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Reproductive Sciences

Carlos Valério Rocha-Junior, Michele Gomes Da Broi, Cristiana Libardi Miranda-Furtado, Paula Andrea Navarro, Rui Alberto Ferriani, Juliana Meola
Endometriosis is frequently related to infertility and little is known about the mechanisms underlying this association. Some studies point to an endometrial factor involved in this condition, which could compromise embryo implantation. Progesterone plays crucial role in endometrial receptivity by acting through progesterone receptor ( PGR) isoforms PR-A and PR-B whose expression is epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation, in a specific promoter region for each isoform. Epigenetic changes in PGR-A and PGR-B may be related to progesterone resistance of endometriosis-related infertility...
February 19, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
Osamu Yoshino, Kaori Yamada-Nomoto, Kuniyuki Kano, Yosuke Ono, Mutsumi Kobayashi, Masami Ito, Satoshi Yoneda, Akitoshi Nakashima, Tomoko Shima, Takashi Onda, Yutaka Osuga, Junken Aoki, Shigeru Saito
OBJECTS: There is growing evidence that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is involved in inflammatory diseases. As endometriosis is known as an inflammatory disease, we investigated the role of S1P system in the development of endometriosis. METHODS: The expression of sphingosine kinase (SphK) 1 in endometriosis lesions was examined by immunohistochemistry. The cystic fluid of ovarian cysts/tumors were obtained to measure S1P concentrations. Endometriotic stromal cells (ESC) derived from endometrioma were used for in vitro experiments...
February 19, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
Greene Donald Royster, Justine C Harris, Amanda Nelson, Yessenia Castro, R Patrick Weitzel, John Tisdale, Ryan J Heitmann, Alan H DeCherney, Erin F Wolff
There are few treatments for patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) or recurrent implantation failure (RIF). Women with RPL and unexplained infertility have lower T regulatory cell (Treg ) expression when compared to fertile controls. A murine model has been developed with depletion of regulatory T cells (DEREG) after administration of diphtheria toxin (DT), resulting in smaller litter sizes, secondary to embryo implantation failure. Numerous murine studies have shown that adoptive transfer of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Tregs from donors improves litter sizes in DEREG mice with depleted Tregs ...
February 19, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
Yongzhong Gu, Jinlai Meng, Changting Zuo, Shan Wang, Hongyan Li, Shigang Zhao, Tao Huang, Xietong Wang, Junhao Yan
The typical hallmark of placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders is increased implantation site intermediate trophoblast (ISIT) cell numbers. However, the extent of trophoblast proliferation and apoptosis have not been found to differ from those of normal placentation. MicroRNA-125a (miR-125a) induces apoptosis in colon cancer cell by targeting myeloid cell leukemia-1 gene ( MCL1). We aimed to investigate the influence of miR-125a on ISIT cells in PAS disorders in 15 patients (self-paired trials) with placenta previa and PAS disorders...
February 19, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
Blessing E Osaghae, Sarah Arrowsmith, Susan Wray
Magnesium sulfate is used as a tocolytic, but clinical efficacy has been seriously questioned. Our objective was to use controlled ex vivo conditions and known pregnancy stages, to investigate how 2 key factors, hormones and gestation, affect magnesium's tocolytic ability. We hypothesized that these factors could underlie the varying clinical findings around magnesium's efficacy. Myometrial strips were obtained from nonpregnant (n = 10), mid-pregnant (n = 12), and term-pregnant (n = 11) mouse uterus. The strips were mounted in organ baths superfused with oxygenated physiological saline at pH 7...
February 17, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
Jessica L Bauer, Katherine Kuhn, Andrew P Bradford, Zain A Al-Safi, Mary A Harris, Robert H Eckel, Celeste Y Robledo, Anahit Malkhasyan, Joshua Johnson, Nancy R Gee, Alex J Polotsky
Dietary fish oil restores ovarian function in subfertile rats, which is thought to be associated with decreased transcription of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β-subunit. We have previously demonstrated a reduction in early follicular serum FSH levels in normal weight but not obese women after treatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Herein, we report the effect of supplementation with omega-3 PUFA on urinary reproductive hormones across the whole menstrual cycle. This interventional study included 17 eumenorrheic women, aged 24-41 years...
