Zhimei Niu, Andreana P Haley, Alexandra L Clark, Audrey Duarte
Age and depression may interact to produce a "double jeopardy" for cognitive impairment, and executive functioning, in cognitively unimpaired aging. Few studies have considered middle age or the ethnoracial diversity of subjects, despite evidence of more severe cognitive outcomes in historically minoritized people. In this pilot study, we investigated the impact of age on depression-related cognitive impairment and the underlying brain volumes in middle-aged non-Hispanic White adults (116), and Hispanic and Black adults (60), with a total number of 176 adults...
June 8, 2024: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Wenbo Yang, Mingan Li, Lijun Song, Boyan Xu, Qian Chen, Zhenghan Yang, Wenhu Liu, Aihua Zhang, Hao Wang, Zhen-Chang Wang
Hemodialysis (HD) leads to cognitive impairment; however, the pathophysiology of maintenance HD remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the longitudinal alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients on HD at follow-up compared with baseline, examine the alterations in functional connectivity (FC) by defining co-changed brain regions as seed points, and investigate the correlation between the co-changed brain regions and neuropsychological test scores. Twenty-seven patients with HD and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this study...
June 1, 2024: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Sarah L Brassard, Hanson Liu, Jadyn Dosanjh, James MacKillop, Iris Balodis
Applying effort-based decision-making tasks provides insights into specific variables influencing choice behaviors. The current review summarizes the structural and functional neuroanatomy of effort-based decision-making. Across 39 examined studies, the review highlights the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in forming reward-based predictions, the ventral striatum encoding expected subjective values driven by reward size, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex for monitoring choices to maximize rewards, and specific motor areas preparing for effort expenditure...
May 31, 2024: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Ariel Kerpel, Elizabeth Davenport, Amy L Proskovec, Yin Xi, Jarett D Berry, Zerrin Yetkin, Joseph Maldjian, Fang F Yu
Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have reported that antidepressant medications are strongly linked to brain microstructural alterations. Notably, external capsule alterations have been reported to be a biological marker for therapeutic response. However, prior studies did not investigate whether a change in the neurite density or directional coherence of white matter (WM) fibers underlies the observed microstructural alterations. This MRI-based case-control study examined the relationship between patients' current use of antidepressant medications and advanced measurements of external capsule WM microstructure derived from multishell diffusion imaging using neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI)...
May 30, 2024: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Sujuan Sun, Yujing Chen, Bing Zhao, Jun Zhu, Tianrui Wen, Bingnan Peng, Qingguo Ren, Xiaohan Sun, Pengfei Lin, Dong Zhang, Shuangwu Liu
Since depression is common in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, we aimed to explore the specific brain functional network dynamics in ALS patients with depression (ALS-D) compared with healthy controls (HCs) and ALS patients without depressive symptoms (ALS-ND). According to the DSM-V, 32 ALS-D patients were selected from a large and newly diagnosed ALS cohort. Then, 32 demographic- and cognitive-matched ALS-ND patients were also selected, and 64 HCs were recruited. These participants underwent resting-state fMRI scans, and functional connectivity state analysis and dynamic graph theory were applied to evaluate brain functional network dynamics...
May 30, 2024: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Zichun Yan, Zeyun Tan, Qiyuan Zhu, Zhuowei Shi, Jinzhou Feng, Yiqiu Wei, Feiyue Yin, Xiaohua Wang, Yongmei Li
The purpose of this study was to characterize whole-brain white matter (WM) fibre tracts by automated fibre quantification (AFQ), capture subtle changes cross-sectionally and longitudinally in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and explore correlations between these changes and cognitive performance A total of 114 RRMS patients and 71 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled and follow-up investigations were conducted on 46 RRMS patients. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusion (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) at each node along the 20 WM fibre tracts identified by AFQ were investigated cross-sectionally and longitudinally in entire and pointwise manners...
