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Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses

Marta Galanti, Ruthie Birger, Minhaz Ud-Dean, Ioan Filip, Haruka Morita, Devon Comito, Simon Anthony, Greg A Freyer, Sadiat Ibrahim, Benjamin Lane, Chanel Ligon, Raul Rabadan, Atinuke Shittu, Eudosie Tagne, Jeffrey Shaman
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viral infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, their characterization is incomplete because prevalence estimates are based on syndromic surveillance data. Here, we address this shortcoming through the analysis of infection rates among individuals tested regularly for respiratory viral infections, irrespective of their symptoms. METHODS: We carried out longitudinal sampling and analysis among 214 individuals enrolled at multiple New York City locations from fall 2016 to spring 2018...
February 15, 2019: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Joshua D Powell, Eugenio J Abente, Mia K Torchetti, Mary L Killian, Amy L Vincent
In 2017, outbreaks of low and highly pathogenic avian H7N9 viruses were reported in four States in the United States. In total, over 270 000 birds died or were culled, causing significant economic loss. The potential for avian-to-swine transmission of the U.S. avian H7N9 was unknown. In an experimental challenge in swine using a representative low pathogenic H7N9 (A/chicken/Tennessee/17-007431-3/2017; LPAI TN/17) isolated from these events, no infectious virus in the upper and minimal virus in the lower respiratory tract was detected, nor was lung pathology or evidence of transmission in pigs observed, indicating that the virus cannot efficiently infect swine...
February 13, 2019: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
E Thomas Ewing
BACKGROUND: The Russian influenza, which began in late 1889, has long been recognized as a major global epidemic yet available statistical evidence for morbidity and mortality has not been fully examined using historical and epidemiological tools. This study of cases and deaths in Indiana during the extended time period associated with the Russian influenza is the first scholarly effort to determine the number of victims from this influenza outbreak across a broad regional case study in the US...
February 12, 2019: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Ahmed S Kayed, Ahmed Kandeil, Mokhtar R Gomaa, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Sara Mahmoud, Nabil Hegazi, Mohamed Fayez, Basma Sheta, Pamela P McKenzie, Richard J Webby, Ghazi Kayali, Mohamed A Ali
AIM: Egypt is the habitat for a large number of bird species and serves as a vital stopover for millions of migratory birds during their annual migration between the Palearctic and Afrotropical ecozones. Surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) is critical to assessing risks for potential spreading of these viruses among domestic poultry. Surveillance for AIV among hunted and captured wild birds in Egypt was conducted in order to understand the characteristics of circulating viruses...
February 3, 2019: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Nusrat Homaira, Nancy Briggs, Ju-Lee Oei, Lisa Hilder, Barbara Bajuk, Tom Snelling, Georgina M Chambers, Adam Jaffe
BACKGROUND: Data on burden of severe influenza in children with a range of chronic lung diseases (CLDs) remain limited. METHOD: We performed a cohort study to estimate burden of influenza-associated hospitalization in children with CLDs using population-based linked data. The cohort comprised all children in New South Wales, Australia, born between 2001 and 2010 and was divided into five groups, children with: (a) severe asthma; (b) bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD); (c) cystic fibrosis (CF); (d) other congenital/chronic lung conditions; and (e) children without CLDs...
January 30, 2019: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Siri Helene Hauge, Inger Johanne Bakken, Birgitte F de Blasio, Siri E Håberg
BACKGROUND: The burden of influenza in Norway remains uncertain, and data on seasonal variations and differences by age groups are needed. OBJECTIVE: To describe number of patients diagnosed with influenza in Norway each season and the number treated in primary or specialist health care by age. Further, to compare the burden of seasonal influenza with the 2009-2010 pandemic outbreak. METHODS: We used Norwegian national health registries and identified all patients diagnosed with influenza from 2008 to 2017...
January 13, 2019: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Keisuke Yoshihara, Minh Nhat Le, Michiko Toizumi, Hien Anh Nguyen, Hien Minh Vo, Takato Odagiri, Seiichiro Fujisaki, Koya Ariyoshi, Hiroyuki Moriuchi, Masahiro Hashizume, Duc Anh Dang, Lay-Myint Yoshida
BACKGROUND: Influenza B is one of the major etiologies for acute respiratory infections (ARI) among children worldwide; however, its clinical-epidemiological information is limited. We aimed to investigate the hospitalization incidence and clinical-epidemiological characteristics of influenza B-associated paediatric ARIs in central Vietnam. METHODS: We collected clinical-epidemiological information and nasopharyngeal swabs from ARI children hospitalized at Khanh Hoa General Hospital, Nha Trang, Vietnam from February 2007 through June 2013...