February 17, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
Songjuan Dai, Maobi Zhu, Rongfeng Wu, Dianchao Lin, Zhixiong Huang, Lulu Ren, Sijing Huang, Lei Cheng, Qionghua Chen
Endometriosis is an inflammation-dependent gynecologic disorder. Increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression plays an important role in the development and progression of endometriosis. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4 ) is an endogenous anti-inflammation lipid and showed inhibitory effects on the development of endometriosis; however, the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the overexpression of COX-2 was observed in ectopic endometrium of endometriosis patients compared to the normal endometrium of controls. Lipoxin A4 efficiently suppressed IL-1β-induced COX-2 protein expression in ectopic endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs) via its receptor, formyl peptide receptor 2/lipoxin A4 receptor (FPR2/ALX)...
February 17, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
Ludovico Muzii, Chiara Di Tucci, Mara Di Feliciantonio, Giulia Galati, Irene Pecorella, Antonio Radicioni, Antonella Anzuini, Maria Grazia Piccioni, Felice Patacchiola, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of laparoscopic cystectomy on ovarian reserve by means of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) serial measurements and to compare AMH values with the number of inadvertently removed follicles in histological specimens. Fifty-two women were enrolled: 34 patients with endometriomas (group 1) and 18 patients with other benign ovarian cysts (group 2). All patients underwent laparoscopic cystectomy performed by a single experienced surgeon. The AMH was measured before, and 1, 3, and 6 months after cystectomy in group 1, and before and 6 months after surgery in group 2...
February 14, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
Tomoko Arakawa, Shinya Fukuda, Tetsuya Hirata, Kazuaki Neriishi, Yu Wang, Arisa Takeuchi, Ai Saeki, Miyuki Harada, Yasushi Hirota, Takashi Matsumoto, Kaori Koga, Osamu Wada-Hiraike, Masatoshi Kurihara, Tomoyuki Fujii, Yutaka Osuga
In cases of extragenital endometriosis or microscopic endometriosis lesions, pathological diagnosis can be challenging because endometriotic stroma and glands represent only a minor component of fibrotic endometriotic lesions. For better accuracy of diagnosis, the development of a sensitive and specific epithelial marker is beneficial. Previous studies showed that PAX8 is a highly sensitive and specific marker for primary and metastatic Mullerian epithelial tumors. Therefore, we sought to examine whether PAX8 is a highly sensitive marker for glands in extragenital endometriosis...
February 14, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
Qiqi Long, Hanxi Zheng, Xishi Liu, Sun-Wei Guo
Despite the demonstrated efficacy of surgical treatment of endometriosis, recurrence after surgery still remains a formidable challenge. Surgery, especially when performed repeatedly, decreases ovarian reserve. Clearly, control of recurrence is an unmet medical need. So far nearly all efforts to control recurrence have been devoted to the identification of risk factors, biomarkers, and postoperative medication. One area that has been completely overlooked is the possibility of perioperative intervention. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that perioperative use of a nonspecific β-blocker and/or a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor can retard the growth of residual endometriotic lesions that are left intact in the primary surgery...
February 14, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
Lily He, Gene T Lee, Helen Zhou, Irina A Buhimschi, Catalin S Buhimschi, Carl P Weiner, Clifford W Mason
OBJECTIVE: Calmodulin (CaM) plays a key role in the orchestration of Ca2+ signaling events, and its regulation is considered an important component of cellular homeostasis. The control of uterine smooth muscle function is largely dependent on the regulation of Ca2+ and CaM signaling. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression, function, and regulation of CaM regulatory proteins in myometrium during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Myometrium was obtained from nonpregnant women and 4 groups of pregnant women at the time their primary cesarean delivery: (i) preterm not in labor, (ii) preterm in labor with clinical and/or histological diagnosis of chorioamnionitis, (3) term not in labor; and (4) term in labor...
February 11, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
Patrycja A Jazwiec, Xinglin Li, Brad Matushewski, Bryan S Richardson, Deborah M Sloboda
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms mediating the impacts of fetal growth restriction (FGR) on follicular development are commonly studied in mouse/rat models, where ovarian development occurs largely during the early postnatal period. These models have shown that FGR is associated with premature follicle loss, early pubertal onset, and accelerated ovarian aging. Whether the same occurs in precocious species is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Since guinea pig follicle development occurs in utero in a manner consistent with human ovarian development, we sought to determine whether FGR had similar impacts on guinea pig ovarian development...
February 11, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
Jeong Woo Park, Kyo Hoon Park, Ji Eun Lee, Yu Mi Kim, Se Jin Lee, Dong Huey Cheon
We aimed to identify maternal blood biomarkers predictive of histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) in the plasma of women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and to determine whether the combination of these biomarkers with conventional clinical variables can improve the prediction of HCA. This retrospective cohort study included 82 consecutive women with PPROM (23-34 gestational weeks) who delivered within 96 hours of blood sampling. A membrane-based human antibody microarray was used to analyze the plasma proteome...
