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Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine

Roger W Byard
Strongyloidiasis is an infectious disease affecting approximately 30-100 million people globally. The main human pathogen is Strongyloides stercoralis which may cause a brief period of acute symptoms and signs after the initial infection, and then lapse into a chronic asymptomatic carrier state for decades due to the nematode's unique ability to autoinfect hosts. Immunosuppression from steroid therapy, T-lymphocytic viral (HTLV-1) infections, or a variety of underlying medical conditions may then result in dissemination and the highly lethal and infectious hyperinfection syndrome...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Hisako Saitoh, Toru Moriya, Mirei Takeyama, Kazuyuki Yusa, Ayaka Sakuma, Fumiko Chiba, Suguru Torimitsu, Namiko Ishii, Koichi Sakurada, Mitsuyoshi Iino, Hirotaro Iwase, Fuyuki Tokanai
Atmospheric radiocarbon (14 C) levels increased from 1955 to 1963 due to atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, and then decreased. As 14 C accumulates in human tooth enamel while the enamel is being formed, 14 C can be used to estimate the birth year of unidentified bodies. Measurement results of 14 C content in tooth enamel using accelerator mass spectrometry vary depending on the enamel's sample site. To address this problem, a method for equalizing samples using a pulverizer was considered in this study. Regarding the tube and cone used as the pulverizer, (1) a polycarbonate tube and stainless steel cone, (2) a stainless steel tube and cone, and (3) a tungsten carbide tube and cone, were compared...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Abilash Srinivasa Murthy, Siddhartha Das, Harichandrakumar Kottyen Thazhath, Vinod Ashok Chaudhari, Prashant Shankarrao Adole
Determination of time since death is one of the important objectives of a medicolegal autopsy. The level of electrolytes present in the body fluids acts as a helpful indicator in this regard. Nowadays cold chambers are present in most of the autopsy centres where the body is stored for a variable period of time at a temperature which is different from the environmental temperature. This study was undertaken to know the effect of the cold chamber temperature on the changes in sodium, potassium and chloride levels of vitreous humor and plasma and also to estimate the time since death from the levels of these electrolytes...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Gretel González-Colmenares, César Sanabria Medina, Martha Patricia Rojas-Sánchez, Katherine León, Anderson Malpud
The aim is to study the sexual dimorphism of the base of the skull in radiographs of a bone collection of contemporary Colombian adults, with the intention of formulating discriminant functions capable of classifying sex in this population. The sample consisted of 115 skull base radiographs, (44 females and 71 males), which originated from the Colombian Human Skeletals Collection. Radiographs with good contrast were selected. Images of skulls with asymmetries and fractures were excluded. Five measures: Maximum cranial base length, Foramen magnum length, Maximum cranial breadth, Bizygomatic breadth, Foramen magnum breadth length, were preformed using ImageJ5 software ® ; an intra-observer error was determined using paired t-test...
