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Zoonoses and Public Health

Claudio De Liberato, Federica Berrilli, Teresa Bossù, Adele Magliano, Margherita Montalbano Di Filippo, David Di Cave, Mariano Sigismondi, Annunziata Cannavacciuolo, Paola Scaramozzino
Swimmer's itch is caused by the penetration of free-swimming larvae of trematodes of the family Schistosomatidae in human skin. It is usually reported in people engaged in recreational water activities in freshwater bodies and in most of cases, it is provoked by bird schistosomes of the genus Trichobilharzia. In the summer 2017, many cases of dermatitis were recorded in people bathing in the waters of the Albano Lake (Rome, Italy) and a parasitological investigation was carried out in order to ascertain the causative agent of these cases...
February 19, 2019: Zoonoses and Public Health
Victoria J Brookes, Gurlal S Gill, Balbir B Singh, Bhupinder S Sandhu, Navneet K Dhand, Rabinder S Aulakh, Michael P Ward
In August 2015, a rabies outbreak occurred in bovines in a Punjab village, India; subsequently, a farmer in the same village died of rabies in October 2015. We surveyed farmers to describe the outbreak, the demographics and rabies prophylaxis administered to householders on case farms, and farmers' knowledge of rabies prevention and treatment. We used multiple correspondence analysis to guide investigation of associations between demographics, farm status and rabies knowledge, attitudes and practices. The number of affected bovines was unusually high; 15 cattle and buffalo died on 13 smallholder farms (attack rate 4%)...
February 18, 2019: Zoonoses and Public Health
Federica Di Profio, Vittorio Sarchese, Irene Melegari, Andrea Palombieri, Ivano Massirio, Sandra Bermudez Sanchez, Klaus Gunther Friedrich, Federico Coccia, Fulvio Marsilio, Vito Martella, Barbara Di Martino
Noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis in children and adults. Several pieces of evidence suggest that viruses genetically and antigenically closely related to human NoVs might infect animals, raising public health concerns about potential cross-species transmission. The natural susceptibility of non-human primates (NPHs) to human NoV infections has already been reported, but a limited amount of data is currently available. In order to start filling this gap, we screened a total of 86 serum samples of seven different species of NPHs housed at the Zoological Garden (Bioparco) of Rome (Italy), collected between 2001 and 2017, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on virus-like particles (VLPs) of human GII...
February 9, 2019: Zoonoses and Public Health
Teerarat Prasertsee, Nipa Chokesajjawatee, Pannita Santiyanont, Phongsakorn Chuammitri, Manu Deeudom, Pakpoom Tadee, Prapas Patchanee
Human salmonellosis is a major public health problem worldwide. Infections can pass to humans by contact with contaminated substances in the food chain. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and contamination levels of Salmonella isolated from pork, chicken and beef sold in different types of retail stores in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces and to investigate the genetic relatedness among Salmonella isolates in food chains in that area. A total of 360 meat samples from supermarkets, mini-grocery stores and fresh markets were obtained...
February 5, 2019: Zoonoses and Public Health
Maria Grazia Dente, Flavia Riccardo, Francesco Bolici, Nello Augusto Colella, Verica Jovanovic, Mitra Drakulovic, Milena Vasic, Habiba Mamlouk, Latifa Maazaoui, Mondher Bejaoui, Khatuna Zakhashvili, Irine Kalandadze, Paata Imnadze, Silvia Declich
BACKGROUND: In the Mediterranean and Black Sea Region, arbovirus infections are emerging infectious diseases. Their surveillance can benefit from one health inter-sectoral collaboration; however, no standardized methodology exists to study One Health surveillance. METHODS: We designed a situation analysis study to document how integration of laboratory/clinical human, animal and entomological surveillance of arboviruses was being implemented in the Region. We applied a framework designed to assess three levels of integration: policy/institutional, data collection/data analysis and dissemination...
February 5, 2019: Zoonoses and Public Health
Thamillys R M Monteiro, Katarine S Rocha, Jacqueline Silva, Gleiciane S S Mesquita, Marcely K S Rosário, Maeli F S Ferreira, Betsy E T Honorio, Hugo F R Melo, Flávia N L Barros, Alessandra Scofield, Isis Abel, Carla C G Moraes
The aim of the present study was to detect DNA of Toxoplasma gondii in Crassostrea spp. oysters cultured in the state of Pará, Brazil. A total of 400 oysters were directly collected from a fixed rack system. Gills, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and intervalvular liquid were separated and grouped into pool samples of 10 animals, resulting in 40 samples each of gills, GIT and intervalvular liquid. DNA extraction was performed using a commercial kit, and T. gondii DNA was detected by nested PCR using the primers Toxo3 and Toxo4, which produced an amplification product of 155 bp of the T...
