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Mucosal Immunology

Ramkumar Mathur, Mahabub Maraj Alam, Xiao-Feng Zhao, Yuan Liao, Jeffrey Shen, Shannon Morgan, Tingting Huang, HwaJeong Lee, Edward Lee, Yunfei Huang, Xinjun Zhu
Intestinal fibrosis is an excessive proliferation of myofibroblasts and deposition of collagen, a condition frequently seen in Crohn's disease (CD). The mechanism underlying myofibroblast hyper-proliferation in CD needs to be better understood. In this report, we found that mTOR inhibitor rapamycin or mTOR deletion in CX3Cr1+ mononuclear phagocytes inhibits expression of interleukin (IL)-23, accompanied by reduced intestinal production of IL-22 and ameliorated fibrosis in the TNBS-induced fibrosis mouse model...
February 14, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Joshua S Woodworth, Dennis Christensen, Joseph P Cassidy, Else Marie Agger, Rasmus Mortensen, Peter Andersen
T cell-mediated protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is dependent upon the ability to localize within the site of pulmonary infection and directly interact with infected cells. In turn, vaccine strategies to improve rapid T cell targeting of Mtb-infected cells after pulmonary exposure are being actively pursued. Given parenterally, the subunit vaccine H56:CAF01 elicits polyfunctional CD4 T cells that localize to the lung parenchyma and confer durable protection. Here, we find that airway mucosal boosting of parenteral H56:CAF01 immunization greatly enhances the population of long-lived lung-resident T cells (Trm) and increases early vaccine T cell responses to pulmonary Mtb challenge in multiple mouse models...
February 13, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Paola Vacca, Silvia Pesce, Marco Greppi, Ezio Fulcheri, Enrico Munari, Daniel Olive, Maria Cristina Mingari, Alessandro Moretta, Lorenzo Moretta, Emanuela Marcenaro
Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) have been detected in both murine and human decidual tissues where they are thought to play a relevant role in the induction and maintenance of pregnancy. However, limited information exists on the molecular mechanisms that regulate these cells, including immune checkpoints. Here, we show that ILC3 express the inhibitory checkpoints programmed cell death (PD-1) and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain containing protein 3 (TIM-3) during the first trimester of pregnancy and that these receptors could regulate production of cytokines, including IL-22, IL-8, and TNF-α, induced by IL-23...
February 12, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Miao Qiu, Keqing Huang, Yanzhuo Liu, Yuqing Yang, Honglin Tang, Xiaoxiao Liu, Chenlong Wang, Honglei Chen, Yu Xiong, Jing Zhang, Jing Yang
High-fat diet (HFD) promotes lung pre-metastatic niche formation and metastasis. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify the underlying mechanisms and develop strategies to overcome them. Here we demonstrate that glycyrrhizic acid (GA) prevents HFD-enhanced pre-metastatic niche formation and metastasis through gut microbiota. GA reduced HFD-enhanced myeloid-derived suppressor cell recruitment, pro-metastatic protein S100A8/A9 expression and metastasis burden of 4T1 breast cancer and B16F10 melanoma, accompanied by gut microbiota alteration and colonic macrophage polarization far away the M1-like phenotype...
February 12, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Anny-Claude Luissint, Holly C Williams, Wooki Kim, Sven Flemming, Veronica Azcutia, Roland S Hilgarth, Monique N O' Leary, Timothy L Denning, Asma Nusrat, Charles A Parkos
Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on leukocytes, endothelia, and epithelia that regulates biological processes including barrier function and immune responses. While JAM-A has been reported to facilitate tissue infiltration of leukocytes under inflammatory conditions, the contributions of leukocyte-expressed JAM-A in vivo remain unresolved. We investigated the role of leukocyte-expressed JAM-A in acute peritonitis induced by zymosan, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or TNFα using mice with selective loss of JAM-A in myelomonocytic cells (LysM-Cre;Jam-afl/fl )...
February 11, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Annika Wyss, Tina Raselli, Nathan Perkins, Florian Ruiz, Gérard Schmelczer, Glynis Klinke, Anja Moncsek, René Roth, Marianne R Spalinger, Larissa Hering, Kirstin Atrott, Silvia Lang, Isabelle Frey-Wagner, Joachim C Mertens, Michael Scharl, Andreas W Sailer, Oliver Pabst, Martin Hersberger, Caroline Pot, Gerhard Rogler, Benjamin Misselwitz
The gene encoding for Epstein-Barr virus-induced G-protein-coupled receptor 2 (EBI2) is a risk gene for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Together with its oxysterol ligand 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol, EBI2 mediates migration and differentiation of immune cells. However, the role of EBI2 in the colonic immune system remains insufficiently studied. We found increased mRNA expression of EBI2 and oxysterol-synthesizing enzymes (CH25H, CYP7B1) in the inflamed colon of patients with ulcerative colitis and mice with acute or chronic dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis...
