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Plant Signaling & Behavior

Shugang Hui, Miaojing Zhang, Mengyu Hao, Meng Yuan
Plant GH3 genes play pivotal roles in biotic stress through involving in hormonal homeostasis by conjugation to amino acids of the free-form of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid (JA) or indole-3-acetic acid. We recently showed that rice group I GH3 gene family, with four members, are the functional JA-Ile synthetases and positively mediated rice resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Here, we further found that these four genes are also positive regulators conferring resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv...
March 22, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Marc Behr, Eva Pokorna, Petre I Dobrev, Václav Motyka, Cédric Guignard, Stanley Lutts, Jean-Francois Hausman, Gea Guerriero
Phytohormones are crucial molecules regulating plant development and responses to environmental challenges, including abiotic stresses, microbial and insect attacks. Most notably, phytohormones play important roles in the biosynthesis of lignocellulosics. Jasmonates are involved in secondary growth and secondary metabolism, such as phenylpropanoids and lignin biosyntheses. At the physiological and molecular levels, the actions of phytohormones depend on subtle concentration changes, as well as antagonistic equilibria between two or more of these molecules...
March 22, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Xin Wang, Shu-Nong Bai
Heterospory (i.e. dimorphic spores) is a long-lasting topic discussed in plant biology. It is observed in many of ferns, fern allies, and seed plants. The rise of heterospory and the mechanisms underlying its success in plant evolution are not clearly elucidated. In this short communication, an attempt is made to shed some light on these two questions.
March 20, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Paula Da Fonseca-Pereira, Danilo M Daloso, Jorge Gago, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Wagner L Araújo
Thiol-disulfide redox exchanges are widely distributed modifications of great importance for metabolic regulation in living cells. In general, the formation of disulfide bonds is controlled by thioredoxins (TRXs), ubiquitous proteins with two redox-active cysteine residues separated by a pair of amino acids. While the function of plastidial TRXs has been extensively studied, the role of the mitochondrial TRX system is much less well understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mitochondrial TRXs are required for the proper functioning of the major metabolic pathways, including stomatal function and antioxidant metabolism under sub-optimal conditions including drought and salinity...
March 18, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Muhammed Jamsheer K, Dhriti Singh, Mohan Sharma, Manvi Sharma, Sunita Jindal, Chanchal T Mannully, Brihaspati N Shukla, Ashverya Laxmi
The TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN-SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 (TOR-SnRK1) arms race is a key regulator of plant growth in response to energy fluctuations and stress. Recently, we have identified that two members of the FCS-LIKE ZINC FINGER (FLZ) protein family, FLZ6 and 10, repress SnRK1 signaling and thereby involved in the activation of the TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN (TOR) signaling. In this study, we demonstrate that FLZ6 and 10 are also involved in the regulation of osmotic stress responses. Downregulation of FLZ6 and 10 results in enhanced expression of stress-responsive genes and better resilience towards osmotic stress at the seedling stage...
March 15, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Xiudao Yu, Dianyong Jia, Pengfei Duan
Plants producing sufficient amount of aphid alarm pheromone by expressing (E)-β-Farnesene (EβF) synthase gene may contribute to plant protection by reducing aphid populations. However, terpene biosynthesis varies among plant species and developmental stages. In the present study, volatile headspace analysis of tobacco seedlings with MaβFS1 (an EβF synthase from the Asian peppermint Mentha asiatica) failed to generate EβF. We further targeted MaβFS1 to the tobacco plastid, using a chloroplast targeting sequence, either with or without the AtFPS1 gene for the biosynthesis of the precursor farnesyl diphosphate...
March 8, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Junyi Chen, Benedikt Müller, Huan Wang, Thomas Dresselhaus
Post-translational modification of proteins by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) plays essential roles in a large variety of cellular and developmental processes. While SUMO conjugation to target proteins has been reported in numerous studies in animals and human, and partly also in the model plant Arabidopsis, little is known about the specific roles of SUMO in crop plants. Here, we report about the maize SUMO family and show that the highly conserved core isoform SUMO1 predominately locates to the nucleus where it marks euchromatin rather than heterochromatin...
