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Journals Anatomical Record : Advances i...

Anatomical Record : Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology

https://read.qxmd.com/read/37750449/external-genitalia-phenotypes-of-a-mab21l1-null-mouse-model-for-cerebellar-ocular-craniofacial-and-genital-cofg-syndrome
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Watcharapon Promsut, Ryuichi Yamada, Shohei Takami, Nanae Miyazaki, Mami Uemura, Ryuji Hiramatsu, Naoki Takahashi, Yoshiakira Kanai
The cerebellar, ocular, craniofacial, and genital (COFG) syndrome is a human genetic disease that is caused by MAB21L1 mutations. A COFG mouse model with Mab21l1-null mutation causes severe microphthalmia and fontanelle dysosteogenesis, similar to the symptoms in human patients. One of the typical symptoms is scrotal agenesis in male infants, while male Mab21l1-null mice show hypoplastic preputial glands, a rodent-specific derivative of the cranial scrotal fold. However, it is still unclear where and how MAB21Ll acts in the external genitalia in both mice and humans...
September 26, 2023: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37747411/embryonic-cranial-cartilage-defects-in-the-fgfr3-y367c-mouse-model-of-achondroplasia
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Susan M Motch Perrine, Nishchal Sapkota, Kazuhiko Kawasaki, Yejia Zhang, Danny Z Chen, Mizuho Kawasaki, Emily L Durham, Yann Heuzé, Laurence Legeai-Mallet, Joan T Richtsmeier
Achondroplasia, the most common chondrodysplasia in humans, is caused by one of two gain of function mutations localized in the transmembrane domain of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) leading to constitutive activation of FGFR3 and subsequent growth plate cartilage and bone defects. Phenotypic features of achondroplasia include macrocephaly with frontal bossing, midface hypoplasia, disproportionate shortening of the extremities, brachydactyly with trident configuration of the hand, and bowed legs...
September 25, 2023: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37747271/mandibular-anatomy-of-the-paracryptodire-glyptops-ornatus-supports-active-hunting-behavior-in-a-jurassic-turtle
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Serjoscha W Evers
The mandible of turtles is rich in osteological characters that are relevant for systematic purposes. Shape variation additionally reflects upon various feeding strategies and are thus informative for the palaeoecological interpretation of extinct species based on fossils. The mandibular anatomy of non-baenid paracryptodires has so far been undescribed. Based on digital segmentation of a computed tomography scan, I herein describe the mandible of the pleurosternid paracryptodire Glyptops ornatus. This taxon has a slender and gracile jaw, with weakly developed muscle attachment sites for adductor muscles (i...
September 25, 2023: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37746926/a-study-on-the-vertebral-column-of-the-dice-snake-natrix-tessellata-serpentes-natricidae-from-denizli-western-anatolia-turkey
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Esra Akat Çömden, Melodi Yenmiş, Daniel Kytyr, Dinçer Ayaz, Yusuf Bayrakci
The vertebral anatomy of snakes has attracted the attention of researchers for decades and numerous studies have been made for extinct and extant species. The present study investigated the morphological variations in vertebral structure among different vertebral regions in the dice snake Natrix tessellata, and provides a detailed anatomical and microstructural description of the vertebral column. Vertebrae were analyzed and compared using x-ray imaging, scanning electron microscopy, micro-computed tomography, and histological techniques...
September 25, 2023: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37746823/bats-of-all-types-fly-through-the-pages-of-the-anatomical-record-in-a-novel-special-issue
#5
EDITORIAL
Jeffrey T Laitman, Heather F Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 25, 2023: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37735997/hwiccewyrm-trispiculum-gen-et-sp-nov-a-new-leptopleuronine-procolophonid-from-the-late-triassic-of-southwest-england
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Richard J Butler, Luke E Meade, Terri J Cleary, Kai T McWhirter, Emily E Brown, Tom S Kemp, Juan Benito, Nicholas C Fraser
The fissure fill localities of southwest England and South Wales are well-known for preserving rich assemblages of predominantly small-bodied Late Triassic to Early Jurassic tetrapods, but many aspects of these assemblages remain contentious. The age of the Late Triassic fissures is disputed, with some lines of argument suggesting a latest Triassic (Rhaetian) age, whereas other evidence suggests they may be as old as Carnian. The fissures have been hypothesized by some workers to have formed on an archipelago, with island effects invoked to explain aspects of the assemblages such as the abundance of small-bodied species...
