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Neuroradiology Journal

Isabel Fragata, Marta Alves, Ana Luísa Papoila, Ana Paiva Nunes, Patrícia Ferreira, Mariana Diogo, Nuno Canto-Moreira, Patrícia Canhão
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) perfusion has been studied as a tool to predict delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and clinical outcome in spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The purpose of the study was to determine whether quantitative CT perfusion performed within 72 hours after admission can predict the occurrence of DCI and clinical outcome as measured with a modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 3 months after ictus. METHODS: Cerebral perfusion was assessed in a prospective cohort of patients with acute SAH...
February 19, 2019: Neuroradiology Journal
Juliana Jimenez, Diego A Herrera, Sergio A Vargas, Jorge Montoya, Mauricio Castillo
Patients with mutations in tubulin-related genes usually present with brain malformations, intellectual disability, epilepsy, microcephaly and ocular abnormalities. In these patients the diagnosis can be suggested by neuroimaging findings. We report a 5-year-old patient with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings including malformation of cortical development, fused basal ganglia, large head of the caudate nuclei, absent anterior limbs of the internal capsules, corpus callosum dysgenesis and dysplastic cerebellar vermis...
February 1, 2019: Neuroradiology Journal
Farzad Ashrafi, Morteza Sanei Taheri, Aida Farzaneh, Behdad Behnam, Mehran Arab Ahmadi
PURPOSE: Due to a suggestive three-way relationship between brain structural disorders, microvascular lesions, and cognitive impairments, we aimed to examine the association of the volume and number of white matter hyperintensity lesions and lacunar infarcts with cognitive impairment among patients with cardiovascular risk factors in a sample of the Iranian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on a total number of 156 normal subjects aged 30-74 years with cardiovascular risk factors...
January 24, 2019: Neuroradiology Journal
Brainner Campos Barbosa, Edson Marchiori, Caio Leal Leidersnaider, Lara Brandao, Mauricio Castillo
Tumefactive demyelinating lesions are a rare disorder in which inflammatory demyelination manifests as solitary or multiple focal brain lesions (greater than 2 cm in size), which can be mistaken for glioma, lymphoma, metastasis and in some cases even brain abscess. The symptomatology of tumefactive demyelinating lesions depends on the white matter area involved and includes quickly progressing neurological deterioration of motor, sensory and visual function, praxis, language and mood impairment, as well as seizures...
January 22, 2019: Neuroradiology Journal
Michael T Jurkiewicz, Joel M Stein, Kim O Learned, Ilya M Nasrallah, Laurie A Loevner
Spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection occurs in patients of all ages, rarely presenting with hypoglossal nerve palsy. The characteristic imaging findings of internal carotid artery dissection and tongue denervation are reviewed in four patients. Recognition of internal carotid artery dissection is critical for appropriate treatment and to minimise the risk of thromboembolic-ischaemic complications. Radiologists must be aware of the radiological appearance of hypoglossal nerve palsy and maintain a high index of suspicion for internal carotid artery dissection when this finding is present...
January 16, 2019: Neuroradiology Journal
Mariko Doai, Hisao Tonami, Munetaka Matoba, Osamu Tachibana, Hideaki Iizuka, Satoko Nakada, Sohuske Yamada
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of apparent diffusion coefficient magnetic resonance imaging in grading tumor aggressiveness using histogram apparent diffusion coefficient values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with surgically proved pituitary macroadenomas were included in this study. Diffusion-weighted imaging with single-shot echo-planar sequence at 3-T with a 32-channel head coil was performed with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2 ...
January 16, 2019: Neuroradiology Journal
Manal Nicolas-Jilwan
Recessive congenital methemoglobinemia type II is a very rare autosomal recessive hematologic disorder due to NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase deficiency, usually caused by full-stop mutations or deletions. This disease classically presents with mild neonatal cyanosis, early onset severe progressive developmental delay, movement disorders, and progressive microcephaly. We report two siblings with recessive congenital methemoglobinemia type II whose evaluation revealed a novel p.Arg92Trp missense mutation of the CYB5R3 gene and a peculiar imaging finding of basal ganglia hypoplasia...
