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Journals Anatomical Record : Advances i...

Anatomical Record : Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology

https://read.qxmd.com/read/38887924/description-of-a-new-specimen-of-haplocanthosaurus-from-the-dry-mesa-dinosaur-quarry
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Colin Boisvert, Brian Curtice, Mathew Wedel, Ray Wilhite
A new specimen of Haplocanthosaurus is described based on bones excavated from the Late Jurassic Dry Mesa Dinosaur Quarry near Delta, Colorado. The specimen consists of seven dorsal vertebrae and a right tibia and is identified as Haplocanthosaurus based on the dorsally angled transverse processes, tall neural arch peduncles, low parapophyses relative to the diapophyses in the posterior dorsal vertebrae, and the robustness of the tibia combined with a greatly expanded distal articular surface. The discovery adds to our understanding of the biostratigraphy of Haplocanthosaurus, showing this genus is definitively present in the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, and making this individual the geologically youngest Haplocanthosaurus specimen on the Colorado Plateau...
June 18, 2024: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38877810/from-slenderness-to-robustness-understanding-long-bone-shape-in-sigmodontine-rodents
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
María José Tulli, Luz Valeria Carrizo
The morphological evolution of the appendicular skeleton may reflect the selective pressures specific to different environments, phylogenetic inheritance, or allometry. Covariation in bone shapes enhances morphological integration in response to ecological specializations. In contrast to previous multivariate studies using classical linear morphometry, we use a geometric morphometric approach to explore the morphological diversity of long bones and examine relationships between ecological categories and morphological characters in a species-rich and ecomorphologically diverse group of rodents...
June 15, 2024: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38872582/from-masks-to-muscles-mapping-facial-structure-of-nycticebus
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
A Weldon, A M Burrows, W Wirdateti, T P Nugraha, N Supriatna, Timothy D Smith, K A I Nekaris
Facial musculature in mammals underlies mastication and nonverbal communicative facial displays. Our understanding of primate facial expression comes primarily from haplorrhines (monkeys and apes), while our understanding of strepsirrhine (lemurs and lorises) facial expression remains incomplete. We examined the facial muscles of six specimens from three Nycticebus species (Nycticebus coucang, Nycticebus javanicus, and Nycticebus menagensis) using traditional dissection methodology and novel three-dimensional facial scanning to produce a detailed facial muscle map, and compared these results to another nocturnal strepsirrhine genus, the greater bushbaby (Otolemur spp...
June 14, 2024: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38850161/analysis-of-bone-structure-in-peromyscus-effects-of-burrowing-behavior
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Lindsey A Young, Emma Munro, Priya Somanchi, Abigail Bemis, Stephanie M Smith, Sandra J Shefelbine
We compare the effects of burrowing behavior on appendicular bone structure in two Peromyscus (deer mouse) species. P. polionotus creates complex burrows in their territories, while P. eremicus is a non-burrowing nesting mouse. We examined museum specimens' bones of wild-caught mice of the two species and lab-reared P. polionotus not given the opportunity to burrow. Bones were scanned using micro-computed tomography, and cortical and trabecular bone structural properties were quantified. Wild P. polionotus mice had a larger moment of area in the ulnar and tibial cortical bone compared with their lab-reared counterparts, suggesting developmental adaptation to bending resistance...
June 8, 2024: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38838074/entheseal-surface-sharpey-s-fiber-insertion-alterations-identify-past-trauma-bone-base-robusticity-level-of-routine-activity
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Bruce Rothschild
Sharpey's fiber alterations, referred to as entheseal reaction or enthesopathy, have long been considered an indicator of daily activities. Such semantic transformation seems to conflate processes which alter the characteristics of tendonous and ligamentous attachments to bone with the rugosity and extent of their base/footprint. Rather than reflecting normal activities, it is suggested that surface reactions are actually the response to the application of sudden or unconditioned repetitive stresses-analogous to stress fractures...
June 5, 2024: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38817037/systemic-versus-local-patterns-of-limb-joint-articular-morphology-inferred-from-relative-distances-from-morphological-centroid
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Haley Horbaly, Mark Hubbe
Joint morphogenesis is a complex process known to require the interaction of developmental cascades and mechanical loading, yet many details of this interaction are incompletely understood. While prior work has established populational patterns of joint morphological (co)variance, exploring how these patterns manifest within the individual provides information on the deployment of morphogenic processes as either systemic or local influences on joint shape. To better identify the patterns of variance-generating morphogenic processes, this study investigates the degree to which individual joint shapes deviate from population averages systematically across the body...
