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Brain Imaging and Behavior

Ali Ezzati, Andrea R Zammit, Christian Habeck, Charles B Hall, Richard B Lipton
There is substantial biological heterogeneity among older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). We hypothesized that this heterogeneity can be detected solely based on volumetric MRI measures, which potentially have clinical implications and can improve our ability to predict clinical outcomes. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify subgroups among persons with aMCI (n = 696) enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), based on baseline volumetric MRI measures...
May 18, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Anupa A Vijayakumari, Ramshekhar N Menon, Bejoy Thomas, Thumboli Muyyayil Arun, Mohanan Nandini, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas
Working memory deficits have been widely reported in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the neural mechanisms of working memory dysfunction in MCI have not been clearly understood. In this study, we used proton functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-fMRS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to understand the underlying neurobiology of working memory deficits in patients with MCI. We aimed at detecting the changes in the concentration of glutamate and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activity using 1 H-fMRS and fMRI respectively during a low load verbal (0 back and 1 back) working memory in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) between patients with MCI and healthy controls...
May 17, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Elisha K Josev, Charles B Malpas, Marc L Seal, Adam Scheinberg, Lionel Lubitz, Kathy Rowe, Sarah J Knight
Emerging evidence suggests that central nervous system dysfunction may underlie the core symptoms of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) in adults, such as cognitive disturbance, fatigue and post-exertional malaise. Research into brain dysfunction in the pediatric CFS/ME context, however, is severely lacking. It is unclear whether the adolescent CFS/ME brain functions differently compared with healthy peers, particularly in situations where significant mental effort is required. This study used resting-state functional MRI in a novel repeated-measures design to evaluate intrinsic connectivity, cognitive function, and subjective fatigue, before and after a period of cognitive exertion in 48 adolescents (25 CFS/ME, 23 healthy controls)...
May 17, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Ahmed Nebli, Islem Rekik
Cortical morphological networks (CMN), where each network models the relationship in morphology between different cortical brain regions quantified using a specific measurement (e.g., cortical thickness), have not been investigated with respect to gender differences in the human brain. Cortical processes are expected to involve complex interactions between different brain regions, univariate methods thus might overlook informative gender markers. Hence, by leveraging machine learning techniques with the potential to highlight multivariate interacting effects, we found that the most discriminative CMN connections between males and females were derived from the left hemisphere using the mean sulcal depth as measurement...
May 17, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Júlia Miró, Pablo Ripollés, Joanna Sierpowska, Mila Santurino, Montserrat Juncadella, Mercè Falip, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
The human hippocampus is believed to be a crucial node in the neural network supporting autobiographical memory retrieval. Structural mesial temporal damage associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) provides an opportunity to systematically investigate and better understand the local and distal functional consequences of mesial temporal damage in the engagement of the autobiographical memory network. We examined 19 TLE patients (49.21 ± 11.55 years; 12 females) with unilateral mesial TLE (MTLE; 12 with anterior temporal lobe resection: 6 right MTLE, 6 left MTLE) or bilateral mesial TLE (7 BMTLE) and 18 matched healthy subjects...
May 17, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Amit Anand, Jaykumar Grandhi, Harish Karne, Jeffrey M Spielberg
Resting-state connectivity studies, which examine unconstrained low frequency BOLD fluctuations, have reported inconsistent abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BP). In this study, we investigated intrinsic brain connectivity under the constraints of a Continuous Emotion Regulation Task (CERT) in BP patients in depressed (BPD) and manic (BPM) states, along with healthy control participants. Medication-free participants, with either a diagnosis of BP (BPD = 27, BPM = 30) or healthy controls (N = 33) were included...
May 16, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Erin L Meier, Jeffrey P Johnson, Yue Pan, Swathi Kiran
Stroke recovery models can improve prognostication of therapy response in patients with chronic aphasia, yet quantifying the effect of lesion on recovery is challenging. This study aimed to evaluate the utility of lesion classification via gray matter (GM)-only versus combined GM plus white matter (WM) metrics and to determine structural measures associated with aphasia severity, naming skills, and treatment outcomes. Thirty-four patients with chronic aphasia due to left hemisphere infarct completed T1-weighted and DTI scans and language assessments prior to receiving a 12-week naming treatment...