January 20, 2019: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
César Lares Dos Santos, Rosa Henriques de Gouveia, Duarte Nuno Vieira
The authors report the case of the unexpected death of a fifty-year-old female found by her partner in the bathroom floor. External examination revealed some contusions dispersed by different corporal areas and an unusually placed green discoloration of the anterior cervical region. After neck dissection and opening the esophagus, a three and a half centimeter wooden toothpick fragment was found at the upper region, covered by a purulent substance associated with puncture wounds. Histopathological and microbiological studies revealed "acute bilateral cervical cellulitis" and Klebsiella Oxytoca, respectively...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Luca Anzillotti, Francesca Marezza, Luca Calò, Nicola Cucurachi, Licia Veronesi, Rossana Cecchi
The aim of this study was to collect all available data from 2009 to 2016 focusing on the epidemiological, clinical and pharmacological issues only related to acute intoxication fatalities in the Unit of Legal Medicine of the Department of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Parma. All death certificates and autopsy reports were retrieved from the archives and evaluated to identify cases in which only acute intoxication from xenobiotics could be defined as the cause of death, however statistical and descriptive analyses were applied to all the data...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Pavel Timonov, Stoyan Novakov, Stefan Sivkov, Antoaneta Fasova, Ivan Novakov, Svetlozar Spasov
We aimed to assess the accuracy and advantages of postmortem CT examination and three-dimensional (3D) view of the cadaver with the Sectra Visualization Table compared to the full conventional autopsy of a forensic suicidal case. Our survey concerned unusual case of self-strangulation where a body was found in the stage of mummification with a nylon cable tie around the neck and another around the feet. The case was initially determined as a homicide, but later reconsidered a suicide based on objective scene investigation, virtual autopsy and the positions of knots...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Kieran M Kennedy
Much of the existing published research in Forensic and Legal Medicine is based upon the quantitative approach, which is derived from the positivist paradigm and generally employs pre-determined data collection tools to gather data for statistical analysis with a view to testing hypotheses. It must always be remembered that clinicians are concerned not only with diagnosing and treating medical problems in a vacuum, but rather they must empathise with patients and provide care in a holistic fashion. Too narrow a focus on the quantitative approach to research will significantly limit the evidence base upon which the Discipline of Forensic and Legal Medicine can develop...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Ibrahim AlShahrani, Syed M Yassin, Rafi Ahmed Togoo, Shreyas Tikare, Mohasin Abdul Khader, Zuhair M Alkahtani
The aim of this study was to verify Cameriere's regression formula to predict chronologic age in Saudi Population and if proven to be inaccurate, develop a new algorithm specific for Saudi children. A total of 788 Orthopantamographs(495 boys and 293 girls) were analyzed. The tooth measurement parameters were: number of teeth with closed apex (N0 ), open apex width (a), crown length (l), A/L ratio for each tooth (x1 to x7 ) and summation of all open apex width (s). The radiographic measurements were substituted in the formula: Age = 8...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
So-Yeon Lee, Eun-Ju Ha, Hye-Won Cho, Hye-Rim Kim, Dongsup Lee, Yong-Bin Eom
Drowning is the most common cause of unnatural death worldwide. There is no single biomarker to diagnose drowning, so the diagnosis of drowning is one of the most difficult tasks in forensic medicine. Especially, distinguishing a victim of drowning from a body disposed of in water following death remains a problem. The objective of this study was to identify specific biomarkers of drowning compared with other causes of death such as hypoxia and postmortem submersion. The present study investigated the intrapulmonary expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), aquaporin-5 (AQP5), surfactant protein-A (SP-A), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) as markers of drowning...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Brad Randall, Paul Thompson, Ann Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths (SUID) is defined as a combination of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), Unknown Cause of Death (UCD) and Accidental Suffocation and Strangulation in Bed (ASSB). Overall rates from 2000 to 2015 have been trending down. Racial differences in occurrence are seen. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Using the CDC Wonder Database, the total rates of SUID and its subsets were examined. RESULTS: Non-Caucasian infant death rates for the total SUID group, and the SIDS component, are trending downward significantly faster than for Caucasians...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Damian Jacob Sendler
INTRODUCTION: People with paraphilias have sexual interests that are unusual, including inanimate objects, places, or individuals (children, corpses). This study explores zoophiles (=PSA, people who have sex with animals) recruited from the Internet. METHOD: We administered a survey of own design via the Internet on popular discussion forums targeting the communities of PSA. All responses were quantified as the percentage of agreeing with one of the possible answer choices, plus the interpretation of qualitative data that may have been supplied in additional space...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
