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Journal of Addiction Medicine

Kathleen E Trocin, Nicole I Weinstein, Emmanuel A Oga, Katrina S Mark, Victoria H Coleman-Cowger
OBJECTIVE: There is a need to identify an acceptable and comprehensive substance use screening tool for pregnant women in the United States. This qualitative study sought to better understand prenatal practice staff perceptions of three existing substance use screening tools for use among pregnant women in an outpatient practice setting. METHODS: Eight focus groups with 40 total participants were conducted with clinical and administrative staff of 2 diverse Maryland prenatal practices to determine the acceptability and usability of 3 substance use screening tools (4P's Plus, NIDA-Modified Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test, and the Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale)...
May 10, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Andrew H Rogers, Jafar Bakhshaie, Michael J Zvolensky, Kevin E Vowles
OBJECTIVE: Chronic pain affects a significant number of individuals in the United States and is associated with several negative health-related outcomes, including possibility of opioid misuse and disability. The identification of factors associated with both opioid misuse and disability is of critical public health importance, and significant research suggests that pain severity has been shown to be associated with both. Pain-related anxiety has been uniquely associated with both opioid misuse and disability, yet little research has examined pain-related anxiety as a potential mechanism linking pain severity with opioid misuse and disability...
April 24, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Alexandra Berra, Shota Kamo, Sopan Mohnot, Jessica Rosselot, Andrew Suire, Joshua Stafford, Joseph Hagan, Irene Stafford
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders during pregnancy are a concern both to the public and medical community, because the negative consequences can be detrimental to both mother and the fetus. The accurate identification of prenatal drug exposure is necessary to determine appropriate medical and psychosocial intervention, and to identify risk factors that may affect outcomes for the mother and her newborn. The prevalence of prenatal drug exposure is very difficult to estimate because of flaws in all methods of identification...
April 24, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Guohong Chen, Chunqing Lin, Yuheng Chen, Li Li, Sitong Luo, Xiaoyan Liu, Xiping Huan, Xiaobin Cao, Jennifer M McGoogan, Zunyou Wu
OBJECTIVE: Service providers' job satisfaction is critical to the stability of the work force and thereby the effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programs. This study aimed to explore MMT clinic service providers' job satisfaction and associated factors in Jiangsu, China. METHODS: This secondary study used baseline data of a randomized interventional trial implemented in Jiangsu, China. A survey was conducted among 76 MMT service providers using the computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) method...
April 24, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Richa Tripathi, Anju Dhawan, Ravindra Rao, Ashwani Kumar Mishra, Raka Jain, Sanjeev Sinha
OBJECTIVES: To assess the rates of sleep disturbances in male patients with opioid dependence maintained on buprenorphine and to assess the factors associated with sleep disturbances in this population. METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional study. Male patients with opioid dependence aged 18 years and older, and started on buprenorphine at least 6 months before were screened. Those with history of comorbid psychiatric illnesses (except sleep disorders), on any other substance in high-risk category (based on WHO-Alcohol Smoking Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST)), or on any other psychotropic medications (in addition to OAT with buprenorphine) were excluded...
April 3, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Itai Danovitch, Brigitte Vanle, Nicole Van Groningen, Waguih Ishak, Teryl Nuckols
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the percentage of opioid overdose events among medical and surgical inpatient admissions, and to identify risk factors associated with these events. METHODS: We searched PubMed and CINAHL databases from inception through July 30, 2017 and identified additional studies from reference lists and other reviews. Articles were included if they reported original research on the rate of opioid overdoses or opioid-related adverse events, and the adverse events occurred in a general medical hospital during an inpatient stay...
April 2, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Charles W Schauberger, Andrew J Borgert, Brent Bearwald
OBJECTIVE: To identify variables associated with continuation in treatment and maintenance of custody after pregnancies in women with opioid use disorder (OUD). METHODS: The medical records of pregnant women with documented OUD from 2011 to 2018 and with at least 6 months follow-up postpartum were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Via multivariate analysis, women on opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) were more likely to continue in treatment and maintain custody, whereas women enrolled in a residential treatment program during pregnancy were less likely to continue in treatment or maintain custody...
April 2, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Anna C Scialli, Mishka Terplan
OBJECTIVES: To examine rates of and factors associated with patient-reported illicit drug use screening by health care professionals. METHODS: The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), limited to individuals who reported prior year healthcare service utilization, was used to capture the odds of patient-reported illicit drug use screening for survey years 2013 to 2015. Screened patients were contrasted with those not screened by demographic and behavioral characteristics...
April 2, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Stephanie B Stewart, Devika Bhatia, Emily K Burns, Joseph T Sakai, Laura F Martin, Arnold H Levinson, Amber M Vaughn, Yaqiang Li, Katherine A James
OBJECTIVES: Marijuana's evolving legality may change marijuana use patterns in adults. Co-use of marijuana and tobacco are strongly associated, and populations with mental health disorders are disproportionately likely to use either substance, but neither association has been assessed in the context of legal recreational marijuana. We assessed the associations of tobacco smoking with marijuana use and with mental health disorders in Colorado in 2015. METHODS: Data came from a population-based survey of adults (n = 8023)...