December 21, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Yong Chong, Shinya Matsumoto, Dongchon Kang, Hideyuki Ikematsu
BACKGROUND: The large consumption of neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs) for the treatment of influenza virus infections places Japan at risk of becoming the epicenter of the global spread of NAI-resistant viruses. OBJECTIVE: To clarify NA amino acid mutations of epidemic influenza viruses in Japan and their related NAI resistance METHODS: A total of 1791 samples, including 396 A/H1N1pdm09, 1117 A/H3N2, and 278 B isolates, were collected to determine of their 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) values by NAIs (oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir, and laninamivir) during the Japanese seasons from 2011-12 to 2016-17...
December 11, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Gro Tunheim, Ida Laake, Anna Hayman Robertson, Kristian Waalen, Olav Hungnes, Lisbeth M Naess, Rebecca J Cox, Siri Mjaaland, Lill Trogstad
BACKGROUND: A population-based pregnancy cohort was established in Norway to study potential effects of exposure to the 2009 influenza pandemic or pandemic vaccination during pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: We studied maternal A(H1N1)pdm09-specific hemagglutination inhibition (HI)-titer levels and waning in women with influenza-like illness (ILI) in pregnancy compared to vaccinated women. Moreover, we studied the association between HI-titers and self-reported severity and duration of ILI...
December 9, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Joe-Ann S Moser, Arturo Galindo-Fraga, Ana A Ortiz-Hernández, Wenjuan Gu, Sally Hunsberger, Juan-Francisco Galán-Herrera, María Lourdes Guerrero, Guillermo M Ruiz-Palacios, John H Beigel
BACKGROUND: The relationship between obesity and risk of complications described during the 2009 influenza pandemic is poorly defined for seasonal influenza and other viral causes of influenza-like illness (ILI). METHODS: An observational cohort of hospitalized and outpatient participants with ILI was conducted in six hospitals in Mexico. Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for influenza and other common respiratory pathogens. RESULTS: A total of 4778 participants were enrolled in this study and had complete data...
December 4, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Caroline Quinn Pratt, Yuwei Zhu, Carlos G Grijalva, Richard G Wunderink, D Mark Courtney, Grant Waterer, Min Z Levine, Stacie Jefferson, Wesley H Self, Derek J Williams, Lyn Finelli, Anna M Bramley, Kathryn M Edwards, Seema Jain, Evan J Anderson
Ninety-five adults enrolled in the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community study with negative admission influenza polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests received influenza vaccination during hospitalization. Acute and convalescent influenza serology were performed. After vaccination, seropositive (≥1:40) hemagglutination antibody titers (HAI) were achieved in 55% to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, 58% to influenza A(H3N2), 77% to influenza B (Victoria), and 74% to influenza B (Yamagata) viruses. Sixty-six (69%) patients seroconverted (≥4-fold HAI rise) to ≥1 strain...
November 28, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Dinah Henritzi, Bernd Hoffmann, Silke Wacheck, Stefan Pesch, Georg Herrler, Martin Beer, Timm C Harder
BACKGROUND: Human- or avian-to-swine transmissions have founded several autonomously circulating influenza A virus (IAV) lineages in swine populations that cause economically important respiratory disease. Little is known on other human influenza virus types, like B (IBV) and C (ICV) in European swine, and of the recently detected novel animal influenza virus type D (IDV). OBJECTIVES: Development of a cost-effective diagnostic tool for large-scale surveillance programmes targeting all four influenza virus types...
January 2019: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Zhihao Li, Liya He, Shuhua Li, Waner He, Caihui Zha, Wanxing Ou, Qiaozhen Hou, Weiying Wang, Sun Xin, Liang Huiying
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the diagnostic value of measuring the levels of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) to differentiate children co-infected with H1N1 influenza and bacteria from children infected with H1N1 influenza alone. METHODS: Consecutive patients (children aged <5 years) with laboratory-confirmed H1N1 influenza who were hospitalized or received outpatient care from a tertiary-care hospital in Canton, China, between 1 January 2012 and 1 September 2017 were included in the present study...