May 15, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Sujesh Sreedharan, Anuvitha Chandran, Vijay Raj Yanamala, P N Sylaja, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas, Ranganatha Sitaram
The objectives of this study were to test (i) If stroke patients with expressive Aphasia could learn to up-regulate the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signal in language areas of the brain, namely Inferior Frontal Gyrus (Broca's area) and Superior Temporal Gyrus (Wernicke's area), with real-time fMRI based neurofeedback of the BOLD activation and functional connectivity between the language areas; and (ii) acquired up-regulation could lead to an improvement in expression of language. The study was performed on three groups: Group 1 (n = 4) of Test patients and group 2 (n = 4) of healthy volunteers underwent the neurofeedback training, whereas group 3 (n = 4) of Control patients underwent treatment as usual...
May 14, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Donatello Arienzo, Joseph P Happer, Sean M Molnar, Austin Alderson-Myers, Ksenija Marinkovic
Binge drinking is characterized by bouts of high-intensity alcohol intake and is associated with an array of health-related harms. Even though the transition from occasional impulsive to addictive alcohol use is not well understood, neurobiological models of addiction suggest that repeated cycles of intoxication and withdrawal contribute to the development of addiction in part through dysregulation of neurofunctional networks. Research on the neural sequelae associated with binge drinking is scant but resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) studies of alcohol use disorders (AUD) indicate that the development and maintenance of long-term excessive drinking may be mediated by network-level disruptions...
May 9, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Bo-Yong Park, Chin-Sang Chung, Mi Ji Lee, Hyunjin Park
Obesity is often associated with cardiovascular complications. Adolescent obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adulthood; thus, intensive management is warranted in adolescence. The brain state contributes to the development of obesity in addition to metabolic conditions, and hence neuroimaging is an important tool for accurately assessing an individual's risk of developing obesity. Here, we aimed to predict body mass index (BMI) progression in adolescents with neuroimaging features using machine learning approaches...
May 7, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Frauke Nees, Michaela Ruttorf, Xaver Fuchs, Mariela Rance, Nicole Beyer
Avoiding any harm, such as painful experiences, is an important ability for our physical and mental health. This avoidance behavior might be overactive under chronic pain, and the cortical and subcortical brain volumetry, which also often changes in chronic pain states, might be a significant correlate of this behavior. In the present study, we thus investigated the association between volumetric brain differences using 3 T structural magnetic resonance imaging and pain- versus pleasure-related approach-avoidance behavior using an Approach Avoidance Task in the laboratory in chronic back pain (N = 42; mean age: 51...
May 7, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Elizabeth Dryburgh, Stephen McKenna, Islem Rekik
Decoding how intelligence is engrained in the human brain construct is vital in the understanding of particular neurological disorders. While the majority of existing studies focus on characterizing intelligence in neurotypical (NT) brains, investigating how neural correlates of intelligence scores are altered by atypical neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), is almost absent. To help fill this gap, we use a connectome-based predictive model (CPM) to predict intelligence scores from functional connectome data, derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI)...
May 4, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Maria Dietrich, Richard D Andreatta, Yang Jiang, Joseph C Stemple
Knowledge on brain networks subserving vocalization in vocally healthy individuals under various task conditions is scarce but paramount to understand voice disorders. The aims of our study were to determine (1) the effect of social-evaluative stress on the central neural control of phonation underlying speech production; and (2) the neural signature, personality profile, and aerodynamic vocal function in relation to salivary cortisol responses. Thirteen vocally healthy females underwent an event-related sparse-sampling fMRI protocol consisting of voiced and whispered sentence productions with and without exposure to the social-evaluative stressor public speaking anticipation...