September 21, 2023: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37727023/the-fossil-record-of-appendicular-muscle-evolution-in-synapsida-on-the-line-to-mammals-part-ii-hindlimb
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Peter J Bishop, Stephanie E Pierce
This paper is the second in a two-part series that charts the evolution of appendicular musculature along the mammalian stem lineage, drawing upon the exceptional fossil record of extinct synapsids. Here, attention is focused on muscles of the hindlimb. Although the hindlimb skeleton did not undergo as marked a transformation on the line to mammals as did the forelimb skeleton, the anatomy of extant tetrapods indicates that major changes to musculature have nonetheless occurred. To better understand these changes, this study surveyed the osteological evidence for muscular attachments in extinct mammalian and nonmammalian synapsids, two extinct amniote outgroups, and a large selection of extant mammals, saurians, and salamanders...
September 19, 2023: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37726984/the-fossil-record-of-appendicular-muscle-evolution-in-synapsida-on-the-line-to-mammals-part-i-forelimb
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Peter J Bishop, Stephanie E Pierce
This paper is the first in a two-part series that charts the evolution of appendicular musculature along the mammalian stem lineage, drawing upon the exceptional fossil record of extinct synapsids. Here, attention is focused on muscles of the forelimb. Understanding forelimb muscular anatomy in extinct synapsids, and how this changed on the line to mammals, can provide important perspective for interpreting skeletal and functional evolution in this lineage, and how the diversity of forelimb functions in extant mammals arose...
September 19, 2023: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37725325/an-unusually-robust-specimen-attributed-to-buriolestes-schultzi-dinosauria-sauropodomorpha-from-the-late-triassic-of-southern-brazil
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Débora Moro, Lísie Vitória Soares Damke, Rodrigo Temp Müller, Leonardo Kerber, Flávio Augusto Pretto
Buriolestes schultzi is a small sauropodomorph dinosaur from Carnian beds (ca., 233 Ma) of southern Brazil. It is one of the earliest members of that lineage and is a key taxon to investigate the initial evolution of Sauropodomorpha. Here, we attribute a new specimen to B. schultzi from Late Triassic of southern Brazil, which represents the first occurrence of the taxon outside the type locality. The new specimen comprises a disarticulated and partial skeleton, including cranial and postcranial elements...
September 19, 2023: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37712919/function-of-revolute-zygapophyses-in-the-lumbar-vertebrae-of-early-placental-mammals
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Anne E Kort, Katrina E Jones
The unique morphology of mammalian lumbar vertebrae allows the spine to flex and extend in the sagittal plane during locomotion. This movement increases stride length and allows mammals to efficiently breathe while running with an asymmetric gait. In extant mammals, the amount of flexion that occurs varies across different locomotor styles, with dorsostable runners relying more on movement of long limbs to run and dorsomobile runners incorporating more flexion of the back. Although long limbs and a stabilized lumbar region are commonly associated with each other in extant mammals, many "archaic" placental mammals with short limbs had lumbar vertebrae with revolute zygapophyses...
September 15, 2023: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37712912/proprioceptive-innervation-of-the-human-lips
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
José Martín-Cruces, Patricia Cuendias, Yolanda García-Mesa, Juan L Cobo, Olivia García-Suárez, Juan J Gaite, José A Vega, Benjamín Martín-Biedma
The objective of this study was to analyze the proprioceptive innervation of human lips, especially of the orbicularis oris muscle, since it is classically accepted that facial muscles lack typical proprioceptors, that is, muscle spindles, but recently this has been doubted. Upper and lower human lips (n = 5) from non-embalmed frozen cadavers were immunostained for detection of S100 protein (to identify nerves and sensory nerve formations), myosin heavy chain (to label muscle fibers within muscle spindles), and the mechano-gated ion channel PIEZO2...
September 15, 2023: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37706632/anatomical-variations-in-the-cerebral-arterial-circle-of-the-saimaa-pusa-hispida-saimensis-and-baltic-ringed-seals-pusa-hispida-botnica
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Juha Laakkonen, Heini Nihtilä, Jukka Jernvall
The intracranial arterial vascularization of the Saimaa ringed seals (Pusa hispida saimensis; Nordquist, 1899) and Baltic ringed seals (Pusa hispida botnica; Gmelin, 1788) disclosed patterns of anatomical architecture comparable to that of other pinniped species. Arterial silicone casts on skull scaffolds, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that the besides joining the caudal communicating arteries upon entering the cerebral arterial circle, the bilateral internal carotid arteries bifurcated as laterally oriented rostral choroidal arteries and rostral cerebral arteries...
September 14, 2023: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37702738/food-texture-and-vitamin-d-influence-mouse-mandible-form-and-molar-roots
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Elsa M Van Ankum, Kadin B Majcher, Allan T Dolovich, James D Johnston, Kennedy P Flegel, Julia C Boughner
Industrialization influenced several facets of lifestyle, including softer nutrient-poor diets that contributed to vitamin D deficiency in post-industrzialized populations, with concomitantly increased dental problems. Here we simulated a post-industrialized diet in a mouse model to test the effects of diet texture and vitamin D level on mandible and third molar (M3) forms. Mice were raised on a soft diet with vitamin D (VitD) or without it (NoD), or on a hard diet with vitamin D. We hypothesized that a VitD/hard diet is optimal for normal mandible and tooth root form, as well as for timely M3 initiation...