May 30, 2024: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38817016/hypercanines-not-just-for-sabertooths
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Lars Werdelin
Hypercanines are here defined as hypertrophied caniniform teeth, that is, canine teeth that are elongated to serve specific functions in different clades of mammals and their synapsid ancestors. This article presents an overview of the occurrence of hypercanines, their growth, and their function across a broad range of clades. Sabertooth felids and felid-like taxa are found to be unique in having determinate growth (although some Dinocerata may also have this). The most common function of hypercanines among herbivores is found to be sexual display and male-male competition...
May 30, 2024: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38813936/how-the-sima-de-los-huesos-was-won
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Juan-Luis Arsuaga, Ignacio Martínez, Ana Gracia-Téllez, José-Miguel Carretero, Alfonso Esquivel, Nuria García, Carlos Lorenzo, Rolf Quam, Arantza Aramburu, Nohemi Sala, Javier Trueba
Although the first discovery of a human fossil in the Sima de los Huesos took place in 1976, systematic excavations did not begin there until 1984. Since then, this site has been continuously excavated in month-long camps. The site is dated by different radiometric techniques to between 430,000 and 300,000 years ago. Until the 2023 campaign, just over 7000 human fossils have been recovered, constituting the largest collection of fossils prior to Homo sapiens ever discovered. The fossils correspond to a minimum of 29 individuals of both sexes and different ages at death, from preadolescents to a specimen of advanced age...
May 30, 2024: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38804049/imagine
#9
EDITORIAL
Juan Luis Arsuaga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 28, 2024: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38803316/how-does-the-shape-of-the-wing-and-hindlimb-bones-of-aquatic-birds-relate-to-their-locomotor-abilities
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Martin Segesdi, Delphine Brabant, Raphaël Cornette, Alexandra Houssaye
Aquatic birds represent diverse ecologies and locomotion types. Some became flightless or lost the ability for effective terrestrial locomotion, yet, certain species excel in water, on land, and in air, despite differing physical characteristics associated with each medium. In this exploratory study, we intend to quantitatively analyze the morphological variety of multiple limb bones of aquatic birds using 3D geometric morphometrics. Morphological variation is mainly driven by phylogeny, which also affects size and locomotion...
May 28, 2024: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38803286/toe-pad-morphology-and-adhesion-in-the-miniaturized-gecko-chatogekko-amazonicus-gekkota-sphaerodactylidae
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Aaron H Griffing, Juan D Daza, Stuart V Nielsen, Fernanda P Werneck, Patrik F Viana, Tony Gamble
Chatogekko amazonicus is a miniaturized gecko from northern South America and is among the smallest of toe pad bearing lizards. The toe pads of C. amazonicus are miniscule, between 18% and 27% of the plantar surface area. We aimed to investigate the relationship between adhesive toe pad morphology, body size, and adhesive capabilities. Using scanning electron microscopy, we determine that the adhesive pads of C. amazonicus exhibit branched setae similar to those of other geckos, but that are generally much smaller...
May 28, 2024: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38801020/growing-sabers-mandibular-shape-and-biomechanical-performance-trajectories-during-the-ontogeny-of-smilodon-fatalis
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Narimane Chatar, Romain Boman, Valentin Fischer, Valentina Segura, Cara Julémont, Z Jack Tseng
The evolution of organisms can be studied through the lens of developmental systems, as the timing of development of morphological features is an important aspect to consider when studying a phenotype. Such data can be challenging to obtain in fossil amniotes owing to the scarcity of their fossil record. However, the numerous remains of Rancho La Brea allow a detailed study of the postnatal changes in an extinct sabertoothed felid: Smilodon fatalis. Despite numerous previous studies on the ontogeny of Smilodon, an important question remained open: how did the cubs of Smilodon acquire and process food? By applying 3D geometric morphometrics and finite element analyses to 49 mandibles at various developmental stages (22 of S...
