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Developmental Neurobiology

Polina D Freitas, Anastasia S Yandulskaya, James R Monaghan
In some vertebrates, a grave injury to the central nervous system (CNS) results in functional restoration, rather than in permanent incapacitation. Understanding how these animals mount a regenerative response by activating resident CNS stem cells populations is of critical importance in regenerative biology. Amphibians are of a particular interest in the field, because the regenerative ability is present throughout life in urodele species, but in anuran species it is lost during development. Studying amphibians, who transition from a regenerative to a non-regenerative state, could give insight into the loss of ability to recover from CNS damage in mammals...
February 6, 2019: Developmental Neurobiology
Basavanahalli Nanjundaiah Rohith, Baragur Venkatanarayanasetty Shyamala
Neural identity and wiring specificity are fundamental to brain function. Factors affecting proliferation of the progenitor cells leading to an expansion or regression of specific neuronal clusters, are expected to challenge the process of formation of precise synaptic connections with their partners and their further integration to result in proper functional neural circuitry. We have investigated the role of scalloped, a Hippo pathway gene in Drosophila brain development and have shown that its function is critical to regulate proliferation of Mushroom Body Neuroblasts and to limit the neuronal cluster size to normal in the fly brain...
January 24, 2019: Developmental Neurobiology
Till Scheuer, Luisa Sophie Klein, Christoph Bührer, Stefanie Endesfelder, Thomas Schmitz
In preterm infants, the changes from fetal life to ex-utero conditions often coincide with reduced growth and white matter damage of the cerebellum. The premature increase of arterial oxygen tension caused by preterm birth may dysregulate cerebellar development. In a hyperoxia rat model of white matter damage to mimic a steep increase of oxygen levels by 24h exposure to 80% O2 from postnatal day 6 (P6) to day 7, we analyzed growth factor (GF) synthesis of cerebellar astrocytes. Determination of GF production was performed in astrocytes after MACS isolation from cerebelli after hyperoxia exposure ex vivo, and also in astroglial cultures...
January 23, 2019: Developmental Neurobiology
Scott M Taylor, Emily Giuffre, Patience Moseley, Peter F Hitchcock
During embryonic retinal development, six types of retinal neurons are generated from multipotent progenitors in a strict spatiotemporal pattern. This pattern requires cell cycle exit (i.e. neurogenesis) and differentiation to be precisely regulated in a lineage-specific manner. In zebrafish, the bHLH transcription factor NeuroD governs photoreceptor genesis through Notch signaling but also governs photoreceptor differentiation though distinct mechanisms that are currently unknown. Also unknown are the mechanisms that regulate NeuroD and the spatiotemporal pattern of photoreceptor development...
January 7, 2019: Developmental Neurobiology
Katharina Lust, Elly M Tanaka
Regeneration of lost cells in the central nervous system, especially the brain, is present to varying degrees in different species. In mammals, neuronal cell death often leads to glial cell hypertrophy, restricted proliferation and formation of a gliotic scar, which prevents neuronal regeneration. Conversely, amphibians such as frogs and salamanders and teleost fish possess the astonishing capacity to regenerate lost cells in several regions of their brains. While frogs lose their regenerative abilities after metamorphosis, teleost fish and salamanders are known to possess regenerative competence even throughout adulthood...
January 1, 2019: Developmental Neurobiology
Krystyna Bogus-Nowakowska
This study characterizes for the first time the distribution and co-existence patterns of calbindin (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) in the female and male guinea pig preoptic area (POA) during brain development, using immunohistochemistry and qPCR techniques. The results show that the prenatal development of the guinea pig POA takes place in elevated levels of CB and CR immunoreactivity with the peak at embryonic day 50 (E50) and generally in newborns both these proteins reach an adult-like pattern of immunoreactivity, contrary to PV which appears later, peaks at postnatal day 10 (P10), and stabilizes at P20...
December 12, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Yizhou Ye, Qing Liu, Wenyu Zhang, Surjeet Mastwal, Kuan Hong Wang
Perinatal neurodevelopment involves extensive formation of neural connections and onset of activity-dependent gene expression for synaptic function and plasticity. Exposure to psychostimulants at this stage imposes significant risks for developing cognitive and affective disorders later in life. However, how developmental exposure to psychostimulants may induce long-lasting molecular changes relevant to neural circuit function remains incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the impacts of psychostimulant amphetamine on the activity-dependent induction of synaptic adaptor molecule Arc in the frontal cortex of neonatal mice...
December 12, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Elin Kronander, Christopher Clark, Ralf Schneggenburger
Large excitatory synapses are found at specific points in the neuronal circuits of the auditory brainstem, to enable fast information transfer and the preservation of acoustic timing information. The extracellular cues and signaling mechanisms that lead to the development of these specialized synaptic connections, exemplified by the calyx of Held in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), are still largely unknown. Here, we investigate the role of BMP signaling for the early development of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and MNTB, and for the initial formation of the calyx of Held synaptic connection...
December 12, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Vladimir Mashanov, Olga Zueva
Radial glial cells are crucial in vertebrate neural development and regeneration. It has been recently proposed that this neurogenic cell type might be older than the chordate lineage itself and might have been present in the last common deuterostome ancestor. Here, we summarize the results of recent studies on radial glia in echinoderms, a highly regenerative phylum of marine invertebrates with shared ancestry to chordates. We discuss the involvement of these cells in both homeostatic neurogenesis and post-traumatic neural regeneration, compare the features of radial glia in echinoderms and chordates to each other, and review the molecular mechanisms that control differentiation and plasticity of the echinoderm radial glia...