May 30, 2024: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Tian Tian, Jicheng Fang, Dong Liu, Yuanyuan Qin, Hongquan Zhu, Jia Li, Yuanhao Li, Wenzhen Zhu
The high and increasing proportion of single-parent families is considered a risk factor associated with various childhood trauma experiences. Consequently, concerns have been raised regarding the potential long-term effects of the childhood single-parent family structure. In this study, we employed advanced magnetic resonance imaging technology, including morphometric similarity mapping, functional connectivity density, and network-based analysis, to investigate brain connectivity and behavioral differences among young adults who were raised in single-parent families...
May 29, 2024: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Hui Li, Xiang Fan, Kuncheng Li, Chen Zhang, Xiuqin Jia
The insula, a crucial hub of the human brain network, can be divided into anterior and posterior regions. Previous studies have reported that different insula subregions play various roles in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, the longitudinal changes in the functional connectivity (FC) of each insula subregion in aMCI patients over time remain unclear. Twenty aMCI patients and 20 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans and neuropsychological assessments at baseline and at the 15-month follow-up...
May 24, 2024: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Sahar Rezaei, Homa Seyedmirzaei, Esmaeil Gharepapagh, Fateme Mohagheghfard, Zahra Hasankhani, Mahsa Karbasi, Sahar Delavari, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Spaceflight-induced brain changes have been commonly reported in astronauts. The role of microgravity in the alteration of the brain structure, microstructure, and function can be tested with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of Spaceflight studies exploring the potential role of brain alterations identified by MRI in astronauts. We conducted a search on PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus to find neuroimaging correlates of spaceflight experience using MRI...
May 22, 2024: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Sana Mohammadi, Sadegh Ghaderi, Farzad Fatehi
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is an MRI technique that accurately measures iron concentration in brain tissues. This meta-analysis synthesized evidence from 30 studies that used QSM to quantify the iron levels in the putamen. The PRISMA statement was adhered to when conducting the systematic reviews and meta-analyses. We conducted a meta-analysis using a random-effects model, as well as subgroup analyses (disease type, geographic region, field strength, coil, disease type, age, and sex) and sensitivity analysis...
May 17, 2024: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Paul Beele, Sander M Boelders, Geert-Jan M Rutten, Wouter de Baene, Karin Gehring
Patients with meningiomas frequently exhibit impairments in executive functioning. There are few studies specifically examining the role of frontal meningioma localization in executive functioning impairments. This study examines whether frontally located meningiomas are specifically associated with executive functioning impairments in a large sample of meningioma patients before treatment, using an axis-wise and lobe-based approach to meningioma localization. We retrospectively examined cognitive performances in 353 patients with frontal, frontally-involved and non-frontal meningiomas on a battery of tests including tests of executive functioning...
May 9, 2024: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Jun-He Zhou, Bin-Kun Huang, Di Wang, Bai-Le Ning, Xue-Song Liang, Chang-Hong Li, Zeng-Jian Wang, Ying Deng, Xi-Chang Huang, De-Long Zhang, Wen-Bin Fu
BACKGROUND: Impaired visual mental imagery is an important symptom of depression and has gradually become an intervention target for cognitive behavioral therapy. METHODS: Our study involved a total of 25 healthy controls (HC) and 23 individuals with moderate depressive symptoms (MD). This study explored the attentional mechanism supporting visual mental imagery impairments in depression using the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ), attentional network test (ANT), and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI)...
May 8, 2024: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Xuejia Jia, Yingying Li, Xiuqin Jia, Qi Yang
Generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) can eliminate the crossing fiber effect, which may be more reflective of brain tissue changes in patients with cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). This study aimed to explore the alterations of structural networks based on GFA and its relationship with cognitive performance in CSVD patients. We recruited 50 CSVD patients which were divided into two groups: cognitive impairment (CSVD-CI) and normal cognition (CSVD-NC), and 22 healthy controls (HCs). All participants underwent the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and MRI examinations...