February 11, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Jin Imai, Sho Kitamoto, Kohei Sugihara, Hiroko Nagao-Kitamoto, Atsushi Hayashi, Tina L Morhardt, Peter Kuffa, Peter D R Higgins, Nicolas Barnich, Nobuhiko Kamada
Intestinal fibrosis is a severe complication in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Unfortunately, the trigger leading to the development of intestinal fibrosis in the context of CD remains elusive. Here, we show that colonization by a CD-associated pathobiont adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) promotes the development of intestinal fibrosis. Exogenously inoculated AIEC strain LF82 and commensal E. coli HS were gradually eradicated from the intestine in healthy mice. In Salmonella- or dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis models, AIEC exploited inflammation and stably colonize the gut...
February 11, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Piu Saha, Beng San Yeoh, Xia Xiao, Rachel M Golonka, Vishal Singh, Yanming Wang, Matam Vijay-Kumar
Peptidyl arginine deiminase-4 (PAD4) is indispensable for generation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which can provide antimicrobial effects during host innate immune response; however, the role of PAD4 against gastrointestinal infection is largely unknown. Herein, we challenged PAD4-deficient (Pad4-/- ) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates with Citrobacter rodentium (CR), and investigated bacteria clearance and gut pathology. Luminal colonization of CR in Pad4-/- mice peaked between 11-14 days post-infection, whereas WT mice suppressed the infection by 14 days...
February 1, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Farah Rahmatpanah, Sudhanshu Agrawal, Natasha Jaiswal, Hannah M Nguyen, Michael McClelland, Anshu Agrawal
The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Hannah Nguyen, which was incorrectly given as Hannah Ngyuen. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
January 31, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Petra Bacher, Alexander Scheffold
The original version of this article contained an error in the published figures, where they appeared in black and white. These have now been corrected to display in colour.
January 31, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Fang Bian, Yangyan Xiao, Flavia L Barbosa, Rodrigo G de Souza, Humberto Hernandez, Zhiyuan Yu, Stephen C Pflugfelder, Cintia S de Paiva
Aging is a significant risk factor for dry eye. Here we used a murine aging model to investigate the effects of aging on antigen presenting cells (APCs) and generation of pathogenic T helper (Th)-1 cells. Our results showed that APCs from aged mice accumulate at the conjunctiva, have higher levels of co-activation marker CD86 and lower aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. Using topical ovalbumin peptide as a surrogate antigen, we observed an increased number of antigen-loaded APCs in the draining cervical lymph nodes in the aged group and loss of tight junction protein occludin in the conjunctiva...
January 29, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Marie Friedrich, Lorenz Gerbeth, Marco Gerling, Rita Rosenthal, Katja Steiger, Carl Weidinger, Jacqueline Keye, Hao Wu, Franziska Schmidt, Wilko Weichert, Britta Siegmund, Rainer Glauben
Intact epithelial barrier function is pivotal for maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Current therapeutic developments aim at restoring the epithelial barrier in inflammatory bowel disease. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are known to modulate immune responses and to ameliorate experimental colitis. However, their direct impact on epithelial barrier function and intestinal wound healing is unknown. In human and murine colonic epithelial cell lines, the presence of the HDAC inhibitors Givinostat and Vorinostat not only improved transepithelial electrical resistance under inflammatory conditions but also attenuated the passage of macromolecules across the epithelial monolayer...
January 23, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Derek J Royer, Joshua F Hendrix, Chelsea M Larabee, Alaina M Reagan, Virginie H Sjoelund, Danielle M Robertson, Daniel J J Carr
The cornea is essential for vision yet highly sensitive to immune-mediated damage following infection. Generating vaccines that provide sterile immunity against ocular surface pathogens without evoking vision loss is therefore clinically challenging. Here, we tested a prophylactic live-attenuated vaccine against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a widespread human pathogen that can cause corneal blindness. Parenteral vaccination of mice resulted in sterile immunity to subsequent HSV-1 challenge in the cornea and suppressed productive infection of the nervous system...