January 7, 2019: Neuroradiology Journal
Mina S Makary, Usama Awan, Yaz Y Kisanuki, Hasel W Slone
Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) is a rare white matter degenerative disease characterized by both axonal and glial injury due to a defect in the CSF1R gene. In this report, we describe ALSP in a previously healthy 40-year-old woman presenting with insidiously progressive confusion, memory loss, and loss of social inhibitions. Characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings for ALSP elucidated the diagnosis, including chronic foci of diffusion restriction in a non-vascular distribution, lack of temporal/infratentorial involvement, cortical sparing, and lack of enhancement...
January 7, 2019: Neuroradiology Journal
Jun Sugata, Tessei Ueda, Natsuko Tanoue, Kazuho Hirahara, Kiyohisa Kamimura, Kazunori Arita, Koji Yoshimoto
An otherwise healthy 22-month-old boy suffered high fever, irritability, nausea, dysphagia, dysarthria and right hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a cystic mass, 15 mm in diameter, with surrounding oedema in the base of the lower pons. The symptoms subsided in about 10 days after onset, followed by a rapid decrease of the cyst size to 5 mm. Thereafter, the patient's psychomotor growth has been normal. Annual follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans showed very gradual enlargement of the cyst located on the ventral surface of the pontomedullary junction, reaching 16 mm in diameter in 21 years after onset...
January 3, 2019: Neuroradiology Journal
Parthiban Balasundaram, Ajay Garg, Anuj Prabhakar, Leve S Joseph Devarajan, Shailesh B Gaikwad, Gaurav Khanna
Intracranial dermoid and epidermoid cysts are usually considered to be two different entities in the radiological and surgical literature. Epidermoid cysts are classically off midline in location, isointense to cerebrospinal fluid on T1 and T2-weighted images and have restricted diffusion, whereas dermoid cysts are classically midline in location, have T1-hyperintense regions due to the presence of fat and show facilitated diffusion. We report a case of radiological epidermoid cyst in baseline imaging, which evolved into a radiological dermoid cyst over time, and explain this unique occurrence with a review of the embryology and histopathogenesis of these cysts...
January 3, 2019: Neuroradiology Journal
Cesare Gagliardo, Massimo Midiri, Roberto Cannella, Alessandro Napoli, Paul Wragg, Giorgio Collura, Maurizio Marrale, Tommaso Vincenzo Bartolotta, Carlo Catalano, Roberto Lagalla
Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound is one of the emerging non-invasive technologies offering both image guidance and thermal monitoring. In recent years transcranial application of this technology is starting to impact heavily the neuroscience field. We present here the imaging protocol and the technological methods successfully used with a transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound system certified for clinical treatments of functional neurological disorders, integrated for the first time with a 1...
December 18, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Kadihan Yalçin Şafak
PURPOSE: To investigate the variability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the brain in women during follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. METHODS: The present study included 32 females of reproductive age with regular menstruation. The participants were divided into two groups as group 1: females in the follicular phase, and group 2: females in the luteal phase. The regions of interest were manually drawn on the structures of the T2-weighted images (frontal gray and white matter, parietal gray and white matter, temporal gray and white matter, occipital gray and white matter, cerebellar gray and white matter, caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, internal capsule, pons, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the frontal and in the occipital horn of the lateral ventricle and CSF in the middle part of the lateral ventricle)...
December 18, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Takashi Fujii, Hidenori Oishi, Kohsuke Teranishi, Kenji Yatomi, Munetaka Yamamoto, Hajime Arai
PURPOSE: We aimed to analyse the patency rate of the anterior choroidal artery, and presented imaging and neurological findings, after deployment of a flow diverter in the anterior choroidal artery in the treatment of patients with intracranial aneurysms. METHODS: Among the 139 patients who underwent a flow diverter deployment from December 2012 to September 2017 in our hospital, there were 21 patients (15.1%) for whom their anterior choroidal artery was covered for the procedure with a flow diverter...