February 6, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
Senay Cankut, Turgay Dinc, Mehmet Cincik, Guler Ozturk, Belgin Selam
AIM: Human sperm DNA fragmentation is one of the factors suggested for male infertility. The ratio of sperm DNA damage in semen may adversely affect both the fertilization rate and the embryo development of in vitro fertilization/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Sperm cryopreservation both increases the success rates in assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) and contributes to the preservation of fertility before testis surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The aim of the current study is to determine sperm DNA fragmentation, following cryopreservation...
February 4, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
Yi Dai, Xinmei Zhang, Min Xue, Yingfang Zhou, Pengran Sun, Jinhua Leng
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate potential factors, especially early-life exposures, associated with endometrioma (OMA) and/or deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) in Chinese women. METHODS: This is a subgroup analyses of the FEELING study, which was a case-control study that investigated the clinical, lifestyle, and environmental factors associated with OMA and/or DIE in China, Russia, and France. In this subgroup analysis, the data for the Chinese participants were further analyzed using logistic regression model...
January 22, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
Anne C Heuerman, Trevor T Hollinger, Ramkumar Menon, Sam Mesiano, Steven M Yellon
The prepartum transition from a soft to ripening cervix is an inflammatory process that occurs well before birth when systemic progesterone is near peak concentration. This 2-part study first determined that stromal fibroblasts but not macrophages in the cervix have progesterone receptors (PRs). Neither the number of PR cells in cervix sections nor the relative abundance or ratio of nuclear PR isoforms (PR-A/PR-B) were diminished in mice between day 15 of pregnancy and term. Second in mice lacking PR-B ( Pgrtm20mc ), the number of cells that expressed the PR-A isoform were maintained during this period of prepartum cervix remodeling...
January 17, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
S Joseph Huang, Chie-Pein Chen, Lynn Buchwalder, Ya-Chun Yu, Longzhu Piao, Chun-Yen Huang, Frederick Schatz, Charles J Lockwood
C-X3-C motif ligand 1 (CX3CL1) mediates migration, survival, and adhesion of natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, and T-cells to endothelial/epithelial cells. Aberrant numbers and/or activation of these decidual immune cells elicit preeclampsia development. Decidual macrophages and NK cells are critical for implantation, while macrophage-derived tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), and NK cell-derived interferon-γ (IFN-γ) are associated with preeclampsia development. Thus, serum and decidual levels of CX3CL1 from first-trimester pregnancy and preeclampsia-complicated term pregnancy were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
January 3, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
Jun Zhai, Gui-Dong Yao, Jing-Yuan Wang, Qing-Ling Yang, Liang Wu, Zi-Yin Chang, Ying-Pu Sun
To some extent, the use of metformin may improve endometrial receptivity and pregnancy outcomes of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection. However, the mechanism is not well-known. The endometrium of metformin-treated group (metformin-treated patients with PCOS) and the control group (non-metformin-treated patients with PCOS) were analyzed for the expression of homeobox A10 (HOXA10) and integrin beta-3 (ITGB3) and differential micro RNA (miRNA) expression profiles...
January 1, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
Kai-Lun Hu, Hongcui Zhao, Zheying Min, Yilei He, Tianjie Li, Xiumei Zhen, Yun Ren, Hsun-Ming Chang, Yang Yu, Rong Li
Kisspeptins are a family of neuropeptides that are essential for fertility. Recent experimental data suggest a putative role of kisspeptin signaling in the direct control of ovarian function. To explore the expression of KISS1 and KISS1 receptor (KISS1R) in human granulosa lutein cells and the potential role of KISS1/KISS1R system in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), we measured the concentration of KISS1 in follicular fluid, the expression of KISS1 and KISS1R in granulosa lutein cells, and the circulating hormones...
December 30, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Guixiang Chen, Xiaohong Jin, Lihong Zhang, Jianying Niu, Yong Gu
The mechanisms of proteinuria development in preeclampsia (PE) are still enigmatic. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components may play a role. Maternal serum and urinary concentrations of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], angiotensin II (Ang II), and angiotensinogen in women with PE (n = 14), gestational hypertension (n = 14), and normal pregnancy were quantified. The alteration in these concentrations was used to evaluate their relationships with podocyturia and proteinuria in PE. In addition, the podocytes cultured in vitro were interfered in serum of preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women, with or without Ang-(1-7)...
December 30, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
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