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Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31090215/the-cd147-hyaluronan-axis-in-cancer
#1
Bryan P Toole
CD147 (basigin; EMMPRIN), hyaluronan and hyaluronan receptors (e.g. CD44) are intimately involved in several phenomena that underlie malignancy. A major avenue whereby they influence tumor progression is most likely their role in the characteristics of cancer stem cells, sub-populations of tumor cells that exhibit chemoresistance, invasiveness and potent tumorigenicity. Both CD147 and hyaluronan have been strongly implicated in chemoresistance and invasiveness, and may be drivers of cancer stem cell characteristics, since current evidence indicates that both are involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a crucial process in the acquisition of cancer stem cell properties...
May 14, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31090209/ultrastructural-characterization-of-stem-cell-derived-replacement-vestibular-hair-cells-within-ototoxin-damaged-rat-utricle-explants
#2
Mimmi Werner, Thomas R Van De Water, Hans Stenlund, Diana Berggren
The auditory apparatus of the inner ear does not show turnover of sensory hair cells (HCs) in adult mammals, in contrast there are many observations supporting low level turnover of vestibular HCs within the balance organs of mammalian inner ears. This low level renewal of vestibular HCs exists during normal conditions and it is further enhanced after trauma-induced loss of these HCs. The main process for renewal of HCs within mammalian vestibular epithelia is a conversion/transdifferentiation of existing supporting cells (SCs) into replacement HCs...
May 14, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31090177/relationship-between-physiological-umbilical-herniation-and-liver-morphogenesis-during-the-human-embryonic-period-a-morphological-and-morphometric-study
#3
Toru Kanahashi, Shigehito Yamada, Akio Yoneyama, Tetsuya Takakuwa
It is widely hypothesized that physiological umbilical herniation (PUH) in humans occurs because the liver occupies a large space in the abdominal cavity, which pushes the intestine into the extra-embryonic coelom during the embryonic period. We have recently shown the presence of the intestinal loop in the extra-embryonic coelom in embryos with liver malformation. Here, we analyzed the relationship between the liver and PUH at Carnegie stage 21 of four embryos with liver malformation, including two with hypogenesis (HY1, HY2) and two with agenesis (AG1, AG2), using phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography and compared them to two control embryos...
May 14, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31087813/comparing-the-superficial-vasculature-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-six-laboratory-animals-a-hypothesis-about-the-role-of-the-circle-of-willis
#4
Yoo Yeon Kim, Janet Ren Chao, Chulho Kim, Harry Jung, Boyoung Kim, Tae-Cheon Kang, Jiwon Chang, Hae Sang Park, Jun-Gyo Suh, Jun Ho Lee
We provide images of the entire Central Nervous System vasculature, and compare the anatomical findings in six different laboratory animals. A detailed understanding of the specific anatomy for each is important in the design of experimental modeling and for understanding the specific function of each target organ. Six different types of animals, the Korean wild mouse, C57BL/6J mouse, F344 rat, Mongolian gerbil, Syrian hamsters, and Guinea pigs, were included. To stain the blood vessels in each of the animals, Alcian blue reagent was used to perfuse each species...
May 14, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31087788/mir-455-5p-overexpression-reduces-rat-lung-alveolar-type-ii-cell-proliferation-by-down-regulating-stra6
#5
Jintao Zheng, Qiuming He, Huajian Tang, Huimin Xia
miR-455-5p and retinoid signaling pathway and its membrane receptor, STRA6 are associated with lung development. Software co-predictions indicate that the miRNA upstream of the STRA6 gene is miR-455-5p. We hypothesized that miR-455-5p participates in rat lung alveolar type II cell proliferation by targeting STRA6 and designed this study to investigate the effects of miR-455-5p overexpression on rat lung alveolar type II cells. Dual luciferase reporter gene assay was utilized to confirm the relationship between miR-455-5p and STRA6...
May 14, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31087787/call-for-a-multidisciplinary-effort-to-map-the-lymphatic-system-with-advanced-medical-imaging-techniques-a-review-of-the-literature-and-suggestions-for-future-anatomical-research
#6
REVIEW
Michael E J Stouthandel, Liv Veldeman, Tom Van Hoof
This review intends to rekindle efforts to map the lymphatic system by using a more modern approach, based on medical imaging. The structure, function and pathologies associated with the lymphatic system are first discussed to highlight the need for more accurately mapping the lymphatic system. Next, the need for an interdisciplinary approach, with a central role for the anatomist, to come up with better maps of the lymphatic system is emphasized. The current approaches on lymphatic system research involving medical imaging will be discussed and suggestions will be made for an all-encompassing effort to thoroughly map the entire lymphatic system...
