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Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

Chunliang Feng, Li Wang, Ting Li, Pengfei Xu
Loneliness is an increasingly prevalent condition linking with enhanced morbidity and premature mortality. Despite recent proposal on medicalization of loneliness, so far no effort has been made to establish a model capable of predicting loneliness at the individual level. Here, we applied a machine learning approach to decode loneliness from whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity. The relationship between whole-brain RSFC and loneliness was examined in a linear predictive model. The results revealed that individual loneliness could be predicted by within- and between-network connectivity of prefrontal, limbic, and temporal systems, which are involved in cognitive control, emotional processing, and social perceptions and communications, respectively...
March 15, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Carolina Pletti, Jean Decety, Markus Paulus
Moral identity, or moral self, is the degree to which being moral is important to a person's self-concept. It is hypothesized to be the "missing link" between moral judgment and moral action. However, its cognitive and psychophysiological mechanisms are still subject to debate. In this study, we used Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to examine whether the moral self concept is related to how people process prosocial and antisocial actions. To this end, participants' implicit and explicit moral self-concept was assessed...
March 11, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Max M Owens, Courtland S Hyatt, Joshua C Gray, Nathan T Carter, James MacKillop, Joshua D Miller, Lawrence H Sweet
This study is a replication of an existing large study (N = 507) on the surface-based morphometric correlates of Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits. The same methods were used as the original study in another large sample drawn from the same population (N = 597) with results then being aggregated from both samples (N = 1104), providing the largest investigation into the neuroanatomical correlates of FFM personality traits to date. Clusters of association between brain morphometry and each FFM trait are reported...
March 8, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Anna E van 't Veer, Sandra Thijssen, Jurriaan Witteman, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
Perceiving potential threat to an infant and responding to it is crucial for offspring survival and parent-child bonding. Using a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging and multi-informant reports, this longitudinal study explores the neural basis for paternal responses to threat to infants prenatally (N = 21) and early postnatally (n = 17). Participants viewed videos showing an infant in danger and matched control videos, while instructed to imagine that the infant was their own or someone else's...
March 7, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Jennifer Yih, Danielle E Beam, Kieran C R Fox, Josef Parvizi
The subjective and behavioral effects of intracranial electrical stimulation (iES) have been studied for decades, but there is a knowledge gap regarding the relationship between the magnitude of electric current and the type, intensity, and valence of evoked subjective experiences. We report on rare iES data from 18 neurosurgical patients with implanted intracranial electrodes in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the insula (INS), and the anterior portion of cingulate cortex (ACC). ACC stimulation elicited somatic and visceral sensations, whereas OFC stimulation predominantly elicited olfactory and gustatory responses, and INS stimulation elicited a mix of effects involving somatic and visceral sensations, olfaction, and gustation...
March 4, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Brendan Gaesser, Josh Hirschfeld-Kroen, Emily A Wasserman, Mary Horn, Liane Young
Why are we willing to help others? Recent behavioral work on episodic processes (i.e., the ability to represent an event that is specific in time and place) suggests that imagining and remembering scenes of helping a person in need increases intentions to help. Here, we provide insight into the cognitive and neural mechanisms that enhance prosocial intentions via episodic simulation and memory. In Experiment 1, we scanned participants using functional neuroimaging as they imagined and remembered helping episodes, and completed non-episodic control conditions accounting for exposure to the story of need and conceptual priming of helping...
February 26, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Areeba Adnan, Roger Beaty, Jaeger Lam, R Nathan Spreng, Gary R Turner
Creativity refers to the ability to generate novel associations and has been linked to better problem-solving and real-world functional abilities. In younger adults, creative cognition has been associated with functional connectivity among brain networks implicated in executive control (fronto-parietal and salience networks) and associative or elaborative processing (default network). Here, we investigate whether creativity is associated with the intrinsic network architecture of the brain and how these associations may differ for younger and older adults...
February 20, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Jesús Adrián-Ventura, Víctor Costumero, Maria Antònia Parcet, César Ávila
Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) proposes a widely used taxonomy of human personality linked to individual differences at both behavioral and neuropsychological levels that describe a predisposition to psychopathology. However, the body of RST research was based on animal findings, and little is known about their anatomical correspondence in humans. Here we set out to investigate MRI structural correlates (i.e. voxel-based morphometry) of the main personality dimensions proposed by the RST in a group of 400 healthy young adults who completed the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ)...
February 8, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Kelong Lu, Ning Hao
This study aimed to investigate the situation in which interpersonal brain synchronization (IBS) occurs during a collaborative task and examined its trajectory over time by developing a novel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning paradigm. Participants were asked to perform a collaborative task in three-person groups where two of the members are real participants and one is a confederate. Compared to dyads between real participants and confederates, real-participant pairings showed greater cooperation behavior and IBS between bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
February 8, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Cody A Cushing, Hee Yeon Im, Reginald B Adams, Noreen Ward, Kestutis Kveraga
Human faces evolved to signal emotions, with their meaning contextualized by eye gaze. For instance, a fearful expression paired with averted gaze clearly signals both presence of threat and its probable location. Conversely, direct gaze paired with facial fear leaves the source of the fear-evoking threat ambiguous. Given that visual perception occurs in parallel streams with different processing emphases, our goal was to test a recently developed hypothesis that clear and ambiguous threat cues would differentially engage the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) pathways, respectively...