January 22, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Laurence Chapuy, Marwa Bsat, Siranush Sarkizova, Manuel Rubio, Amélie Therrien, Evelyne Wassef, Mickael Bouin, Katarzina Orlicka, Audrey Weber, Nir Hacohen, Alexandra-Chloé Villani, Marika Sarfati
Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with dysregulated immune responses in the intestinal tissue. Four molecularly identified macrophage subsets control immune homeostasis in healthy gut. However, the specific roles and transcriptomic profiles of the phenotypically heterogeneous CD14+ macrophage-like population in inflamed gut remain to be investigated in Crohn's disease (CD). Here we identified two phenotypically, morphologically and functionally distinct colonic HLADR+ SIRPα+ CD14+ subpopulations that were further characterized using single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNAseq) in CD...
January 22, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Tao Liu, Nora A Barrett, Yoshihide Kanaoka, Kathleen Buchheit, Tanya M Laidlaw, Denise Garofalo, Juying Lai, Howard R Katz, Chunli Feng, Joshua A Boyce
Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) facilitate eosinophilic mucosal type 2 immunopathology, especially in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), by incompletely understood mechanisms. We now demonstrate that platelets, activated through the type 2 cysLT receptor (CysLT2 R), cause IL-33-dependent immunopathology through a rapidly inducible mechanism requiring the actions of high mobility box 1 (HMGB1) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Leukotriene C4 (LTC4 ) induces surface HMGB1 expression by mouse platelets in a CysLT2 R-dependent manner...
January 21, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Irina Caminschi, Mireille H Lahoud, Angela Pizzolla, Linda M Wakim
Tissue-resident memory T cells (Trm) in the lung provide a frontline defence against respiratory pathogens. Vaccination models that lodge CD8+ Trm populations in the lung have been developed, all of which incorporate the local delivery of antigen plus adjuvant into the airways; a necessary approach as local cognate antigen recognition is required for optimal lung Trm development. Although pulmonary delivery of antigen is important for lung Trm development, the impact the co-administered adjuvant has on Trm differentiation is unclear...
January 21, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
K Golebski, W Hoepel, D van Egmond, E J de Groot, G D Amatngalim, J M Beekman, W J Fokkens, C M van Drunen, J den Dunnen
The nasal cavity displays immune tolerance to commensal bacteria under homeostatic conditions, which is rapidly converted to a pro-inflammatory response upon infection. Yet, the factors that control this conversion are still largely unknown. Here, we provide evidence that Fc gamma receptor III (FcγRIII) stimulation breaks immune tolerance to bacteria in the human nasal cavity through activation of nasal epithelial cells, which are the first line of defense against invading microbes. While under steady-state conditions human nasal epithelial cells were completely non-responsive to Gram-negative bacteria P...
January 21, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Malcolm R Starkey, Andrew Nj McKenzie, Gabrielle T Belz, Philip M Hansbro
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a recently described subset of innate lymphocytes with important immune and homeostatic functions at multiple tissue sites, especially the lung. These cells expand locally after birth and during postnatal lung maturation and are present in the lung and other peripheral organs. They are modified by a variety of processes and mediate inflammatory responses to respiratory pathogens, inhaled allergens and noxious particles. Here, we review the emerging roles of ILC2s in pulmonary homeostasis and discuss recent and surprising advances in our understanding of how hormones, age, neurotransmitters, environmental challenges, and infection influence ILC2s...
January 21, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Inga Bruesch, Pascal Meier, Marius Vital, Dietmar H Pieper, Kristin Selke, Sebastian Böhlen, Marijana Basic, Martin Meier, Silke Glage, Joachim Hundrieser, Dirk Wedekind, Manuela Buettner, André Bleich
Disease activity in Interleukin-10-deficient (Il10-/- ) mice, a model for IBD, depends on genetic background and microbiome composition. B6.129P2/JZtm-Il10tm1Cgn (B6-Il10-/- ) mice are partially resistant to colitis, whereas mice carrying the Cdcs1C3Bir haplotype on chromosome 3, B6.Cg-Il10tm1Cgn MMU3(D3Mit11-D3Mit348)/JZtm (BC-R3-Il10-/- ), are susceptible. This study was performed to clarify Cdcs1 and candidate gene effects on the colitogenic potential of hematopoietic cells using bone marrow (BM) and T-cell transfer models...
January 18, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
A Goethel, W Turpin, S Rouquier, G Zanello, S J Robertson, C J Streutker, D J Philpott, K Croitoru
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) etiology involves genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, and the gut microbiome. Antibiotic exposure is associated with IBD, both in early life and adulthood. Here, we investigated whether Nod2-deficiency influenced response of the gut microbiota to antibiotics and subsequent colitis susceptibility. Wild-type and Nod2-/- littermate mice were treated with amoxicillin as adults or neonates, and fecal samples were collected for 16S rRNA sequencing. Five weeks after antibiotic exposure, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis was induced...
January 16, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
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