May 14, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31087775/cat-kidney-glomeruli-and-tubules-evaluated-by-design-based-stereology
#7
J Sadeghinezhad, J R Nyengaard
Renal function is related to its structure and three-dimensional structural parameters correlate better to the kidney function than two-dimensional structural parameters. Stereology is the current gold-standard technique for the morphometrical evaluation of kidney structures. This study describes morphometric features of the kidney of the cat using design-based stereological techniques aimed to introduce the cat as a translational model in nephrology and provide basic findings for diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases in this species...
May 14, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30993912/pedro-ram%C3%A3-n-y-cajal-the-legacy-of-a-neurohistologist-a-medical-doctor-and-a-pathologist
#8
Santiago Ramón Y Cajal, Juan A de Carlos
The work of Santiago Ramón y Cajal is difficult to understand without knowing the personalities of Justo, his father, and his brother Pedro. His father practically forced the two brothers to study medicine. Thanks to that, Santiago was able to combine his artistic talent with histology and wonderfully describe cerebral architecture. Pedro was a faithful brother and above all a friend of Santiago and they worked together for years. Pedro was able to demonstrate the theories of his brother in non-mammalian amniotes, concluding that the basic elements of the nervous system are common to these animals and he provided images that served Santiago to formulate the theory of dynamic polarization...
April 16, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30993879/mouse-extraocular-muscles-and-the-musculotopic-organization-of-their-innervation
#9
Martin O Bohlen, Kevin Bui, John S Stahl, Paul J May, Susan Warren
The organization of extraocular muscles and their motor nuclei was investigated in the mouse due to the increased importance of this model for oculomotor research. Mice showed a standard extraocular muscle organization pattern, although their eyes are set at the side of the head. They do have more prominent oblique muscles, whose insertion points differ from those of frontal-eyed species. Retrograde tracers revealed that the motoneuron layout aligns with the general vertebrate plan with respect to nuclei and laterality...
April 16, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30989828/microstructure-of-vertebrae-ribs-and-gastralia-of-triassic-sauropterygians-new-insights-into-the-microanatomical-processes-involved-in-aquatic-adaptations-of-marine-reptiles
#10
Nicole Klein, Aurore Canoville, Alexandra Houssaye
Isolated ribs and vertebrae of Middle Triassic sauropterygians are studied. The vertebrae have a well-defined large cavity in their centra, which is a unique feature and is without any modern analogue. The articular facets of vertebrae are made of endochondral bone including calcified as well as uncalcified cartilage. Vertebrae are pachyosteosclerotic in the pachypleurosaurs Neusticosaurus and Serpianosaurus from the Alpine Triassic, and osteosclerotic in the placodont, in the medium-sized Nothosaurus marchicus, and in the pachypleurosaur Anarosaurus...
April 15, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30989818/sex-and-laterality-differences-in-medullary-humerus-morphology
#11
Alex J Drew, Robert Z Tashjian, Heath B Henninger, Kent N Bachus
Percutaneous osseointegrated (OI) prosthetic limb attachment holds promise for transhumeral amputees. Understanding humeral medullary morphology is necessary for informed design of upper extremity OI systems, and is beneficial to the field of megaprosthetic reconstruction of the distal humerus where diaphyseal fixation is desired. The purpose of this study was to quantify the sex and laterality differences in humerus morphology, specifically over the diaphysis. Three-dimensional surface reconstructions of 58 pairs of cadaveric humeri (43 male, 15 female) were generated from CT data...
April 15, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30989809/anatomical-assessment-of-the-adult-skeleton-of-zebrafish-reared-under-different-thyroid-hormone-profiles
#12
Stephanie Keer, Karly Cohen, Catherine May, Yinan Hu, Sarah McMenamin, L Patricia Hernandez
Thyroid hormone (TH) directs the growth and maintenance of tissues throughout the body during development and into adulthood, and plays a particularly important role in proper ossification and homeostasis of the skeleton. To better understand the roles of TH in the skeletogenesis of a vertebrate model, and to define areas of the skeleton that are particularly sensitive to developmental TH, we examined the effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on skeletal development in zebrafish. Performing a bone-by-bone anatomical assessment on the entire skeleton of adult fish, we found that TH is required for proper ossification, growth, morphogenesis, and fusion of numerous bones...
April 15, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30980505/gentle-perineal-skin-stimulation-for-control-of-nocturia
#13
Harumi Hotta, Nobuhiro Watanabe
One of the major causes of nocturia is overactive bladder (OAB). Somatic afferent nerve stimuli are used for treating OAB. However, clinical evidence for the efficacy of this treatment is insufficient due to the lack of appropriate control stimuli. Studies on anesthetized animals, which eliminate emotional factors and placebo effects, have demonstrated an influence of somatic stimuli on urinary bladder functions and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. In general, the effects of somatic stimuli are dependent on the modality, location, and physical characteristics of the stimulus...