May 8, 2024: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Hai-Ling Cao, Ya-Jing Meng, Wei Wei, Tao Li, Ming-Li Li, Wan-Jun Guo
While alterations in cortical thickness have been widely observed in individuals with alcohol dependence, knowledge about cortical thickness-based structural covariance networks is limited. This study aimed to explore the topological disorganization of structural covariance networks based on cortical thickness at the single-subject level among patients with alcohol dependence. Structural imaging data were obtained from 61 patients with alcohol dependence during early abstinence and 59 healthy controls. The single-subject structural covariance networks were constructed based on cortical thickness data from 68 brain regions and were analyzed using graph theory...
May 7, 2024: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Austin H Schmidt, C Brock Kirwan
Conscious experience and perception are restricted to a single perspective. Although evidence to suggest differences in phenomenal experience can produce observable differences in behavior, it is not well understood how these differences might influence memory. We used fMRI to scan n = 49 participants while they encoded and performed a recognition memory test for faces and words. We calculated a cognitive bias score reflecting individual participants' propensity toward either Visual Imagery or Internal Verbalization based on their responses to the Internal Representations Questionnaire (IRQ)...
May 6, 2024: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Hui Sun, Tongjian Bai, Xiaodong Zhang, Xinxin Fan, Kai Zhang, Jiang Zhang, Qingmao Hu, Jinping Xu, Yanghua Tian, Kai Wang
Although previous studies reported structural changes associated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depressive disorder (MDD), the underlying molecular basis of ECT remains largely unknown. Here, we combined two independent structural MRI datasets of MDD patients receiving ECT and transcriptomic gene expression data from Allen Human Brain Atlas to reveal the molecular basis of ECT for MDD. We performed partial least square regression to explore whether/how gray matter volume (GMV) alterations were associated with gene expression level...
April 26, 2024: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Jianxiang Chen, Jianjun Wang, Ke Duan, Xinbei Li, Zhongxian Pan, Jinhuan Zhang, Xiude Qin, Yuanming Hu, Hanqing Lyu
Early diagnosis of subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) is clinically essential because it is the most reversible subtype of all cognitive impairments. Since structural alterations of hippocampal sub-regions have been well studied in neurodegenerative diseases with pathophysiological cognitive impairments, we were eager to determine whether there is a selective vulnerability of hippocampal sub-fields in patients with svMCI. Our study included 34 svMCI patients and 34 normal controls (NCs), with analysis of T1 images and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores...
April 20, 2024: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Alan N Francis, Sophie Sebille, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Joan A Camprodon
Tobacco cigarette smoking is associated with disrupted brain network dynamics in resting brain networks including the Salience (SN) and Fronto parietal (FPN). Unified multimodal methods [Resting state connectivity analysis, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI), and cortical thickness analysis] were employed to test the hypothesis that the impact of cigarette smoking on the balance among these networks is due to alterations in white matter connectivity, microstructural architecture, functional connectivity and cortical thickness (CT) and that these metrics define fundamental differences between people who smoke and nonsmokers...
April 19, 2024: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Ping Wang, Sheng-Ju Guo, Hui-Jie Li
The study aimed to develop and validate a gamified cognitive flexibility task through brain imaging, and to investigate behavioral and brain activation differences between young and older adults during task performance. Thirty-one young adults (aged 18-35) and 31 older adults (aged 60-80) were included in the present study. All participants underwent fMRI scans while completing the gamified cognitive flexibility task. Results showed that young adults outperformed older adults on the task. The left inferior frontal junction (IFJ), a key region of cognitive flexibility, was significantly activated during the task in both older and young adults...
April 17, 2024: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Jinxin Bu, Nanxiao Ren, Yonglu Wang, Ran Wei, Rui Zhang, Haitao Zhu
Epilepsy is a disorder of brain networks, that is usually combined with cognitive and emotional impairment. However, most of the current research on closed-loop pathways in epilepsy is limited to the neuronal level or has focused only on known closed-loop pathways, and studies on abnormalities in closed-loop pathways in epilepsy at the whole-brain network level are lacking. A total of 26 patients with magnetic resonance imaging-negative pharmacoresistant epilepsy (MRIneg-PRE) and 26 healthy controls (HCs) were included in this study...
April 9, 2024: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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