December 3, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Morteza Sanei Taheri, Farnaz Kimia, Mersad Mehrnahad, Hamidreza Saligheh Rad, Hamidreza Haghighatkhah, Afshin Moradi, Anahita Fathi Kazerooni, Mohammadreza Alviri, Abdorrahim Absalan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of selected first or second-order histogram features in differentiation of functional types of pituitary macro-adenomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diffusion-weighted imaging magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 32 patients (age mean±standard deviation = 43.09 ± 11.02 years; min = 22 and max = 65 years) with pituitary macro-adenoma (10 with functional and 22 with non-functional tumors)...
December 3, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Shahine Goulam-Houssein, Jeffrey L Grenville, Katerina Mastrocostas, David G Munoz, Amy Lin, Aditya Bharatha, Paraskevi A Vlachou
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a multi-organ chronic inflammatory process caused by infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in one or more organs. Intracranial involvement has only recently become better recognized. Our case series adds to the growing literature on the varying presentations of intracranial IgG4 by describing the clinical and imaging findings of three patients who presented to our institution with intracranial involvement. Our first patient presented with a mass-forming IgG4 pachymeningitis mimicking a sphenoid wing meningioma, which is to our knowledge the largest mass-forming pachymeningitis published in the literature...
February 2019: Neuroradiology Journal
Riti Kanesa-Thasan, Mougnyan Cox, Manisha Patel, Brian Curtis, Robert W Hurst, David Kung, Adam E Flanders
Providing a fast and accurate diagnosis of acute large-vessel occlusion on computed tomography angiograms (CTAs) is essential for timely intervention and good stroke outcomes. However, the detection and appropriate management of incidental findings are also important parts of any clinical radiology practice and can greatly affect patient care. The intricate anatomy covered by CTAs of the head and neck coupled with the time pressures of acute stroke diagnosis creates an environment in which unrelated, important findings can potentially be missed...
December 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Seyedmehdi Payabvash, Tarik Tihan, Soonmee Cha
PURPOSE: We applied voxelwise apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis in addition to structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and patients' age for differentiation of intraaxial posterior fossa tumors involving the fourth ventricle. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Pretreatment MRIs of 74 patients with intraaxial brain neoplasm involving the fourth ventricle, from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2015, were reviewed. The tumor solid components were segmented and voxelwise ADC histogram variables were determined...
December 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Misun Hwang, Becky J Riggs, Sandra Saade-Lemus, Thierry Agm Huisman
Imaging diagnosis of brain death is performed with either four-vessel cerebral angiography or radionuclide cerebral blood flow studies. Unfortunately, timely performance of either study at a critically ill period is not only cumbersome but not feasible in many cases. We present a case of a 6-month-old male three hours status post-cardiac arrest of unknown etiology who underwent contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for diagnosis of near absent perfusion, or near brain death. The patient passed away 30 minutes after the exam and clinical diagnosis of brain death was confirmed...
December 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Emil Jernstedt Barkovich, Matthew Jernstedt Barkovich, Christopher Hess
While the ferromagnetic properties of metallic objects, implantable medical devices, and cosmetics are well known, sand is not generally considered a consequential substance. Beaches in specific geographic regions, including the San Francisco Bay Area, have a propensity for ferromagnetic sand because of their geologic history. We describe a case in which ferromagnetic sand in a patient's hair coated the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner bore and caused significant imaging artifact, fortunately with no harm to the patient...
December 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Diogo G Corrêa, Nicolle Zimmermann, Rafael S Borges, Denis B Pereira, Thomas M Doring, Gustavo Tukamoto, Rochele P Fonseca, Emerson L Gasparetto
PURPOSE: Cognitive dysfunction is common in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Memory is a commonly affected cognitive domain. Clinically, however, it is difficult to detect memory deficits. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether normal controls and SLE patients with and without memory deficit differ in terms of white-matter integrity. METHODS: Twenty SLE patients with memory deficit were compared to 47 SLE patients without memory deficit and 22 sex-, age-, and education-matched control individuals...
December 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
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