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Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience

R C Petrone, K A Williams, M J Estienne
In sows, n-3 fatty acids increase litter sizes, however, effects on gilt reproductive development have not been adequately studied. Moreover, not determined are effects of feeding n-3 fatty acids to sows on reproduction in offspring. The objective here was to determine effects of 4% dietary menhaden oil on growth and puberty in gilts farrowed by sows fed menhaden oil. Sows (n=44) were assigned to: (1) control gestation and lactation diets, or (2) diets including menhaden oil. For primiparous sows only, total litter size and born alive were greater (P0...
February 19, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
M Duplessis, D Pellerin, R Robichaud, L Fadul-Pacheco, C L Girard
As vitamin B12 is only synthesized by bacteria, ruminant products, especially dairy products, are excellent sources of this vitamin. This study aims to identify if diet and cow characteristics could affect vitamin B12 concentration in milk of dairy cows. Information on 1484 first, 1093 second and 1763 third and greater parity Holstein cows in 100 herds was collected during three consecutive milkings. During the first morning milking, all dietary ingredients given to cows were sampled and quantities offered were recorded throughout the day...
February 18, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
L Stødkilde, V K Damborg, H Jørgensen, H N Lærke, S K Jensen
Globally, there is an increased demand for sustainable protein sources for animal feed. Grass and forage legumes have the yield potential to become such alternatives, but the protein needs to be separated from the fibres. Red clover, white clover, lucerne and perennial ryegrass were fractionated into a green juice and a fibrous pulp in a screw-press and protein was subsequently precipitated. The nitrogen (N) and amino acid composition of the produced fractions was analysed and the digestibility of dry matter (DM) and N was evaluated using a rat digestibility trial...
February 18, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
S Mattioli, A Dal Bosco, M Maranesi, L Petrucci, P G Rebollar, C Castellini
Standard feeds are imbalanced in term of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio, with a low proportion of the latter. The reproductive system appears to be strongly affected by administration of n-3 PUFA, and ingredients rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA; i.e. vegetable sources) or EPA and DHA acids (i.e. fish oil) can be included in animal diets to balance PUFA intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with flaxseed (ALA) or fish oil (EPA and DHA) on PUFA metabolism in rabbit does...
February 18, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
H M C Santos, L Méndez, G Secci, G Parisi, R Martelli, I Medina
Recently, great attention has been directed towards the use of essential oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidant in food matrix. Fish is well known to be a high perishable food. Indeed, fish muscle is susceptible to suffer protein and lipid oxidation during frozen storage, which can lead to the development of softening and undesirable volatile molecules. However, the possible inclusion of essential oils in fish feed for preserving fish flesh quality during storage is still unclear. For this reason, the potential protective effects of the incorporation of a dietary essential oil constituted by eucalyptol, carvacrol and thymol, to rainbow trout's (Oncorhynchus mykiss) feed were here investigated...
February 18, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
C Leeb, G Rudolph, D Bochicchio, S Edwards, B Früh, M Holinger, D Holmes, G Illmann, D Knop, A Prunier, T Rousing, C Winckler, S Dippel
Organic pig husbandry systems in Europe are diverse - ranging from indoor systems with concrete outside run (IN) to outdoor systems all year round (OUT) and combinations of both on one farm (POUT). As this diversity has rarely been taken into account in research projects on organic pig production, the aim of this study was to assess and compare pig health, welfare and productivity in these three systems. Animal health and welfare were assessed using direct observation and records of 22 animal-based measures, comprising 17 health-, 3 productivity- and 2 behavioural measures...
February 14, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
G Terler, L Gruber, W Knaus
The feed value of whole crop maize silage (WCMS) depends on nutrient composition, ruminal degradability and whole tract digestibility. However, as the ruminal degradation rate is involved in physical regulation of feed intake, ruminal degradability of WCMS may also affect feed intake and milk production of dairy cows. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine relationships between nutrient composition, ruminal degradability, and whole tract digestibility of WCMS and feed intake and milk production of dairy cows...
February 12, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
J Werner, C Umstatter, L Leso, E Kennedy, A Geoghegan, L Shalloo, M Schick, B O'Brien
The commercially available collar device MooMonitor+ was evaluated with regards to accuracy and application potential for measuring grazing behavior. These automated measurements are crucial as cows feed intake behavior at pasture is an important parameter of animal performance, health and welfare as well as being an indicator of feed availability. Compared to laborious and time-consuming visual observation, the continuous and automated measurement of grazing behavior may support and improve the grazing management of dairy cows on pasture...
February 11, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
P McGilchrist, R J Polkinghorne, A J Ball, J M Thompson
A simple index that reflects the potential eating quality of beef carcasses is very important for producer feedback. The Meat Standards Australia (MSA) Index reflects variation in carcass quality due to factors that are influenced by producers (hot carcass weight, rib fat depth, hump height, marbling and ossification scores along with milk fed veal category, direct or saleyard consignment, hormonal growth promotant status and sex). In addition, processor impacts on meat quality are standardised so that the MSA Index could be compared across time, breed and geographical regions...
February 6, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
E K Miller-Cushon, A M Dayton, K C Horvath, A P A Monteiro, X Weng, S Tao
Nutritional strategies to mitigate the negative effects of heat stress on animal welfare and productivity often involve changes in ration formulation. However, cattle commonly sort their ration in favour of certain components, and it is not clear how feed sorting responds to heat stress. This study investigated the association between heat stress and feed sorting behaviour. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=32; parity=2.8±1.2; mean±SD) were housed in a free stall barn and milked 3×/day. Cows were fed individually using the Calan Broadbent Feeding System and offered ad libitum access to a total mixed ration (containing on a dry matter basis: 3...