January 27, 2019: Zoonoses and Public Health
Julie Ducrocq, Jean-François Proulx, Benoît Lévesque, Gaston De Serres, Heidi Wood, Mélanie Lemire
Contact with infected saliva through the bite of a rabid animal is the main route of infection with the rabies Lyssavirus in humans. Although a few individuals have survived the infection, rabies remains the most lethal zoonotic infection worldwide. Over the last century, the dogma that rabies is invariably fatal has been challenged by the survival and recovery of infected animals. In humans, 11 studies have found rabies virus-specific antibodies in unvaccinated individuals exposed to rabies virus reservoir species, suggesting the possibility of asymptomatic rabies virus infection, contact with non-infectious virus or exposure to the virus without viral replication...
January 27, 2019: Zoonoses and Public Health
Oluwagbenga A Adeola, Babasola O Olugasa, Benjamin O Emikpe, Raphael D Folitse
Influenza viruses are frequently transmitted between pigs and their handlers, and among pig handlers. However, reports on socio-environmental variables as potential risk factors associated with transmission of influenza in West African swine production facilities are very scarce. Syndromic survey for influenza was therefore conducted in Ibadan, Nigeria, and Kumasi, Ghana, in order to identify and elucidate selected socio-environmental variables that may contribute to the occurrence and distribution of influenza-like illness (ILI) among swine industry workers...
January 24, 2019: Zoonoses and Public Health
Helene Baudel, Helene De Nys, Eitel Mpoudi Ngole, Martine Peeters, Alice Desclaux
The ecology of Ebola virus (EBV) remains largely unknown, but the previous detection of viral RNA and anti-EBV antibodies in African bats suggests that they might play a role in the EBV reservoir. Moreover, African bats also carry other potentially zoonotic agents such as Henipah-like viruses, coronaviruses and lyssaviruses. Today only little information is available on interactions between humans and bats. The objective of our exploratory study was to describe the extent and modes of contacts between humans and bats in southern Cameroon, considered as an area at risk for future EBV outbreaks...
January 24, 2019: Zoonoses and Public Health
Emily Shing, John Wang, Edwin Khoo, Gerald A Evans, Stephen Moore, Mark P Nelder, Samir N Patel, Curtis Russell, Doug Sider, Beate Sander
The objective of this study was to determine healthcare costs attributable to laboratory-confirmed Lyme disease (LD) from the healthcare payer perspective in Ontario, Canada. A cost-of-illness study was conducted for incident LD subjects from 1 January 2006 through 31 December 2013 ascertained from provincial laboratory and reportable disease databases, linked to health administrative data. All LD subjects included were laboratory-confirmed, according to provincial case definitions. Incident LD subjects were propensity-score matched to uninfected subjects on age, sex, comorbidities and urban/rural status...
January 21, 2019: Zoonoses and Public Health
Eugenia Rossler, Marcelo L Signorini, Analía Romero-Scharpen, Lorena P Soto, Ayelén Berisvil, Jorge A Zimmermann, Marcia L Fusari, Carolina Olivero, María V Zbrun, Laureano S Frizzo
The objective of this meta-analysis was to summarize available information on the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter (TC) in different food-producing animals worldwide. Databases (i.e., PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus) were searched from 1980 to 2017 unrestricted by language. The inclusion criteria were as follows: prevalence or incidence studies, published in peer-reviewed journals, and they must have reported the total number of animal samples studied and the number of samples that were positive for the presence of TC...
January 9, 2019: Zoonoses and Public Health
Sarah Anne J Guagliardo, Sally Ann Iverson, Laura Reynolds, Hayley Yaglom, Heather Venkat, Renee Galloway, Craig Levy, Alison Reindel, Tammy Sylvester, Melissa Kretschmer, Margaret LaFerla Jenni, Peter Woodward, Norman Beatty, Aileen Artus, Ronald Klein, Rebecca Sunenshine, Ilana J Schafer
Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis that affects many mammals, including humans and dogs; dogs can transmit the bacteria to humans, but the frequency of transmission and highest risk exposures are poorly understood. During 2016-2017, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health, Arizona Department of Health Services and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated the zoonotic potential of a canine leptospirosis outbreak in the Phoenix metro area. We identified symptomatic persons exposed to canine leptospirosis cases by conducting active and passive surveillance...