May 27, 2024: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38794819/transient-contribution-of-the-sphenoid-ala-major-to-the-socket-of-the-temporomandibular-joint-in-near-term-fetuses
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Hidetomo Hirouchi, Yuki Takeuchi, Tianyi Yang, Masahito Yamamoto, Shogo Hayashi, Gen Murakami, Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez, Shinichi Abe
The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a complex structure that plays a vital role in the movement of the jaw. Some anatomy and dental textbooks show that, at the medial margin, the TMJ capsule attaches to a suture between the sphenoid ala major and the temporal bone squamosa. In near-term fetuses, the ala major extends posterolaterally to approach the TMJ. In this study, we aimed to investigate the contribution of the sphenoid ala major to the socket of the TMJ in near-term fetuses. We examined histological sections from 22 human fetuses (approximately 15-40 weeks)...
May 24, 2024: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38783642/commentary-three-questions-for-the-study-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-animals
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Gregory Hollin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2024: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38761000/the-anatomical-record-celebrates-the-magnificence-of-human-antiquity-from-the-sima-de-los-huesos-caves-of-atapuerca-spain-in-a-novel-special-issue
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jeffrey T Laitman, Heather F Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2024: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38742425/origin-and-distribution-of-the-brachial-plexus-in-red-necked-wallaby-notamacropus-rufogriseus-marsupialia-macropodidae
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Caner Bakıcı, Hasen Awel Yunus, Barış Batur
Notamacropus rufogriseus (red-necked wallaby) are in the family Macropodidae, which is the second largest family of marsupials after the family Didelphidae. This study was conducted with the aim of providing a detailed description of the origin and distribution of the brachial plexus in N. rufogriseus. Two-year-old male and 3-year-old female red-necked wallabies were used for the study. The brachial plexus was formed by ventral rami of C4, C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1 spinal nerves. It is composed of three trunks that give rise to 12 principal nerves...
May 14, 2024: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38716962/a-systematic-comparative-description-of-extant-turtle-humeri-with-comments-on-humerus-disparity-and-evolution-based-on-fossil-comparisons
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Guilherme Hermanson, Fernando A M Arnal, Tomasz Szczygielski, Serjoscha W Evers
The humerus is central for locomotion in turtles as quadrupedal animals. Osteological variation across testudine clades remains poorly documented. Here, we systematically describe the humerus anatomy for all major extant turtle clades based on 38 species representing the phylogenetic and ecological diversity of crown turtles. Three Late Triassic species of shelled stem turtles (Testudindata) are included to establish the plesiomorphic humerus morphology. Our work is based on 3D models, establishing a publicly available digital database...
May 8, 2024: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38711405/buoyancy-control-and-air-breathing-in-royal-knifefish-chitala-blanci-and-a-new-hypothesis-for-the-early-evolution-of-vertebrate-air-breathing-behaviors
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Elska B Kaczmarek, Elizabeth L Brainerd
We present the first description of inspiration-first air breaths in royal knifefish, Chitala blanci, a ray-finned fish known to use four-stroke air breaths. Four-stroke breaths are used by nearly all ray-finned fish species that use their gas bladder to breathe air and are the ancestral breath type of ray-finned fishes. Interestingly, one such species, Amia calva, is known to perform two distinct breath types. Amia use four-stroke breaths when they need more oxygen and performs inspiration-first breaths to restore buoyancy...
May 7, 2024: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38702969/commentary-on-ar-human-fossils-from-the-sima-de-los-huesos-forty-years-of-discoveries-and-research-si-of-ancient-and-present-lifestyles
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
José Luis Trejo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2024: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38690636/new-glires-materials-from-the-east-mesa-erlian-basin-nei-mongol-china
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Qian Li
East Mesa, an Eocene locality situated east of the Shara Murun River in the Erlian Basin, is characterized by basal lower red mudstones. However, a distinct depositional hiatus has been observed in these red mudstones, leading to their division into layers 1 and 2. Excitingly, recent discoveries respectively in layers 1 and 2 of the lower red mudstones at the East Mesa include new Glires (Gomphos sp.) and rodents such as Asiomys dawsoni, Gobiocylindrodon cf. G. ulausuensis, and Yuomys sp., marking their first occurrences within these horizons...
May 1, 2024: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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