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Journal of Clinical Lipidology

Henar Ortega-Senovilla, Manuel de Oya, Carmen Garcés
BACKGROUND: The regulation of adipose tissue metabolism in early childhood obesity is not well understood. Insulin levels are higher and insulin resistance seems to be present in prepubertal children with obesity but, differing from their behavior in adults with obesity, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations are not increased. Retinol-binding protein (RBP)-4 concentration is associated with obesity and insulin resistance conditions, but the means of this relationship remain unclear, and few studies have taken retinol values into account to evaluate it...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Mika Hori, Eiji Miyauchi, Cheol Son, Mariko Harada-Shiba
BACKGROUND: More than 2500 variants of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene have been reported in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). However, the effects of these variants on the pathophysiology of FH have not been fully clarified. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine whether the c.2579C>T (p.A860V) variant of the LDLR gene affects the phenotype of FH. We present 2 index cases harboring biallelic LDLR variants, including the c.2579C>T (p.A860V) variant, which is defined as having uncertain significance in ClinVar...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Thomas Knickelbine, Lori Jia, Susan K White, Ross F Garberich, Sandra J Oberembt, Samantha Wills, Michael D Miedema, Emmanouil S Brilakis
BACKGROUND: Despite patient and provider interest, the use of PCSK9i therapy remains limited in clinical practice. High annual listed prices have created intense payer scrutiny and frequent health plan denials, with national approval rates in the range of 30% to 40%. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to validate the strategies for increasing PCSK9i approval rates and to present a framework for successful PCSK9i prescribing in clinical practice. METHODS: In Sept 2015, a systematic team-based approach was developed and implemented at our institution...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Victoria W Reynolds, Melissa E Chinn, Jacob A Jolly, Tara N Kelley, Megan E Peter, Leena Choi, Samuel Nwosu, Barbara Carranza Leon, Autumn D Zuckerman
BACKGROUND: Access to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors that lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events has proven challenging. Methods to overcome access barriers are needed to fully realize the benefits of these novel agents. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated medication access rates in patients prescribed a PCSK9 inhibitor at a health care system with integrated specialty pharmacy services...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Takeshi Okada, Tohru Ohama, Kazuaki Takafuji, Kotaro Kanno, Hibiki Matsuda, Masami Sairyo, Yinghong Zhu, Ayami Saga, Takuya Kobayashi, Daisaku Masuda, Masahiro Koseki, Makoto Nishida, Yasushi Sakata, Shizuya Yamashita
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that the patients with cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) deficiency (CETP-D) show marked changes in the size and lipid compositions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and that they are not protected from atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, despite increased serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. HDL particles carry a variety of proteins, some of which are known to have antiatherogenic functions. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the protein composition of HDL particles in patients with CETP-D...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
David T W Lui, Alan C H Lee, Desmond Y H Yap, Gavin S W Chan, Kathryn C B Tan
Lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG) is a rare autosomal dominant renal disease with incomplete penetrance, associated with specific protein-modifying mutations in the APOE gene. LPG is associated with poor renal prognosis, in which lipoprotein thrombi are seen in the glomerular capillaries. Dyslipidemia in LPG generally resembles type III hyperlipoproteinemia with elevated serum apolipoprotein E level. Fibrate is the most frequently reported lipid-lowering therapy in LPG as hypertriglyceridemia is common in these individuals...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Michael Dansinger, Paul T Williams, H Robert Superko, Bela F Asztalos, Ernst J Schaefer
BACKGROUND: Changes in body mass index (ΔBMI) have well-established relationships to changes in high-density lipoprotein (ΔHDL)-cholesterol concentrations; however, their relationships to ΔHDL subfractions are less well understood. OBJECTIVE: Assess the associations between ΔHDL and ΔBMI in a very large cohort. METHOD: Age and sex-adjusted Δapo A1 concentrations were measured within 10 HDL subfractions in 14,121 women and 13,969 men using two-dimensional HDL-mapping...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Xuedong Wang, Xinxin Liu, Zulong Xie, Jinwei Tian, Xingtao Huang, Ruoxi Zhang, Shuyuan Chen, Jingbo Hou, Bo Yu
BACKGROUND: The role of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses in atherosclerotic diseases remains an open question. Previous clinical trials have attempted to explore the predictive effect of HDL subspecies on cardiovascular risk. However, no studies have assessed the connections between these subclasses and characteristics of plaque microstructure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of HDL subclasses and coronary plaque stability assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Wenjun Fan, Sephy Philip, Craig Granowitz, Peter P Toth, Nathan D Wong
BACKGROUND: Statin therapy remains the primary treatment for mixed dyslipidemia, even with moderate triglyceride (TG) elevations. OBJECTIVE: We examined the prevalence of elevated TG levels in adults with and without statin use and the associated 10-year predicted atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. METHODS: We studied 9593 US adults aged ≥20 years (219.9 million projected) in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2007 to 2014...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Jose L Flores-Guerrero, Margery A Connelly, Irina Shalaurova, Eke G Gruppen, Lyanne M Kieneker, Robin P F Dullaart, Stephan J L Bakker
BACKGROUND: Early assessment of insulin resistance may be a way of identifying patients at risk as well as monitoring treatments that increase insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of developing type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the ability of the Lipoprotein Insulin Resistance Index (LP-IR) to predict incident T2DM in a large cohort. METHODS: LP-IR scores were calculated using 6 lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Robert Dufour, G Kees Hovingh, John R Guyton, Gisle Langslet, Marie T Baccara-Dinet, Chantal Din-Bell, Garen Manvelian, Michel Farnier
BACKGROUND: Patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) who completed the double-blind ODYSSEY LONG TERM parent trial and subsequently enrolled in the open-label extension (OLE) study, ODYSSEY OLE (NCT01954394), provide a unique opportunity to investigate effects of 2 doses of alirocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor, within the same patient cohort. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to characterize long-term efficacy and safety of 2 alirocumab dosages and utility of a dose titration strategy in patients with HeFH...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Edward A Gill, Michael J Blaha, John R Guyton
Computed tomographic (CT) coronary calcium scoring has been established by large prospective, population-based studies as the single best noninvasive predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk available today. The calcium score correlates highly with the total burden of coronary atherosclerosis demonstrated at autopsy. It adds significantly to traditional risk calculators such as the Framingham Risk Calculator or the Pooled Cohort Equations. The 2018 U.S. Cholesterol Guidelines endorse the use of CT coronary calcium scoring to refine risk estimates in the intermediate range of 7...