September 13, 2023: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37676091/trabecular-bone-morphology-in-big-cats-reflects-the-complex-diversity-of-limb-use-but-not-home-range-size-or-daily-travel-distance
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Layne Assif, Habiba Chirchir
A relationship exists between mechanical loading and bone morphology. Although studies show a relationship between trabecular bone morphology and locomotor strategy in mammals, none of them have studied trabecular bone morphology in felid species occupying disparate and overlapping habitats. We investigate trabecular bone volume fraction (BVF) in the femoral and humeral heads, and distal tibia of four felid species (mountain lions, jaguars, cheetahs, and leopards) to identify whether there is a relationship between BVF and locomotor behavior...
September 7, 2023: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37658819/neuronal-scaling-in-the-olfactory-system-of-bats
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Thomas P Eiting, Timothy D Smith, Nancy G Forger, Elizabeth R Dumont
Comparative studies are a common way to address large-scale questions in sensory biology. For studies that investigate olfactory abilities, the most commonly used metric is olfactory bulb size. However, recent work has called into question the broad-scale use of olfactory bulb size. In this paper, we use three neuroanatomical measures with a more mechanistic link to olfactory function (number of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), number of mitral cells (MCs), and number of glomeruli) to ask how species with different diets may differ with respect to olfactory ability...
September 2, 2023: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37656052/ecomorphology-and-sensory-biology-of-bats
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Timothy D Smith, Sharlene E Santana, Thomas P Eiting
This special issue of The Anatomical Record is inspired by and dedicated to Professor Kunwar P. Bhatnagar, whose lifelong interests in biology, and long career studying bats, inspired many and advanced our knowledge of the world's only flying mammals. The 15 articles included here represent a broad range of investigators, treading topics familiar to Prof. Bhatnagar, who was interested in seemingly every aspect of bat biology. Key topics include broad themes of bat development, sensory systems, and specializations related to flight and diet...
September 1, 2023: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37644755/gene-expression-in-the-liver-of-the-hagfish-eptatretus-burgeri-belonging-to-the-cyclostomata-is-ancestral-to-that-of-mammals
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Noriaki Ota, Hideaki Kato, Nobuyoshi Shiojiri
Although the liver of the hagfish, an earliest diverged lineage among vertebrates, has a histological architecture similar to that of mammals, its gene expression has not been explored yet. The present study was undertaken to comparatively characterize gene expression in the liver of the hagfish with that of the mouse, using in situ hybridization technique. Expression of alb (albumin) was detectable in all hepatocytes of the hagfish liver, but was negative in intrahepatic bile ducts. Their expression in abundant periportal ductules was weak...
August 29, 2023: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37644754/functional-anatomy-of-mystacial-active-sensing-in-rats
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Sebastian Haidarliu, Guy Nelinger, Luka Gantar, Ehud Ahissar, Inbar Saraf-Sinik
Rats' whisking motion and objects' palpation produce tactile signals sensed by mechanoreceptors at the vibrissal follicles. Rats adjust their whisking patterns to target information type, flow, and resolution, adapting to their behavioral needs and the changing environment. This coordination requires control over the activity of the mystacial pad's intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. Studies have relied on muscle recording and stimulation techniques to describe the roles of individual muscles. However, these methods lack the resolution to isolate the mystacial pad's small and compactly arranged muscles...
August 29, 2023: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37638722/pain-after-cancer-time-to-move-towards-a-mechanism-based-approach
#19
EDITORIAL
Mira Meeus
The high prevalence and the debilitating nature of pain following cancer urge the need for appropriate pain assessment and management in this population. Yet cancer pain remains under-recognized and under-treated. For effective pain management, correct identification of the presence of different underlying pain mechanisms is warranted, since pain management strategies differ considerably according to the predominant mechanisms. To raise awareness around possible underlying pain mechanisms in pain after cancer, the three major pain mechanisms are shortly explained and translated to this specific population...
August 28, 2023: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37638403/neurocranial-growth-in-the-oim-mouse-model-of-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Tooba S Husain, Jacob C Moore, Lila A Huston, Courtney A Miller, Ashley T Steele, Lauren A Gonzales, Emma K Handler, Jason M Organ, Rachel A Menegaz
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a disorder of type I collagen characterized by abnormal bone formation. The OI craniofacial phenotype includes midfacial underdevelopment, as well as neurocranial changes (e.g., macrocephaly and platybasia) that may also affect underlying nervous tissues. This study aims to better understand how OI affects the integrated development of the neurocranium and the brain. Juvenile and adult mice with OI (OIM) and unaffected wild type (WT) littermates were imaged using in vivo micro-computed tomography (microCT)...
August 28, 2023: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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