world. Dietary macronutrients and micronutrients necessary for growth are also briefly reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent advances include investigations of nutritionally sensitive regulators of growth as well as prospective evaluations of the role of specific dietary components on growth in order to better assess their impact...
February 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30507696/growth-pubertal-development-and-skeletal-health-in-boys-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#18
Leanne M Ward, David R Weber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glucocorticoid therapy is currently the most widely used treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), having consistently shown to prolong ambulation by 2 years, reduce the frequency of scoliosis, and improve cardiorespiratory function. Among the most frequent side effects of glucocorticoids are fractures due to osteoporosis, linear growth retardation or arrest, and pubertal delay, the subjects of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: The diagnosis of osteoporosis has shifted in recent years away from a bone mineral density-centric to a fracture-focused approach, with particular emphasis on early vertebral fracture identification (one of the key triggers for osteoporosis intervention)...
February 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30418188/gastrointestinal-hormones-and-regulation-of-gastric-emptying
#19
Michael Camilleri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the hormonal regulation of gastric emptying, a topic of increasing relevance, given the fact that medications that are analogs of some of these hormones or act as agonists at the hormonal receptors, are used in clinical practice for optimizing metabolic control in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and in obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: The major effects on gastric emptying result from actions of incretins, particularly gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine, the duodenal and pancreatic hormones, motilin, glucagon, and amylin, and the gastric orexigenic hormones, ghrelin and motilin...
February 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30418187/central-control-of-gastrointestinal-motility
#20
Kirsteen N Browning, R Alberto Travagli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the organization and structure of vagal neurocircuits controlling the upper gastrointestinal tract, and more recent studies investigating their role in the regulation of gastric motility under physiological, as well as pathophysiological, conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Vagal neurocircuits regulating gastric functions are highly plastic, and open to modulation by a variety of inputs, both peripheral and central. Recent research in the fields of obesity, development, stress, and neurological disorders highlight the importance of central inputs onto these brainstem neurocircuits in the regulation of gastric motility...
February 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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