April 12, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30980504/variation-in-the-size-and-shape-of-human-cochlear-malformation-types
#14
Anandhan Dhanasingh
OBJECTIVE: Study the variations in size and shape of the most widely recognized cochlear malformation types using 3-dimensional (3D) visualization. METHODS: Using 3D slicer freeware, the complete inner-ear structures were segmented from 46 anonymized HRCT image datasets. Cochlear height, IAC height and width were measured from the axial plane. Cochlear basal turn diameter was measured from the oblique coronal plane. Number of cochlear turns was measured from the 3D images and the corresponding CDL was estimated using the CDL equations given in Alexiades et al (2015)...
April 12, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30980479/the-influence-of-the-extracellular-matrix-in-inflammation-findings-from-the-sparc-null-mouse
#15
Hannah J Riley, Amy D Bradshaw
Matricellular proteins are secreted proteins that, among other functions, can contribute to extracellular matrix (ECM) assembly including modulation of cell:ECM interactions. Recent discoveries have indicated a fundamental role for the ECM in the regulation of inflammatory responses including cell extravasation and recruitment, immune cell differentiation, polarization, activation, and retention in tissues. Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular collagen binding protein implicated in fibrillar collagen assembly in the ECM of connective tissue as well as in basal lamina organization...
April 12, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30980470/does-vibrissal-innervation-patterns-and-investment-predict-hydrodynamic-trail-following-behavior-of-harbor-seals-phoca-vitulina
#16
Aubree Jones, Christopher D Marshall
Our understanding of vibrissal function in pinnipeds is poor due to the lack of comparative morphological, neurobiological, and psychophysical performance data. In contrast, the function of terrestrial mammalian vibrissae is better studied. Pinnipeds have the largest vibrissae of all mammals, and phocids may have the most modified vibrissae. The tactile performance for pinniped vibrissae is well known for harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). Harbor seals display at least two types of tactile behavior involving their mystacial vibrissae: a fine discriminatory capability using active touch and hydrodynamic trail following (the ability to detect and follow turbulent trails)...
April 12, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30980461/morphology-of-the-uterotubal-junction-of-the-cheetah-acinonyx-jubatus
#17
Miles John Penfold, John Thomson Soley, Marthinus Jacobus Hartman
Less than 7000 cheetahs survive in the wild. Captive breeding has proved notoriously difficult. The uterotubal junction acts as major barrier and regulator to the passage of sperm. This study describes the morphology of the uterotubal junction of the cheetah. Reproductive tracts were obtained from 7 cheetahs that succumbed from natural causes or were euthanased for humane reasons. The uterotubal junction was isolated and examined macroscopically and microscopically. The extramural isthmus made a characteristic 90° bend before entering the mesometrial border of the uterus close to its tip...
April 12, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30968581/does-the-maximum-body-size-of-theropods-increase-across-the-triassic-jurassic-boundary-integrating-ontogeny-phylogeny-and-body-size
#18
Christopher T Griffin, Sterling J Nesbitt
Mass extinctions change global ecosystems, and the end-Triassic mass extinction was hypothesized to have precipitated the rise of dinosaur dominance, with dinosaurs filling resource zones of eliminated large-bodied reptilian lineages. This replacement has been explicitly hypothesized for theropod dinosaurs, and the eastern North American theropod footprint record suggests an increase in maximum body size across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Without taking ontogenetic stage in account, the maximum size of the rare large Triassic theropods worldwide supports this hypothesis, with the size of the largest individuals corresponding to the largest Triassic theropod tracks...
April 9, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30968577/the-effects-of-matrigel%C3%A2-on-the-survival-and-differentiation-of-a-human-neural-progenitor-dissociated-sphere-culture
#19
Andreas Kaiser, Ajay Kale, Ekaterina Novozhilova, Petri Olivius
We have previously developed an in vitro organotypic culture setting in order to investigate the performance of cellular substrates transplanted to the auditory nervous system. We have utilized this system to predict the efficacy of human neural progenitor cells (HNPCs) in transplantation to the auditory nerve to facilitate regeneration of sensory auditory nerve structures in vivo and in vitro. To optimize the growth and differentiation of HNPCs we have introduced an expansion of our in vitro system, exploring the impact of a growth factor-altered microenvironment...
April 9, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30951264/peripheral-nerve-anatomy-revisited-modern-requirements-for-neuroimaging-and-microsurgery
#20
Marko Konschake, Florian Burger, Marit Zwierzina
Detailed anatomic investigation of peripheral nerve topography underlies the correct application of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) and ultrasonography, both well-established methods to prevent nerve palsy during surgical operations and to elucidate pathomechanisms in disease. In this study, we analyzed the anatomy of selected peripheral nerves in the head and neck region to improve the outcome of endocrine and migraine surgeries. Anatomic dissections of 204 hemilarynges were performed to study the topography of the inferior laryngeal nerve (ILN)...
April 5, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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