April 2, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Marc Galanter, William L White, Brooke D Hunter
OBJECTIVE: Narcotics Anonymous (NA), a nonprofessional 12-step fellowship for people seeking recovery from addiction, reports 27,677 meetings in the USA, where it was founded, but there is limited literature on its adaptability cross-culturally. We studied NA within the Islamic Republic of Iran to ascertain its relative adaptation in a different cultural setting. METHOD: We surveyed 262 NA members in Iran, supplemented by member interviews, and compared demographic and substance use-related characteristics of members, and also the nature of their respective involvement in NA, to the survey results of a previous US survey (n = 527)...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Sonia Habibian, Keith Ahamad, Mark McLean, Maria Eugenia Socias
BACKGROUND: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)-a GABA-B agonist-can lead to a use disorder, and a withdrawal syndrome similar to that of alcohol. At present, evidence is lacking for how to best manage GHB withdrawal, and often clinicians rely on alcohol withdrawal management approaches, using medications like benzodiazepines (BZD). However, BZD doses needed to control GHB withdrawal symptoms are typically much higher than those required for alcohol, posing significant safety risks. Novel approaches include the use of baclofen as an adjunct to BZD, allowing reductions in BZD requirements...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Lena Lundgren, Mojgan Padyab, Nancy M Lucero, Marcus Blom-Nilsson, Siv Nyström, Tabitha Carver-Roberts, Mikael Sandlund
OBJECTIVES: First-generation immigrants, in many countries, are healthier than their native counterparts. This study examined the association between first- and second-generation immigrant status and alcohol- or drugs other than alcohol-related (primarily opioids) mortality for those with risky substance use. METHODS: A Swedish longitudinal, 2003 to 2017, registry study combined Addiction Severity Index (ASI) assessment data with mortality data (n = 15 601)...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Madhabika B Nayak, Lee A Kaskutas, Amy A Mericle
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of an innovative, self-administered, electronic Screening and Brief Intervention (e-SBI) in English and Spanish, "DrinkWise," for reducing drinking among nonpregnant women of childbearing age. METHODS: A parallel design, phase 1 trial included 185 nonpregnant women reporting risky drinking (8 or more drinks in a week or 3 or more drinks in a day) who were recruited from 2 publicly funded Nutritional Assistance for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program sites in the United States from 2016 to 2017...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Eric A Coomes, Keith Gunaratne, Hourmazd Haghbayan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Michael D Stein, Megan E Kurth, Bradley J Anderson, Claire E Blevins
OBJECTIVES: Problems with sleep are a common and detrimental occurrence among individuals who receive methadone maintenance for opioid use disorder (OUD). METHODS: We enrolled ten methadone-maintained persons with insomnia (60% female, mean age 40) in a double-blind trial using actigraphy to confirm daily sleep reports. After a no-medication week to establish baseline sleep patterns, each participant received 1 week each of mirtazapine (30 mg), zolpidem (sustained-release 12...
March 9, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Brian C Shonesy, Donald Williams, Damian Simmons, Erin Dorval, Stuart Gitlow, Richard M Gustin
OBJECTIVE: This study determined the feasibility of interviewing and screening patients presenting to a retail pharmacy using Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) interview protocols, and to compare SBIRT results to a risk score calculated from Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) data. METHODS: Using the NIDA Quick Screen and NIDA Modified-ASSIST (NM-ASSIST) and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), retail pharmacy customers were screened for substance and alcohol use disorder and tobacco use...
March 9, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Alicia Marie Allen, Myra L Muramoto, Jean Campbell, Timothy E Connolly, Beverly A McGuffin, Andrew D Bernstein
INTRODUCTION: Despite progress in reducing tobacco use within the general population, high prevalence of tobacco use continues in individuals with mental health and substance use disorders ("clients"). Tobacco use persists as the leading cause of premature mortality in this population. While behavioral health providers have frequent contacts with this population, they lack training in tobacco cessation counseling. METHODS: We conducted multimethod formative data collection consisting of key informant interviews with providers, field observations at clinical sites, and structured group interviews with behavioral health providers, and, separately, clients...
March 7, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
James R Langabeer, Anand Gourishankar, Kimberly A Chambers, Sharmila Giri, Renita Madu, Tiffany Champagne-Langabeer
INTRODUCTION: With opioid-related deaths reaching epidemic levels, gaining a better understanding of access to treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) is critical. Most studies have focused on 1 side of the equation-either provider capacity or patients' need for care, as measured by overdose deaths. This study examines the overlay between treatment program availability and opioid mortality, comparing accessibility by region. METHODS: Geospatial and statistical analyses were used to model OUD treatment programs relative to population density and opioid overdose death incidence at the state and county level...
March 4, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Walter Ling, Vijay R Nadipelli, Caitlyn T Solem, Naoko A Ronquest, Yu-Chen Yeh, Susan M Learned, Vishaal Mehra, Christian Heidbreder
OBJECTIVE: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is associated with physical, social, psychological, and economic burden. This analysis assessed the effects of RBP-6000, referred to as BUP-XR (extended-release buprenorphine), a subcutaneously injected, monthly buprenorphine treatment for OUD compared with placebo on patient-centered outcomes measuring meaningful life changes. METHODS: Patient-centered outcomes were collected in a 24-week, phase 3, placebo-controlled study assessing the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of BUP-XR 300/300 mg (6 × 300 mg) and 300/100 mg (2 × 300 mg followed by 4 × 100 mg) injections in treatment-seeking participants with moderate-to-severe OUD...
March 4, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Einat Peles, Orna Levran, Matthew Randesi, Jurg Ott, Mary Jeanne Kreek, Miriam Adelson
OBJECTIVES: We have previously shown associations between 4 genetic variants in opioid and stress-related genes (OPRM1, NPYR1/NPYR5, NR3C1, and CRHBP) and prolonged abstinence from heroin without methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). We currently assessed the associations between these variants and MMT patients' characteristics. METHODS: A non-selective group of 351 patients who stayed at least 1 year in their first admission to MMT were genotyped and their characteristics and substance in urine on admission and after 1 year were studied...
March 4, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
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