Journals Journal of Forensic and Legal ...

Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Aisling R Geoghegan, William Rm Weiler, Frances Yeung, Emma J Cory
Peer review of medical opinions provided in cases of suspected child physical abuse is generally considered to be best practice for pediatricians engaged in this field. However, there are no published standardized guidelines on how pediatricians should undertake physical abuse peer review including case selection and process. Due to the high-stakes nature in the field of child abuse pediatrics, rigorous quality assurance practices and oversight mechanisms are essential to safeguard children, families, health care providers, and intersecting systems...
May 21, 2024: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Shutaro Nagano, Kana Unuma, Yohsuke Makino, Hiroki Mori, Koichi Uemura
Liposuction is a surgical procedure performed worldwide. Although many fatal complications of liposuction have been reported, to our knowledge, no cases of fatal liposuction complications specifically related to the face region have been reported. Here, we present a case of a woman in her 30s who developed a cervical hematoma and upper airway obstruction following facial liposuction. We present this unique case to highlight the rare occurrence of fatal complications specific to facial liposuction. The patient underwent liposuction during surgery at a cosmetic surgical clinic and awoke from anesthesia after the procedure...
May 16, 2024: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Maria Nittis, Richard Bassed
Much has been written about bite mark comparisons and bite mark analysis. It has largely been written for, and remained within the domain of, the forensic odontologist despite the limited number of such specialists and the even smaller subset who have expertise in this area. For those health professionals who work in the field of clinical forensic medicine, most will not have access to a forensic odontologist. Courts can be reticent about the costs involved in obtaining another expert opinion. For health professionals, who will likely encounter more bite marks in their career than forensic odontologists, the difficulty is knowing what can legitimately be opined about such injuries...
May 9, 2024: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Paleenan Srithawee, Duangnate Pipatsatitpong, Narumol Parasompong, Nutcha Poolkasem, Palita Watthanaworasakul, Pairoa Praihirunkit
Analyzing skeletal remains is crucial for identifying individuals, and forensic anthropologists use this analysis to determine biological characteristics, particularly sex, aiding criminal investigations. Among thoracic vertebrae, the twelfth thoracic vertebra (T12) is highly sexually dimorphic in various populations. This study aims to establish a discriminant function equation (DFE) for sex determination based on T12 in the Central Thai population. A total of 15 parameters of T12 were examined in 69 bone samples (43 males and 26 females)...
April 30, 2024: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Ugur Demir, Yasin Etli, Mahmut Asirdizer
BACKGROUND: Fractures are an important symptom of physical violence that will negatively affect the woman's quality of life in the coming years. However, there is limited information in the literature about fractures in women exposed to domestic violence (DV). The aim of this study was to compare fracture development rates and age distributions in women exposed to DV and intimate partner violence (IPV), a component of DV, and women exposed to other physical violence (OV), to determine the incidence of DV cases with and without fractures, and to determine fracture locations in DV cases and to identify diagnostic lesions accompanying fractures...
April 29, 2024: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Corey Commins, Margot Bolster, Linda Mulligan
UNLABELLED: The pattern of neck injuries sustained in fatal cases of external compression to the neck is recorded during Post Mortem Examinations (PME), to assist in the interpretation of the circumstances that led to death. In this study, the PMEs performed for 298 cases of hanging and strangulation occurring between 2016 and 2020 in Ireland were retrospectively reviewed for the purpose of recording and collating the external and internal neck injuries observed during each PME, as well as the toxicology results for each decedent...
April 28, 2024: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Norell Rosado, James McKenzie, Elizabeth Charleston, Rebecca E Ford-Paz
Since 2019, the number of children apprehended by the United States Custom and Border Patrol at the southern border continues to increase. Many of these children are fleeing violence and extreme poverty and qualify for several forms of humanitarian relief. Trained pediatric health professionals have an essential role to play in documenting evidence to support their petitions. The goal of a forensic medical and psychological evaluation is to establish the facts related to the reported incident(s), provide forensic evidence to support these claims, and provide an expert opinion on the degree to which a finding correlates with the client's reports through a written affidavit...