James Bewes, Andrew Low, Antony Morphett, F Donald Pate, Maciej Henneberg
A deep learning artificial neural network was adapted to the task of sex determination of skeletal remains. The neural network was trained on images of 900 skulls virtually reconstructed from hospital CT scans. When tested on previously unseen images of skulls, the artificial neural network showed 95% accuracy at sex determination. Artificial intelligence methods require no significant expertise to implement once trained, are rapid to use, and have the potential to eliminate human bias from sex estimation of skeletal remains...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Milenko D Bogdanović, Gorica D Marić, Tatjana D Pekmezović, Đorđe M Alempijević
One of the most frequently used indicators for the quality of mortality statistics is the use of R-codes as the cause of death (COD) in death certificates. The aim of this study was to analyse the coding of ill-defined and unknown causes of death in the Republic of Serbia (RS). The data for this descriptive study, covering a ten-year period (2006-2015), were obtained from the National Mortality Register. Since population and economic features differ widely between regions in RS, we compared the Belgrade region (BR) with other regions (Or)...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Luigi Cipolloni, Benedetta Baldari, Livia Besi, Matteo Scopetti, Mariantonia Di Sanzo, Simona Ursu, Vittorio Fineschi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2019: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Alex Till, Piyal Sen, Lucia Chaplin, Edward Grange, Tim Exworthy, Andrew Forrester
Foreign national prisoners include people who are subject to criminal proceedings and have been deprived of their liberty in a state in which they are neither a national nor a resident. In the United Kingdom, they constitute approximately 10,000 individuals and represent around 12% of the total prison population. Significant health disparity exists within the general prison population compared to society at large and foreign national prisoners suffer even higher rates of both physical and mental health disorders...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Feng Li, Xuesong Lu
In China, every year many infants (<1 year) are abandoned, but abandonment related deaths are rarely reported. In this study, the police records of infant deaths in Pudong, Shanghai have been explored, then, the police data were compared with the corresponding Centre for Disease Control ("CDC") data. During the period 2004-2017, a total of 297 infant deaths were recorded by the police, including 87 sudden natural deaths (occurred outside hospitals) and 210 unnatural deaths. The CDC data were retrieved from a Chinese article...
December 28, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Karine Lambert, Rexson Tse, Camilla Tettamanti, Maria Pia Scarpelli, Guillaume Rousseau, Alessandro Bonsignore, Cristian Palmiere
Allergic, IgE-mediated inflammation is thought to play a role in atherogenesis and atherosclerotic disease progression. In this study, total IgE and mast cell tryptase were measured in a series of forensic autopsy cases including non-allergic cardiac deaths (14 cases with minimal or no coronary atherosclerosis, 14 cases with significant coronary artery atherosclerosis without acute coronary thrombosis, and 14 cases with significant coronary artery atherosclerosis and acute coronary thrombosis or myocardial infarction) and non-allergic non-cardiac deaths (21 cases with death due to hanging and 21 cases with death due to intracranial gunshot wounds), in order to correlate laboratory results with morphological findings and compare them to conclusions reported in the clinical setting...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Bahadur Singh, Kewal Krishan, Kawaljit Kaur, Tanuj Kanchan
Establishing the identity of the deceased is the most important task for forensic anthropologists in forensic case-work involving unidentified human remains. In such cases, forensic anthropologists examine the remains to derive the biological profile of the deceased i.e. estimation of age, sex, stature, and ethnicity to narrow down the search of the missing. Dismembered remains are recovered in mass disasters such as train mishaps, airplane crashes, earthquakes, and terrorists' attacks or in homicidal cases where perpetrator intentionally mutilates the dead body to conceal the identity of the victim...
December 23, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
H T Gelderman, C A Kruiver, R J Oostra, M P Zeegers, W L J M Duijst
Postmortem interval (PMI) estimations which are used as evidence in Dutch court are sometimes solely based on the experience of the forensic physician without a scientific background. The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of agreement between forensic physicians and their PMI estimations. Fifteen cases were selected from 1534 external postmortem investigations. Photographs of the human remains were presented to 89 forensic physicians in the Netherlands with the instruction to estimate the PMI based on their experience, knowing the remains were found indoors and in which season...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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