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Head and Neck Pathology

Shoreh R Fazeli, Kamyar R Giglou, Mahmoud L Soliman, Waleed H Ezzat, Andrew Salama, Qing Zhao
Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare neoplasm, which accounts for < 1% of all odontogenic tumors. CEOT occurs more frequently in adults with a peak incidence in the 5th decade of life and is extremely rare in the pediatric population. We present a case of a 13-year-old girl who was found to have a mandibular CEOT. We summarize the radiological features, pathological findings, clinical management and literature review focusing on this entity in children.
February 15, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
Paris Tamiolakis, Grigorios Thermos, Konstantinos I Tosios, Alexandra Sklavounou-Andrikopoulou
The aim of the present study is to report the demographic and clinical characteristics of all jaw cysts diagnosed in a single Oral Pathology Department. 5294 cases of jaw cysts diagnosed during a 38-year period were retrospectively collected and classified according to the latest classification of Head and Neck Tumors of the World Health Organization. The patients' gender and age, as well as the main clinical features of the cysts were retrieved from biopsy report forms. Jaw cysts were more common in male patients, with a male to female ratio of 1...
February 13, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
Ho-Hyun Brian Sun, Sheng-Chuan Lin, Benjamin Shimel, Chan M Park, Supreeth Sharaschandra
We report on a case in which a blanching, unobtrusive oral growth proved to be a systemic threat. A blind, epileptic child presented with a bleeding oral floor mass of 4 weeks. Biopsy showed small, dilated vascular spaces with reactive fibroblasts. MRI indicated distribution of expansile lesions in the mandible, cranial base, and right orbit that had possibly contributed to the patient's years-long neurologic deficits. A subsequent bone scan indicated lesions in multiple axial bones. Histologic markers confirmed the presentation of a rare cystic vascular pathology...
February 13, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
Christian Salib, Morris Edelman, Joshua Lilly, John E Fantasia, Aaron E Yancoskie
Cranial fasciitis (CF) is an uncommon benign myofibroblastic proliferation involving the soft and hard tissues of the cranium. It typically occurs in the pediatric population with a male predilection (male-to-female ratio 1.5:1). The clinical presentation is usually a rapidly expanding, painless nodule. Bone erosion may be appreciated radiographically. Histopathologic sections of CF show plump, fibroblast-like cells with pale, oval shaped nuclei and prominent nucleoli in a fibrous or myxoid background. Growth is self-limited and surgical excision is considered curative...
February 13, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
Giap Hean Goh, Fredrik Petersson
We present the case of an uncommon example of a plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor (PFHT) occurring in the anterior central neck region of a 40 year-old female with previous subtotal thyroidectomy. The tumor clinically mimics a complicated thyroglossal duct cyst. On fine needle aspiration cytology, the tumor was composed of sheets of bland spindle cells and nests of plump histiocytoid cells in vaguely whorled arrangements. Occasional multinucleated giant cells were also identified. The excised specimen showed an irregular, highly infiltrative subcutaneous tumor arranged in a nodular/plexiform pattern concentrated to the center of the tumor mass...
February 13, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
Fredrik Petersson
A case of non-keratinizing, EBV-positive (chromogenic EBER-in situ hybridization), carcinoma with a hitherto undescribed nodular whorling architecture is presented. The patient is a 55 year old male with 2 months history of dermatomyositis who was diagnosed with T1N0M0 non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The patient received radiotherapy with complete response. The tumor cells predominantly displayed spindle cell morphology, strongly expressed low-molecular weight cytokeratins (AE1-3), p63 and p40...
February 13, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
Mario W Saab-Chalhoub, James S Lewis
Upfront interval sectioning (cutting unstained slides between H&E levels) is used at our institution for biopsies at all sites except the gastrointestinal tract. Very limited data exists in the literature for the need for interval sectioning, and we are aware of no data at all for the head and neck. Biopsies from the larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, and sinonasal tract at our institution have had 5 levels cut. Levels 1, 3, and 5 or levels 2 and 5 had been stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), depending on the subsite, and the remaining slides saved for possible later use...
February 13, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
Lester D R Thompson, Christina Wei, Lisa M Rooper, Sean K Lau
Solitary fibrous tumors of the thyroid gland are exceptionally rare. In order to further characterize the clinical and pathologic features of solitary fibrous tumor arising at this anatomic site, three cases of thyroid gland solitary fibrous tumor were analyzed in conjunction with 35 cases compiled from the English literature. Thyroid gland solitary fibrous tumors showed an equal sex distribution with a mean age at presentation of 54.4 years (range, 28-88 years). The patients typically presented with an asymptomatic, slow growing neck mass...
February 13, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
Bingcheng Wu, Chwee Ming Lim, Fredrik Petersson
We present a 52 years old male with a left tonsillar follicular dendritic cell sarcoma with prominent epithelioid features that on light microscopical examination bore a striking resemblance to a lymphoepithelial or undifferentiated carcinoma. The tumor was immunohistochemically positive for CD21 and CD35 and negative for cytokeratins. Two distinct histopathological features (both present in our case) that may serve as clues to the correct diagnosis on light microscopical examination were formation of ectatic pseudovascular spaces lined by malignant cells and the presence of non-neoplastic multinucleated giant cells...
February 13, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
Diana Morlote, Shuko Harada, Brenessa Lindeman, Todd M Stevens
Currently considered a variant of Ewing sarcoma, adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma is a rare malignancy that shows classic Ewing sarcoma-associated gene fusions but also epithelial differentiation. Here we present the 6th reported case of adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma involving the thyroid gland. Sections of the thyroid tumor from a 20-year old woman showed sheets, lobules and trabeculae of primitive, uniform, small round blue cells that diffusely expressed pankeratin, p40 and CD99. Fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed an EWSR1 gene rearrangement and an EWSR1-FLI1 fusion was detected by RT-PCR...