February 5, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Samuel J Hansen, Katie L McMahon, Greig I de Zubicaray
Every language has words deemed to be socially inappropriate or "taboo" to utter. Taboo word production appears prominently in language disorders following brain injury. Yet, we know little about the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in processing taboo compared to neutral language. In the present study, we introduced taboo distractor words in the picture word interference paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how these words influence spoken word production. Taboo distractor words significantly slowed picture naming latencies compared to neutral words...
February 1, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Anne C Laurita, Cindy Hazan, R Nathan Spreng
Recent investigations in neuroscience elucidate the neural basis of close other cognitive representations, which serve functions central to our health and happiness. Yet, there are persistent barriers to this research, including disparate research methods and the absence of a common theoretical background. The present review connects neuroimaging and attachment theory within a novel social, cognitive, and affective framework. We apply attachment theory to understand why we would expect cognitive representations of close others to be different from other social neural representations...
February 1, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Feng Kong, Kairong Yang, Sonia Sajjad, Wenjing Yan, Xuewen Li, Jingjing Zhao
Social well-being reflects the perception of one's social functioning, which plays an important role in physical and psychological health. However, the exact neuroanatomical substrate for social well-being remains unclear. To address the issue, we employed the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method to probe the neuroanatomical basis of individual variation in social well-being in young healthy adults (n =136). The results revealed a significant negative association between social well-being and regional gray matter density (rGMD) in an anatomical cluster that mainly includes the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) that has been involved in emotion regulation and social cognition...
February 1, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Ana Cubillo, Aidan B Makwana, Todd A Hare
Incentives are primary determinants of if and how well an organism will perform a given behaviour. Here, we examined how incentive valence and magnitude influence task switching, a critical cognitive control process, and test the predictions that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the ventral striatum (vStr) function as key nodes linking motivation and control systems in the brain. Our results indicate that reward and punishment incentives have both common and distinct effects on cognitive control at the behavioural and neurobiological levels...
January 28, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Constantin Speitel, Eva Traut-Mattausch, Eva Jonas
Recent studies explored a network of brain regions involved in economic decision making. The present study focusses on two of those regions, each relevant for specific and distinct functions in economic decision making: the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) and the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC). In two experiments using transcranial direct current stimulation, we explored two proposed functions of these areas in bargaining situations using the ultimatum game: understanding the others perspective and integration of fairness norms...
January 28, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Bastian Schiller, Lorena R R Gianotti, Thomas Baumgartner, Daria Knoch
Why are some people more biased than others in their implicit evaluations during social interaction? The dispositional determinants of individual differences in implicit intergroup bias are poorly understood. Here, we explored whether such variability might be explained by stable neural traits. For that purpose, we used the source-localized resting electroencephalograms of 83 members of naturalistic social groups to explain their bias in an in-/outgroup implicit association test. Lower levels of resting theta current density in the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) were associated with stronger implicit intergroup bias and explained unique variability in bias beyond relevant personality questionnaires...
January 25, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Jiao Liu, Jing Tao, Weilin Liu, Jia Huang, Xiehua Xue, Ming Li, Mingge Yang, Jingfang Zhu, Courtney Lang, Joel Park, Yiheng Tu, Georgia Wilson, Lidian Chen, Jian Kong
The default mode network (DMN) plays an importment role in age-related cognitive decline. This study aims to explore the modulation effect of two mind-body interventions (Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin) on DMN in elderly individuals. Participants between 50 and 70 years old were recruited and randomized into a Tai Chi Chuan, Baduanjin, or control group. The Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese Revision (WMS-CR) and resting state fMRI scans were administered at baseline and following 12 weeks of exercise. Seed-based resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) was calculated...
January 18, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
B Špiláková, D-J Shaw, K Czekóová, M Brázdil
During social interactions, each individual's actions are simultaneously a consequence of and an antecedent to their interaction partner's behaviour. Capturing online the brain processes underlying such mutual dependency requires simultaneous measurements of all interactants' brains during real-world exchange ("hyperscanning"). This demands a precise characterisation of the type of interaction under investigation, however, and analytical techniques capable of capturing interpersonal dependencies. We adapted an interactive task capable of dissociating between two dimensions of inter-dependent social exchange: goal structure (co-operation vs...
January 15, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Maria Pyasik, Adriana Salatino, Dalila Burin, Anna Berti, Raffaella Ricci, Lorenzo Pia
Despite the fact that any successful achievement of willed actions necessarily entails the sense of body ownership (the feeling of owning the moving body parts), it is still unclear how this happens. To address this issue at both behavioral and neural level, we capitalized on sensory attenuation phenomenon (a self-generated stimulus is perceived as less intense than an identical externally-generated stimulus). We compared the intensity of somatosensory stimuli produced by one's own intended movements and by movements of an embodied fake hand...
January 15, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Agnès Falco, Cédric Albinet, Anne-Claire Rattat, Isabelle Paul, Eve Fabre
In the present study, participants played a modified ultimatum game simulating a situation of inclusion/exclusion, in which either the participant or a rival could be selected to play as the responder. This selection was made either randomly by a computer (i.e. random pairing mode) or by the proposer (i.e. choice mode), based on physical appearance. Being chosen by the proposer triggered positive reciprocal behavior in participants, who accepted unfair offers more frequently than when they had been selected by the computer...
January 3, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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