April 18, 2024: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
M A Kislov, M Chauhan, A N Prikhodko, R V Bespamyatnov, K V Natarova
Penetrating head injury to accomplish suicide by a non-ammunition-related projectile discharged from a nail-gun is a very rare entity. The authors describe even much rarer, and the first reported case of a suicide penetrating head injury by a construction nail discharged from a blank cartridge of a pistol. The absence of beveling and muzzle impression, the non-ejection of the discharged cartridge, and the exit of just the tip of the nail from the other side of wound were the atypical features in this firearm fatality sustained at a contact-range...
April 10, 2024: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
D Kane, N Gill, J Walshe, C Fallon, K Flood, M Eogan
BACKGROUND: Sexual assault (SA) poses a threat to all areas of contemporary society. Although older individuals represent a vulnerable demographic, a considerable gap exists in the literature regarding the context in which older individuals experience SA. This study aims to provide a comprehensive description of older individuals' attendances at the Sexual Assault Treatment Unit (SATU) network in the Republic of Ireland. METHODS: A 7-year national cross-sectional study was performed to analyse the attendances of older people (≥65 years old) to the SATU network, and to compare them with younger attendances (<65 years old), with a more in-depth subset analysis of Dublin SATU attendances...
April 7, 2024: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
G M Bruch, K Engel, J Schropp, S Grabherr
OBJECTIVE: A comparison between Cinematic Rendering Technique (CRT) and Volume Rendering Technique (VRT) in cases with postmortem CT-angiography (PMCTA) was carried out. METHODS: For different injuries seen in PMCTA, a VRT and a CRT image of exactly the same pathological section was generated. Two questionnaires were created, one with CRT and one with VRT reconstructions, with the same questions per 3D-image. The questionnaires were sent to forensic pathologists, lawyers and police officers...
April 4, 2024: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
M Moniz, M Paulino, O Moura, M R Simões
Professionals in the justice system are particularly susceptible to occupational stress and burnout due to factors intrinsic to their profession. The Forensic Professional's Stress Inventory (FPSI) was designed to assess stress and psychological distress specifically in justice system professionals. A preliminary 41-item scale was administered to a sample of 690 forensic professionals (i.e., judges, lawyers, and attorneys). Exploratory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted to find the most interpretable and parsimonious factor solution for FPSI...
March 28, 2024: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Danielle Zaychik
In the United States, the governance of unnatural death certification varies greatly by state. Although cross-sectional research has linked mortality data quality with variation in medicolegal death investigation systems across states-especially with regards to drug-related deaths-this relationship has not be sufficiently tested using longitudinal data. This research assesses the impact of system governance reform on the quality of drug mortality data by assessing the impact of transitioning from a coroner system to a medical examiner system on data quality...
March 24, 2024: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Mustan Barış Sivri, Shahram Taheri, Rukiye Gözde Kırzıoğlu Ercan, Ünsun Yağcı, Zahra Golrizkhatami
The aim of this study is to compare a technique using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) with the Demirjian's method for chronological age estimation of living individuals based on tooth age from panoramic radiographs. This research used 5898 panoramic X-ray images collected for diagnostic from pediatric patients aged 4-17 who sought treatment at Antalya Oral and Dental Health Hospital between 2015 and 2020. The Demirjian's method's grading was executed by researchers who possessed appropriate training and experience...
March 21, 2024: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Fei Guo, Ze Liu, Guannan Long, Biao Zhang, Dahua Liu, Shaobo Yu
Target and flanking region (FR) variation at 94 identity-informative SNPs (iSNPs) are investigated in 635 Northern Han Chinese using the ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit on the MiSeq FGx Forensic Genomics System. The dataset presents the following performance characteristics (average values): ≥60% bases with a quality score of 20 or higher (%≥ Q20); >700 × of depth of coverage (DoC) from both Sample Details Reports and Flanking Region Reports; >80% of effective reads; ≥60% of allele coverage ratio (ACR); and ≥70% of inter-locus balance, while some stable low-performance characteristics are also observed: low DoC at rs1736442, rs1031825, rs7041158, rs338882, rs2920816, rs1493232, rs719366, and rs2342747; high noise at rs891700; and imbalanced ACR at rs6955448 and rs338882...