February 8, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
Sarah G Fitzpatrick, Donald M Cohen, Ashley N Clark
Ulcerated lesions of the oral cavity have many underlying etiologic factors, most commonly infection, immune related, traumatic, or neoplastic. A detailed patient history is critical in assessing ulcerative oral lesions and should include a complete medical and medication history; whether an inciting or triggering trauma, condition, or medication can be identified; the length of time the lesion has been present; the frequency of episodes in recurrent cases; the presence or absence of pain; and the growth of the lesion over time...
January 31, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
Duane R Schafer, Sarah H Glass
When faced with an uncertain clinical pathosis in the oral cavity, identifying the color of the mucosal lesion helps to narrow down a differential diagnosis. Although less common than red and white lesions, yellow lesions encompass a small group of distinct mucosal pathologic entities. Adipose tissue, lymphoid tissue, and sebaceous glands are naturally occurring yellow constituents of the oral cavity and become apparent with associated developmental or neoplastic lesions. Reactive and inflammatory lesions can create a yellow hue due to purulence, necrosis, and calcification...
January 31, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
Brenda L Nelson, Lester D R Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
Kristin K McNamara, John R Kalmar
Erythematous lesions of the oral mucosa are common and can reflect a variety of conditions, ranging from benign reactive or immunologically-mediated disorders to malignant disease. Together with vascular abnormalities, which can vary from reddish to bluish-purple in color, the differential diagnosis for erythematous oral mucosal change is quite diverse. This review focuses on salient clinical features and histopathologic findings of selected conditions which clinically present as red or vascular-like oral mucosal alterations, including oral vascular malformations and neoplasms, pyogenic granuloma, localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia, denture stomatitis, benign migratory glossitis (geographic tongue), orofacial granulomatosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis), megaloblastic anemia, and erythroplakia...
January 29, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
John W Hellstein, Cindy L Marek
Candidiasis is a very common malady in the head neck region. This review will concentrate on intraoral, pharyngeal and perioral manifestations and treatment. A history of the origins associated with candidiasis will be introduced. In addition, oral conditions associated with candidiasis will be mentioned and considered. The various forms of oral and maxillofacial candidiasis will be reviewed to include pseudomembranous, acute, chronic, median rhomboid glossitis, perioral dermatitis, and angular cheilitis. At the end of this review the clinician will be better able to diagnose and especially treat candidal overgrowth of the oral facial region...
January 29, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
Easwar Natarajan
Black and brown-colored mucocutaneous lesions present a differential diagnostic challenge, with malignant melanoma being the primary clinical concern. The vast majority of pigmented lesions in the head and neck region are the result of benign, reactive factors such as post-inflammatory melanosis. However, it is not uncommon to discover a range of muco-cutaneous black and brown neoplasms in the oro-facial area. The majority of black/brown pigmented neoplasms are melanocytic in origin; these are neoplasms of neural crest derivation...
January 29, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
Gisele N Mainville
Excluding human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven conditions, oral papillary lesions consist of a variety of reactive and neoplastic conditions and, on occasion, can herald internal malignancy or be part of a syndrome. The objectives of this paper are to review the clinical and histopathological features of the most commonly encountered non-HPV papillary conditions of the oral mucosa. These include normal anatomic structures (retrocuspid papillae, lingual tonsils), reactive lesions (hairy tongue, inflammatory papillary hyperplasia), neoplastic lesions (giant cell fibroma), lesions of unknown pathogenesis (verruciform xanthoma, spongiotic gingival hyperplasia) and others associated with syndromes (for instance Cowden syndrome) or representing paraneoplastic conditions (malignant acanthosis nigricans)...
January 29, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
Sasha J Betz
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causative of a group of clinically papillary lesions. The HPV-related lesions of the oral cavity include squamous papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris, and multifocal epithelial hyperplasia. Benign entities, such as verruciform xanthoma or giant cell fibroma, as well as malignancies, such as papillary squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma, may be considered in the clinical and/or histologic differential diagnoses of these lesions. Mechanisms of infection, epidemiology, clinical presentations, histologic features, and differential diagnoses of the HPV-related oral pathologies are discussed...
January 29, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
Daniel J Brierley, Hannah Crane, Keith D Hunter
Lesions of the gingivae are amongst the commonest lesions seen in patients and the vast majority are reactive hyperplasias, related to a number of chronic irritant stimuli. However, there are a number of entities that have a predilection for the gingivae, which are much less common in other parts of the oral cavity. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the clinical and histological differential diagnoses when presented with a lump on the gingivae, including the approach to diagnosis and diagnostic pitfalls...
January 29, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
Irit Allon, Marilena Vered, Ilana Kaplan
Exophytic lesions of the tongue encompass a diverse spectrum of entities. These are most commonly reactive, arising in response to local trauma but can also be neoplastic of epithelial, mesenchymal or miscellaneous origin. In most cases, the microscopic examination is likely to provide a straightforward diagnosis. However, some cases can still raise microscopic diagnostic dilemmas, such as conditions that mimic malignancies, benign tumors with overlapping features and anecdotal lesions. A series of "lumps and bumps" of the tongue are presented together with suggested clues that can assist in reaching a correct diagnosis, emphasizing the importance of the clinico-pathological correlations...
January 29, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
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