May 2, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Weining Wu, Gloria McAnulty, Hesham M Hamoda, Kiera Sarill, Sarina Karmacharya, Borjan Gagoski, Lipeng Ning, P Ellen Grant, Martha E Shenton, Deborah P Waber, Nikolaos Makris, Yogesh Rathi
Studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have documented alterations in the attention and executive system in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While abnormalities in the frontal lobe have also been reported, the associated white matter fiber bundles have not been investigated comprehensively due to the complexity in tracing them through fiber crossings. Furthermore, most studies have used a non-specific DTI model to understand white matter abnormalities. We present results from a first study that uses a multi-shell diffusion MRI (dMRI) data set coupled with an advanced multi-fiber tractography algorithm to probe microstructural measures related to axonal/cellular density and volume of fronto-striato-thalamic pathways in children with ADHD (N = 30) and healthy controls (N = 28)...
April 30, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Joanna E Szczepanik, Jessica L Reed, Allison C Nugent, Elizabeth D Ballard, Jennifer W Evans, Carl W Lejuez, Carlos A Zarate
Anhedonia-broadly defined as loss of interest and/or an inability to experience pleasure-is an important feature of several psychiatric disorders. Research into the clinical presentation and neurobiology of this symptom has identified components related to motivation, learning, anticipation, and experience of pleasure as important constructs that inform therapeutic interventions. The experimental study of anhedonia is largely based on incentive processing paradigms, most often with monetary rewards, though studies have also used pleasantness ratings of various stimuli...
April 27, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Xiaoming Li, Lijun Chen, Ru Ma, Haibao Wang, Li Wan, Junjie Bu, Wei Hong, Wanwan Lv, Yihong Yang, Hengyi Rao, Xiaochu Zhang
Hypnosis has a therapeutic effect on substance dependence. However, its neural basis remains unclear, which impedes its further clinical applications. This study investigated the mechanisms of smoking treatment based on hypnosis from two perspectives: immediate and follow-up effects. Twenty-four smokers screened from 132 volunteers underwent hypnosis suggestion and performed a smoking-related cue task twice during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning (in normal and hypnotic states). The number of cigarettes smoked per day was recorded at follow-up visits...
April 26, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Xi-Jian Dai, Bi-Xia Liu, Sizhi Ai, Xiao Nie, Qiang Xu, Jianping Hu, Qirui Zhang, Yin Xu, Zhiqiang Zhang, Guangming Lu
To identify altered inter-hemispheric communication between patients with primary insomnia (PIs) and good sleepers (GSs), and their relationships with sleep and emotion-related parameters. Forty-eight PIs and 48 status-matched GSs were asked to complete a number of sleep and emotion-related questionnaires. Voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity(VMHC) and seed-based functional connectivity were used to characterize the inter-hemispheric coordination. Seven PIs were examined twice to evaluate the test-retest reliability...
April 23, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Jiu Chen, Hao Shu, Zan Wang, Yafeng Zhan, Duan Liu, Yong Liu, Zhijun Zhang
Remitted late-life depression (rLLD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are both associated with a high risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neurodegeneration is considered to spread within pre-existing networks. To investigate whether, in the healthy brain, there was a pre-existing cross-network between the intrinsic networks that are vulnerable to rLLD and aMCI. We performed functional connectivity analyses based on brain areas with the greatest brain neuronal activity differences in 55 rLLD, 87 aMCI, and 114 healthy controls...
April 23, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Yasmine Y Fathy, Susanne E Hoogers, Henk W Berendse, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Pieter J Visser, Frank J de Jong, Wilma D J van de Berg
The insular cortex is proposed to function as a central brain hub characterized by wide-spread connections and diverse functional roles. As a result, its centrality in the brain confers high metabolic demands predisposing it to dysfunction in disease. However, the functional profile and vulnerability to degeneration varies across the insular sub-regions. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to summarize and quantitatively analyze the relationship between insular cortex sub-regional atrophy, studied by voxel based morphometry, with cognitive and neuropsychiatric deficits in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)...
April 23, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
HuaGuang Yang, Na Wang, XiaoGuang Luo, Hong Lv, Hu Liu, GuoGuang Fan
The cerebellum is known to influence cerebral cortical activity via cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) circuits and thereby may be implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple system atrophy (MSA). As the aim of this study, we investigated the abnormalities of corticocerebellar functional connectivity (FC) in patients with two variants of MSA. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies were obtained from 55 patients with MSA, including Parkinsonian (MSAp, n = 29) and cerebellar (MSAc, n = 26) variants...
April 23, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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