February 6, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
S Julliand, C Dacremont, C Omphalius, C Villot, V Julliand
Although hay is the foundation of most equine diets, horse owners rarely ask for biochemical analysis and the routine practice is to choose hay based on its 'perceived' nutritional value. The present study aimed at exploring the relationship between sensory properties as perceived by sight, touch and smell, and the nutritional value of hay measured by biochemical analysis using a 'free sorting task' method. Fifty-four non-expert participants were asked individually to: (1) observe 21 hays samples, (2) group together hays that they perceived as similar for each of the three modalities (hay appearance, odour or texture) and (3) characterize each formed group with a maximum of five descriptive terms...
February 5, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
G Illmann, S Goumon, M Šimečková, I Leszkowová
Temporary crating may be a more acceptable housing system for lactating sows than permanent crating and loose-housing because it combines benefits of both systems while reducing some of their limitations. It remains unclear whether nursing and sucking behaviour is influenced after crate opening. The aim of this study was to assess the short- (24 h post-crate opening) and long-term (day 25 postpartum (pp.)) effects of opening the farrowing crate from day 3 pp. to weaning on nursing and suckling behaviour. Sows were crated from 5 days prepartum either to weaning (permanently crated group; n=14) or 3 days pp...
February 1, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
G R Gowane, C P Swarnkar, S S Misra, R Kumar, A Kumar, L L L Prince
Breeding for resistance against nematodes has become the need of the hour due to emergence of anthelmintic resistant strains of major pathogenic nematodes of economic importance and rising demand for chemical residue free food by consumers. ICAR-Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute Avikanagar (Rajasthan) has developed Haemonchus contortus resistant lines of sheep in Avikalin and Malpura breeds by harvesting benefits of over-dispersion in fecal egg counts (FEC) through executing a breeding program since year 2004...
January 31, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
L Pinotti, C Giromini, M Ottoboni, M Tretola, D Marchis
The increasing global need to find alternative protein/energy sources has triggered research in the field of non-conventional feed ingredients, with insects and former foodstuffs being the most promising. Insects contain high level of protein and fat, whereas former foodstuffs contain high energy in the form of carbohydrates and fats; therefore, both should be considered as promising alternative feed ingredients for livestock production. In addition to the nutritional value, they also represent a way by which food waste biomasses/streams can be upgraded to valuable feed ingredients...
January 29, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
L K Lewis, R E Ricks, N M Long
The link between circulating glucocorticoids and leptin in beef calves has not been explored but has been noted in several studies. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of exogenous glucocorticoids given at birth and 1 day of age on serum leptin concentrations in beef calves. Ruminant animals secrete leptin, which is thought to be important for the programming of the hypothalamic appetite centers. Angus crossbred cows (n=31) bred via natural service were utilized for this experiment. At parturition (day 0), calf BW was recorded and each calf was infused intravenously with either a hydrocortisol sodium succinate solution (HC, 8 males and 8 females) at a dosage of 3...
January 25, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
T Macé, E González-García, F Carrière, S Douls, D Foulquié, C Robert-Granié, D Hazard
Breeding for resilience requires a better understanding of intra-flock variability and the related mechanisms responsible for robustness traits. Among such traits, the animals' ability to cope with feed fluctuations by mobilizing or restoring body reserves (BR) is a key mechanism in ruminants. The objective of this work was to characterize individual variability in BR dynamics in productive Romane ewes reared in extensive conditions. The BR dynamics profiles were characterized by combining individual longitudinal measurements of BW and body condition scores (BCS) over several production cycles...
January 22, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
T Needham, H Lambrechts, L C Hoffman
Immunocastration provides a less invasive means of castrating lambs. Considering increasing consumer awareness, the efficacy of this technique on commercial slaughter lambs needs to be further investigated and its effects on growth and stress responses need to be established. This study compared the growth rate, testes size and stress responses of immunocastrated lambs with that of lambs physically castrated with a Burdizzo clamp, as well as intact rams. A total of 40 Dohne Merino ram lambs (average live weight=45...
January 18, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
T Needham, H Lambrechts, L C Hoffman
Immunocastration improves the welfare of castrated commercial slaughter lambs; however, the time-point at which this technique influences semen quality and sperm production has not yet been established for various vaccination schedules. Furthermore, the effect of extended intervals between second vaccination and slaughter needs to be investigated regarding continued testosterone suppression in immunocastrated lambs. The effect of extending the interval between second immunocastration vaccination and slaughter from four to six weeks on the reproductive capacity of Dohne Merino lambs was examined...
January 17, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
N Fernández, J L Palomares, I Pérez-Baena, M Rodríguez, C Peris
In dairy goats, the kid rearing system can have critical importance in financial returns. Commonly used criteria for the choice of rearing system are not always clear due to the high number of factors involved. The aim of this study was to quantify all those factors to facilitate decision making. So, the effect of two different kid rearing systems, mixed rearing system (MRS) and artificial rearing system (ARS), on milk yield, milk composition and somatic cell count (SCC), milk yield loss at weaning for MRS, kid growth and costs of the different traits on the financial returns in Murciano-Granadina breed goats was studied...
January 11, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
C Lokhorst, R M de Mol, C Kamphuis
Insight into current scientific applications of Big Data in the precision dairy farming area may help us to understand the inflated expectations around Big Data. The objective of this invited review paper is to give that scientific background and determine whether Big Data has overcome the peak of inflated expectations. A conceptual model was created, and a literature search in Scopus resulted in 1442 scientific peer reviewed papers. After thorough screening on relevance and classification by the authors, 142 papers remained for further analysis...
January 11, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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