March 8, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Arpita Yadav, Maneesh Lingwan, Premachandran Yadukrishnan, Shyam Kumar Masakapalli, Sourav Datta
Photomorphogenesis is an important developmental process that helps the seedlings adapt to external light conditions. B-Box proteins are a family of transcription factors that regulate photomorphogenic responses. BBX31 negatively regulates photomorphogenesis under visible light. In contrast, it promotes photomorphogenesis under UV-B and enhances tolerance to high doses of UV-B radiation. BBX31 and HY5 independently and oppositely regulate the ability of seedlings to adapt to varying light intensities. BBX31 also regulates primary root elongation under low intensities of white light...
March 5, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Saul Jimenez-Jimenez, Kenji Hashimoto, Olivia Santana, Jesús Aguirre, Kazuyuki Kuchitsu, Luis Cárdenas
Inter-cellular and inter-kingdom signaling systems of various levels of complexity regulate pathogenic and mutualistic interactions between bacteria, parasites, and fungi and animal and plant hosts. Inter-kingdom interactions between mutualistic bacteria such as rhizobia and legumes during nodulation and between fungi and plants during mycorrhizal associations, are characterized by the extensive exchange of molecular signals, which allow nitrogen and phosphate assimilation, respectively. A novel aspect of this signaling exchange is the existence of specific structures, the exosomes, that carry important molecules that shape the plant-pathogen interactions...
March 4, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Inhye Lee, Soobin Choi, Sumin Lee, Moon-Soo Soh
Light is an important environmental cue, causing a high degree of developmental plasticity in higher plants. The outcome of light-regulated developmental response is determined by not only photo-sensory systems but also endogenous physiological contexts in plants. KARRIKIN-INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2) functions as a receptor of karrikin and endogenous, as yet to be identified, KAI2 ligand (KL). The loss-of-function of KAI2 caused light-hyposensitive photomorphogenesis, affecting the expression light-responsive genes under the light conditions...
March 4, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Misa Takahashi, Gen-Ichiro Arimura, Hiromichi Morikawa
Foliar uptake of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) is governed by its reactive absorption mechanism, by which NO2 molecules diffuse through cell wall layers and simultaneously react with apoplastic ascorbate to form nitrous acid, which freely diffuses across plasmalemma. However, whether free diffusion of nitrous acid is the sole mechanism of foliar uptake of NO2 remains unknown. The involvement of ammonia-inhibitable nitrite transporters in the foliar uptake of NO2 , as reported in nitrite transport in Arabidopsis roots, is also unknown...
February 27, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Gabriela Peres Moraes de Freitas, Supratim Basu, Venkategowda Ramegowda, Julie Thomas, Letícia Carvalho Benitez, Eugenia Bolacel Braga, Andy Pereira
Rice growth and productivity is adversely affected by low-temperature stress. From a previous screen of diverse rice genotypes for cold tolerance parameters at the vegetative stage, we selected the tolerant Nipponbare and M202 genotypes and sensitive Cypress and Secano do Brazil genotypes for further analysis at the reproductive stage for physiological and yield parameters. Cold stress severely affected grain yield as estimated by the number of grain per panicle, panicle length, and 100 seed weight. Analysis of gene expression of 21 genes involved in physiological responses to low temperature tested, in the flag leaf and inflorescence tissue of these genotypes, showed an increased expression of the Lipid Transfer Protein genes LTP7 and LTP10 in flag leaf tissue of the tolerant Nipponbare and M202, along with a significant increase in the relative expression of stress-responsive transcription factors (TFs) and cold-inducible genes...
February 26, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Radi Aly, Ran Lati, Vinay K Bari, Jackline Abu-Nassar, Hanan Eizenberg
Weeds, a main threat to agricultural productivity worldwide, are mostly controlled by herbicides. To minimize herbicide usage by targeting only weedy areas, we developed a new methodology for robust weed detection that relies on manipulating the crop plant's leaf hue, without affecting crop fitness. We generated transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Xanthi) lines overexpressing the anthocyanin pigment as a traceable marker that differentiates transgenes from the surrounding weeds at an early stage. Transformation with the anthocyanin VlmybA1-2 gene produced purple-colored leaves...