March 21, 2024: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Vanita R Parekh, Janine McMinn, Anna Brkic, Ash Byron, Katelyn Pomroy, Mick Woodburn
BACKGROUND: There may be significant physical and psychological consequences and impacts for males who experience sexual assault as adults, however, published literature in this context is sparse, specifically for the investigative outcomes in the criminal legal process. METHOD: This clinical audit tracked 138 adult males who presented for forensic and medical sexual assault care from initial presentation to ACT Police investigation and court outcome from 2004 to 2022...
March 19, 2024: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Saurabh Shukla, Sakshum Khanna, Tahir Ul Gani Mir, Jyoti Dalal, Deeksha Sankhyan, Kushagra Khanna
This study conducts a comprehensive analysis of forensic toxicology research trends, publication patterns, author's contributions, and collaboration. Utilizing the Scopus database, we scrutinized 3259 articles across 348 journals spanning from 1975 to 2023. Analysis employed diverse software tools such as VOSviewer, RStudio, MS Excel, and MS Access to dissect various publication aspects. We observed a notable surge in publications post-2007, indicating heightened research interest. Leading contributors included the United States, Germany, and Italy, with Logan B...
March 19, 2024: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
H Stigter, T Krap, W L J M Duijst
Estimation of the post-mortem interval (PMI) is mainly based on the state of body cooling, post-mortem lividity (livor mortis) and post-mortem muscle stiffness (rigor mortis). However, the time span of development of these post-mortem phenomena are influenced by a variety of factors concerning the body of the deceased and the environment in which the body is found. Subsequently, this leads to a substantial spread in upper and lower limits of PMI based on determination of the state of these phenomena. Moreover, interpretation of post-mortem phenomena like lividity, rigor and interpretation of the correction factor for Henssge's nomogram is subjective...
March 14, 2024: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
John K Brooks, Alexander J Trummer
The custom of oral tattooing is mainly performed in Ethiopia and Eritrea, and usually results in blue pigmentation of the maxillary gingiva in dentate individuals. However, its usefulness has not been explored in the forensic literature. The aim of this article is to provide a review of this custom and include an unusual case study involving persistent gingival pigmentation. Herein, this report describes a 43-year-old woman from Eritrea who presented with slight bluish hue of the edentulous maxillary ridge associated with cultural tattooing...
March 14, 2024: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Vittorio Bolcato, Chiara Franzetti, Giovanni Fassina, Giuseppe Basile, Rosa Maria Martinez, Livio Pietro Tronconi
The information and subsequent expression of will, so-called informed consent, have become the essential element of health right, understood as the right to autonomous choice in health, based on the fiduciary relationship between physician and patient. This gradually leads European Countries to adopt special legislations and to issue frequent judgments on the subject. However, new challenges in daily clinical practice call for further study of legal solutions. The authors analyse and compare the regulations on informed consent in health care of Italy, France, the United Kingdom, the Nordic Countries, Germany, and Spain...
March 14, 2024: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Mio Takayama, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Aya Matsusue, Brian Waters, Shin-Ichi Kubo
A male in his late 30s was found dead in his home. He was diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) about six years prior. The HIV infection was well controlled before his death. He was 166 cm in height and 75 kg in weight. Aside from discoloration of the skin on the right lower patellar, there were no obvious injuries. His brain weighed 1456 g. A cut surface of the brain revealed left thalamic hemorrhage. Histologically, infiltration of phagocytic cells was observed in the bleeding site. Thalamic hemorrhage was considered to be his cause of death in this case...
March 11, 2024: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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