January 7, 2019: Zoonoses and Public Health
Pandji W Dhewantara, Colleen L Lau, Kathryn J Allan, Wenbiao Hu, Wenyi Zhang, Abdullah A Mamun, Ricardo J Soares Magalhães
Leptospirosis is a global zoonotic disease that the transmission is driven by complex geographical and temporal variation in demographics, animal hosts and socioecological factors. This results in complex challenges for the identification of high-risk areas. Spatial and temporal epidemiological tools could be used to support leptospirosis control programs, but the adequacy of its application has not been evaluated. We searched literature in six databases including PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Scopus, SciELO and Zoological Record to systematically review and critically assess the use of spatial and temporal analytical tools for leptospirosis and to provide general framework for its application in future studies...
December 28, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Mohammad Moazeni, Faham Khamesipour, Douglas N Anyona, Gabriel O Dida
BACKGROUND: The aim of this review was to establish the current epidemiology of taeniosis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis among humans and animals in Iran by carrying out a comprehensive assessment of published articles reporting on these foodborne zoonotic diseases across the country. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline was used in the search for relevant published articles reporting on cysticercosis, taeniosis and trichinellosis in Iran using a number of appropriate key words...
December 21, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Natalie A Kwit, Amy Schwartz, Kiersten J Kugeler, Paul S Mead, Christina A Nelson
Dogs have been implicated in the zoonotic transmission of numerous pathogens. Whereas cats are known to transmit Francisella tularensis to humans via bite and other routes, the role of dogs in facilitating infection is much less understood. We reviewed tularaemia case investigation records collected through national surveillance during 2006-2016 to summarize those with dog involvement, characterize the nature of dog-related exposure and describe associated clinical characteristics. Among 1,814 human tularaemia cases, 735 (41%) supplemental case investigation records were available for review; and of those, 24 (3...
December 16, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Ann P Britton, Melissa Trapp, Suzana Sabaiduc, William Hsiao, Tomy Joseph, Helen Schwantje
Striped skunks (skunks) are susceptible to respiratory infection by influenza A viruses (IAV). As they are common synanthropes, maintenance of IAV in skunks could provide a source of infection for humans. We previously studied the nasal turbinates, lungs and faeces of 50 free-ranging skunks for the presence of IAV and identified two individuals with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 flu seasons. Subsequent to publication of that study, ferrets were shown to preferentially replicate and harbour A(H1N1)pdm09 in the soft palate, a site which had not been investigated in the skunks...
December 14, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Ratanaporn Tangwangvivat, Sunicha Chanvatik, Kamonpan Charoenkul, Supassama Chaiyawong, Taveesak Janethanakit, Ranida Tuanudom, Duangduean Prakairungnamthip, Supanat Boonyapisitsopa, Napawan Bunpapong, Alongkorn Amonsin
Influenza A virus causes respiratory disease in both humans and animals. In this study, a survey of influenza A antibodies in domestic dogs and cats was conducted in 47 animal shelters in 19 provinces of Thailand from September 2011 to September 2014. One thousand and eleven serum samples were collected from 932 dogs and 79 cats. Serum samples were tested for influenza A antibodies using a multi-species competitive NP-ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. The NP-ELISA results showed that 0.97% (9/932) of dogs were positive, but all cat samples were negative...
December 14, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Delgermaa Bat-Erdene, Ying-Chih Chuang, Kun-Yang Chuang
Lack of knowledge regarding brucellosis may lead to highly risky practices. Among herders in Mongolia, little research was conducted assessing the extent of knowledge related to brucellosis, the type of preventive behaviours that were practiced, and the relationship between knowledge and behaviour regarding brucellosis. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two provinces of Mongolia where herders were randomly selected to participate in the study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire...
December 14, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Xiangyuan Huang, Yu Huang, Abram L Wagner, Xiangxiang Chen, Yihan Lu
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infects both humans and animals. Swine has been confirmed to be the principal natural reservoir, which raises a concern that HEV infection would be substantially increasing among swine workers. The present study calculated the pooled prevalence of IgG antibodies against HEV among swine workers and the general population in previous cross-sectional studies. We conducted a meta-analysis comparing the prevalence of HEV infection between swine workers and the general population, including local residents, blood donors and non-swine workers...
December 10, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Michael J Lee, Kaylee A Byers, Christina M Donovan, Erin Zabek, Craig Stephen, David M Patrick, Chelsea G Himsworth
Urban Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) populations can carry the bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are numerous knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of MRSA in these populations that limit understanding of its ecology in urban environments. For example, fecal shedding of MRSA, which may increase environmental contamination, has been reported in other species; however, it is unknown whether Norway rats carry the bacteria rectally. Furthermore, while intermittent MRSA shedding has been shown in other species and may dictate when the risk of transmission is highest, duration of carriage has not been examined for Norway rats...
December 9, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
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