February 26, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
María M Vazquez, Claudia A Casalongué, Ramiro París
Plant roots respond positively to gravity force and orientate it growth providing anchorage to the soil and gathering water and nutrient sources. The gravitropic response is a complex process wherein nitric oxide (NO) participates as a key signaling molecule. Here, we used genetically impaired genotypes to demonstrate the role of the nitrate reductase (NR) enzyme as a possible source of endogenous NO during gravitropic response in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) roots. A. thaliana has two NR genes, NIA1 and NIA2...
February 20, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Rocío Escobar Bravo, Gang Chen, Katharina Grosser, Nicole M Van Dam, Kirsten A Leiss, Peter G L Klinkhamer
Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is an important modulator of plant defenses against biotic stresses. We have recently described that different supplemental UV exposure times and irradiance intensities enhanced tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) resistance to Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). UV increased jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile) and salicylic acid (SA) levels, as well as the expression of JA- and SA-responsive genes, before thrips herbivory. Here we report how UV affects tomato defense responses upon thrips infestation, and resistance to pathogens that are susceptible to the activation of SA-associated defenses...
February 20, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Almudena Gonzalez-Mula, Marta Torres, Denis Faure
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen which provokes galls on roots and stems (crown-gall disease) and colonizes them. Two approaches combining omics were used to decipher the lifestyle of A. tumefaciens in plant tumors: an integrative approach when omics were used on A. tumefaciens cells collected from plant tumors, a deconvolution approach when omics were used on A. tumefaciens cells exploiting a single tumor metabolite in pure culture assay. This addendum highlights some recent results on the biotroph lifestyle of A...
February 17, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Hyeran Kim, Hyangju Kang, Yun Kwon, Jisun Choi, Jeong Ho Chang
Subcellular localization of trafficking proteins in a single cell affects the assembly of trafficking machinery between organelles and vesicles throughout the targeting pathway. RabGTPase is one of the regulators to direct specific targeting of cargo molecules depending on GDP/GTP bound status. We have recently determined the crystal structures of GDP-bound inactive and both GTP- and GppNHp-bound active forms of Arabidopsis RabA1a. It is notable that the switch regions of RabA1a exhibit conformational changes derived by GDP or GTP binding...
February 14, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Yeon-Ju Na, Hye-Kyung Choi, Min Young Park, Seo-Wha Choi, Kieu Thi Xuan Vo, Jong-Seong Jeon, Soo Young Kim
Approximately 75 MAP kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) have been identified in the rice genome. However, only a few of them have been functionally characterized. In this paper, we report the function of a rice MAPKKK, OsMAPKKK63. OsMAPKKK63 was found to be induced by several abiotic stresses, including high salinity, chilling and drought. Our data indicate that OsMAPKKK63 possesses in vitro kinase activity and that it interacts with rice MAP kinase kinase OsMKK1 and OsMKK6. The two rice MKKs are known mediator of the salt stress response, implying that OsMAPKKK63 may be involved in the high salinity response...
February 14, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Hirotomo Takatsuka, Masaaki Umeda
Cell elongation, which plays an important role in root penetration into the soil, responds to a variety of environmental factors. A previous study demonstrated that abscisic acid, a phytohormone involved in stress responses, inhibits root growth by delaying the onset of cell elongation. In contrast, we recently reported that cytokinins promote elongation of root cells by enhancing actin bundling. However, the control of root cell elongation through the interaction between abscisic acid and cytokinin signaling has not yet been uncovered...
February 9, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Luisa Ederli, Chantal Bianchet, Francesco Paolocci, May Alqurashi, Chris Gehring, Stefania Pasqualini
We have recently reported the proteomic signature of the early (≤30 min) drought stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells challenged with PEG. We found an over-representation in the gene ontology categories "Ribosome" and "Oxidative stress along with an increased abundance of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) and early response to dehydration (ERD) proteins. Since nitric oxide (NO) plays a pivotal role in plant responses to drought stress and induces LEA and DREB proteins, here we monitored the levels of NO in Arabidopsis cell suspensions and leaf disks challenged with PEG, and performed comparative analyses of the proteomics and transcriptomics data in public domain to search for a common set of early drought and NO responsive proteins...
February 7, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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