January 2019: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
John R Guyton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Braxton D Mitchell, Gurmannat Kalra, Kathleen A Ryan, Man Zhang, Carole Sztalryd, Nanette I Steinle, Simeon I Taylor, Soren Snitker, Joshua P Lewis, Michael Miller, Alan R Shuldiner, Huichun Xu
BACKGROUND: Postprandial lipemia (PPL), defined as a prolonged or elevated rise in triglycerides that accompanies fat feeding, is a significant risk factor for coronary heart disease and associated comorbidities. The impact of PPL on coronary heart disease risk is underscored by the preponderance of each day spent in the postprandial state. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated cross-sectionally the association between usual (ie, noninterventional) physical activity and the 6-hour triglyceride response to a standardized high-fat meal...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Matthew R Peverelle, Arul Baradi, Sarang Paleri, Yun Suk Lee, Rohullah Sultani, Samia R Toukhsati, David L Hare, Edward Janus, Andrew M Wilson
BACKGROUND: Rural patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) experience greater cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than their urban counterparts. Statin therapy is a key component of ASCVD treatment. The extent to which there may be regional differences in long-term adherence to statins is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term rates of adherence to statins in a high-risk ASCVD cohort, and whether regional differences exist between rural and urban patients...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
James M Backes, Brittany L Melton, Janelle F Ruisinger, Crystal D Burkhardt, Patrick M Moriarty
BACKGROUND: Dietary fish oil supplements containing the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are frequently used for cardiovascular benefit. However, several factors may limit the intake of prescribed doses. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to compare the prescribed, patient self-reported, and actual intake of supplemental EPA + DHA doses in a lipid-specialty clinic and identify common barriers and influences to therapy...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Yu Wang, Yuan-Lin Guo, Qiu-Ting Dong, Jian-Jun Li
We report a 14-year-old boy finally diagnosed with sitosterolemia, presenting with severe aortic valve stenosis. Genetic analysis revealed homozygous null mutation c.1336 C > T (p.R446X) in ABCG5 gene. His cardiac ultrasound presented aortic valve stenosis and moderate aortic regurgitation. His whole aorta computed tomography angiogram scan revealed aortic stenosis superior to the aortic valve, followed by ascending aorta dilation, whereas his coronary and peripheral arteries appeared normal. His maximum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels dropped dramatically after diet control, and ezetimibe was prescribed for treatment...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Leo E Akioyamen, Jacques Genest, Anna Chu, Happy Inibhunu, Dennis T Ko, Jack V Tu
BACKGROUND: Current data from individual studies present conflicting evidence about the relationship between risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the association between various CVD risk factors and CVD in FH. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, and PubMed for English-language studies reporting adjusted-associations between cardiovascular, behavioral, or clinical risk factors and CVD with ≥ 100 participants...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Alex Scott, Thomas Michael Zahradnik, Kipling Squier, Charlotte Beck, Liam R Brunham
BACKGROUND: Achilles tendon xanthoma (ATX) results from tendon thickening and subclinical inflammation triggered by hypercholesterolemia, and is associated with more severe coronary artery disease and a higher risk of cardiovascular events. The ability to detect ATX by clinical examination is limited, and diagnostic imaging, for instance, using ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imagine (MRI), may improve the identification of ATX. However, the accuracy of ultrasound (US) imaging or MRI in identifying ATX in people with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) has not been systematically reviewed...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Ilse K Luirink, Jim Determeijer, Barbara A Hutten, Albert Wiegman, Eric Bruckert, Claus P Schmitt, Jaap W Groothoff
BACKGROUND: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a rare genetic disorder that may cause life-threatening cardiovascular disease (CVD) at childhood. Marginal effectiveness of statins in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is the reason why extracorporeal removal of LDL-C by lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is recommended at the earliest possible age. OBJECTIVE: It is, however, unknown to what extent LA effectively reduces the burden of CVD in children with HoFH...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
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