November 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Cécile Souty, Philippe Amoros, Alessandra Falchi, Lisandru Capai, Isabelle Bonmarin, Sylvie van der Werf, Shirley Masse, Clément Turbelin, Louise Rossignol, Ana-Maria Vilcu, Daniel Lévy-Bruhl, Bruno Lina, Laëtitia Minodier, Yves Dorléans, Caroline Guerrisi, Thomas Hanslik, Thierry Blanchon
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological analysis of past influenza epidemics remains essential to understand the evolution of the disease and optimize control and prevention strategies. Here, we aimed to use data collected by a primary care surveillance system over the last three decades to study trends in influenza epidemics and describe epidemic profiles according to circulating influenza viruses. METHODS: Influenza-like illness (ILI) weekly incidences were estimated using cases reported by general practitioners participating in the French Sentinelles network, between 1984 and 2017...
November 14, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Juan Cristina, Raquel Pollero, Adela Pellegrino
BACKGROUND: Few studies have addressed the impact and dynamics of the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic in temperate regions of South America. OBJECTIVE: To identify key factors for influenza onset, spread and mortality in Montevideo and Uruguay in 1918-1919. METHODS: An analysis of official national records of the public health system of Uruguay was performed. RESULTS: From November to December of 1918 (spring), a total of 131 deaths due to influenza occurred in Montevideo and a total of 296 deaths accounted from July to September of 1919 (winter) in the same city...
November 13, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Grace D Appiah, Jessie R Chung, Brendan Flannery, Fiona Havers, Richard K Zimmerman, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Arnold S Monto, Emily T Martin, Manjusha Gaglani, Kempapura Murthy, Lisa A Jackson, Michael L Jackson, Huong Q McLean, Edward A Belongia, Alicia M Fry
Over five seasons, we determined the proportion of outpatients with laboratory-confirmed, influenza-associated illness who were hospitalized within 30 days following the outpatient visit. Overall, 136 (1.7%) of 7,813 influenza-positive patients were hospitalized a median of 4 days after an outpatient visit. Patients aged ≥65 years and those with high-risk conditions were at increased risk of hospitalization. After controlling for age and high-risk conditions, vaccination status and infecting influenza virus type were not associated with hospitalization risk among adults...
November 8, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Qiaozhi Guo, Zhiqiang Dong, Weilin Zeng, Wenjun Ma, Danyang Zhao, Sun Xin, Sitang Gong, Jianpeng Xiao, Tiegang Li, Wenhui Hu
BACKGROUND: Influenza seriously affects the health of children, yet little evidence is available on the association between meteorological factors and the occurrence of influenza among children in subtropical regions. The current study aimed to explore the effects of meteorological factors on influenza among children in Guangzhou, a subtropical city in China. METHODS: The distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) was used to assess the effects of meteorological factors on children influenza occurrence in Guangzhou, China...
November 8, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Mingyuan Han, Charu Rajput, Joanna L Hinde, Qian Wu, Jing Lei, Tomoko Ishikawa, J Kelley Bentley, Marc B Hershenson
BACKGROUND: Rhinovirus (RV) causes the common cold and asthma exacerbations. The RV genome is a 7.3 kb single-strand positive-sense RNA. OBJECTIVE: Using minor group RV1A as a backbone, we sought to design and generate a recombinant RV1A accommodating fluorescent marker expression, thereby allowing tracking of viral infection. METHOD: Recombinant RV1A infectious cDNA clones harboring the coding sequence of green fluorescent protein (GFP), Renilla luciferase, or iLOV (for light, oxygen, or voltage sensing) were engineered and constructed...
November 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Pélagie Babakazo, Léopold Lubula, Wally Disasuani, Léonie Kitoko Manya, Edith Nkwembe, Naomi Mitongo, Hugo Kavunga-Membo, Jean-Claude Changachanga, Saleh Muhemedi, Benoit Kebela Ilunga, Emile Okitolonda Wemakoy, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum, Joelle Kabamba-Tshilobo, Stefano Tempia
BACKGROUND: Estimates of influenza-associated outpatient consultations and hospitalizations are severely limited in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Africa. METHODS: We conducted active prospective surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) at 5 healthcare facilities situated in Kinshasa Province during 2013-2015. We tested upper respiratory tract samples for influenza viruses using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay...
November 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Juliette Paireau, Camille Pelat, Céline Caserio-Schönemann, Isabelle Pontais, Yann Le Strat, Daniel Lévy-Bruhl, Simon Cauchemez
BACKGROUND: Maps of influenza activity are important tools to monitor influenza epidemics and inform policymakers. In France, the availability of a high-quality data set from the Oscour® surveillance network, covering 92% of hospital emergency department (ED) visits, offers new opportunities for disease mapping. Traditional geostatistical mapping methods such as Kriging ignore underlying population sizes, are not suited to non-Gaussian data and do not account for uncertainty in parameter estimates...
November 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
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