December 12, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Caterina Montani, Laura Gritti, Stefania Beretta, Chiara Verpelli, Carlo Sala
Since the first observation that described a patient with a mutation in IL1RAPL1 gene associated with intellectual disability in 1999, the function of IL1RAPL1 have been extensively studied by a number of laboratories. In this review, we summarize all the major data describing the synaptic and neuronal functions of IL1RAPL1 and recapitulate most of the genetic deletion identified in humans and associated to intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). All the data clearly demonstrate that IL1RAPL1 is a synaptic adhesion molecule localized at the postsynaptic membrane...
December 11, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Michael S Rafii
Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and early-onset dementia develop almost universally in Down syndrome (DS). AD is defined neuropathologically by the presence of extracellular plaques of aggregated amyloid β protein and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) of aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau protein. The development of radiolabeled positron emission tomography (PET) ligands for amyloid plaques and tau tangles enables the longitudinal assessment of the spatial pattern of their accumulation in relation to symptomatology...
December 8, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Yi-Ping Hsueh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Developmental Neurobiology
Yan-Chu Chen, Yu-Wei Chang, Yi-Shuian Huang
Regulated local translation-whereby specific mRNAs are transported and localized in subcellular domains where they are translated in response to regional signals-allows for remote control of gene expression to concentrate proteins in subcellular compartments. Neurons are highly polarized cells with unique features favoring local control for axonal pathfinding and synaptic plasticity, which are key processes involved in constructing functional circuits in the developing brain. Neurodevelopmental disorders are caused by genetic or environmental factors that disturb the nervous system's development during prenatal and early childhood periods...
January 2019: Developmental Neurobiology
Wenlin Liao
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a monogenic neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Patients with RTT develop symptoms after 6-18 months of age, exhibiting characteristic movement deficits, such as ambulatory difficulties and loss of hand skills, in addition to breathing abnormalities and intellectual disability. Given the striking psychomotor dysfunction, numerous studies have investigated the underlying neurochemical and circuit mechanisms from different aspects...
January 2019: Developmental Neurobiology
Xuting Shen, Hoi Ting Yeung, Kwok-On Lai
Synapses are the basic structural and functional units for information processing and storage in the brain. Their diverse properties and functions ultimately underlie the complexity of human behavior. Proper development and maintenance of synapses are essential for normal functioning of the nervous system. Disruption in synaptogenesis and the consequent alteration in synaptic function have been strongly implicated to cause neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia (SCZ)...
January 2019: Developmental Neurobiology
Yong-Chuan Zhu, Zhi-Qi Xiong
The X-linked gene cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) encodes a serine/threonine kinase abundantly expressed in the brain. Mutations in CDKL5 have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by early-onset epileptic encephalopathy and severe intellectual disability, suggesting that CDKL5 plays important roles in brain development and function. Recent studies using cultured neurons, knockout mice, and human iPSC-derived neurons have demonstrated that CDKL5 regulates axon outgrowth, dendritic morphogenesis, and synapse formation...
January 2019: Developmental Neurobiology
Laura Gerosa, Maura Francolini, Silvia Bassani, Maria Passafaro
PCDH19 is considered one of the most clinically relevant gene in epilepsy, second only to SCN1A. To date about 150 mutations have been identified as causative for PCDH19-female epilepsy (also known as early infantile epileptic encephalopathy-9, EIEE9), which is characterized by early onset epilepsy, intellectual disabilities and behavioral disturbances. Although little is known about the physiological role of PCDH19 and the pathogenic mechanisms that lead to EIEE9, in this review, we will present latest researches focused on these aspects, underlining protein expression, its known functions and the mechanisms by which the protein acts with particular interest in PCDH19 extracellular and intracellular neuronal roles...
November 15, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Cory Chew, Brandon J Kiley, Dale R Sengelaub
Partial depletion of spinal motoneuron populations induces dendritic atrophy in neighboring motoneurons, and treatment with testosterone protects motoneurons from induced dendritic atrophy. We explored a potential mechanism for this induced atrophy and protection by testosterone, examining the microglial response to partial depletion of motoneurons. Motoneurons innervating the vastus medialis muscles of adult male rats were killed by intramuscular injection of cholera toxin-conjugated saporin; some saporin-injected rats were treated with testosterone...
November 14, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Kaci L Pickett, Paxton S Stein, Michael A Vincen-Brown, Jason Q Pilarski
The medullary portion of the embryonic zebra finch hindbrain was isolated and superfused with physiologically relevant artificial cerebral spinal fluid. This in vitro preparation produced uninterrupted rhythmic episodes of neural activity via cranial nerve IX (glossopharyngeal) from embryonic day 4 (E4) through hatching on E14. Cranial nerve IX carries motor activity to the glottis during the inspiratory phase of breathing, and we focused on the role of synaptic inhibition during the embryonic and perinatal maturation of this branchiomotor outflow...
November 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Jillian Mei-Ling Liu, Summer Rose Fair, Behiye Kaya, Jessica Nabile Zuniga, Hasnaa Rashad Mostafa, Michele Joana Alves, Julie A Stephens, Mikayla Jones, M Tahir Aslan, Catherine Czeisler, José Javier Otero
The emergence of systems neuroscience tools requires parallel generation of objective analytical workflows for experimental neuropathology. We developed an objective analytical workflow that we used to determine how specific autonomic neural lineages change during postnatal development. While a wealth of knowledge exists regarding postnatal alterations in respiratory neural function, how these neural circuits change and develop in the weeks following birth remains less clear. In this study, we developed our workflow by combining genetic mouse modeling and quantitative immunofluorescent confocal microscopy and used this to examine the postnatal development of neural circuits derived from the transcription factors NKX2...
November 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
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