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European Review of Aging and Physical Activity

Uros Marusic, Wolfgang Taube, Shawnda A Morrison, Lea Biasutti, Bruno Grassi, Kevin De Pauw, Romain Meeusen, Rado Pisot, Jan Ruffieux
Background: The aging process alters upright posture and locomotion control from an automatically processed to a more cortically controlled one. The present study investigated a postural-cognitive dual-task paradigm in young and older adults using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). Methods: Twenty healthy participants (10 older adults 72 ± 3 y, 10 young adults 23 ± 3 y) performed a cognitive (serial subtractions) and a postural task (tandem stance) as single-tasks (ST) and concurrently as a dual-task (DT) while the oxygenation levels of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) were measured...
2019: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Agnieszka Lemanska, Karen Poole, Jonathan J Aning, Bruce A Griffin, Ralph Manders, John M Saxton, Joe Wainwright, Sara Faithfull
Background: Assessing fitness and promoting regular physical activity can improve health outcomes and early recovery in prostate cancer. This is however, underutilised in clinical practice. The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is increasingly being used pre-treatment to measure aerobic capacity and peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak - a gold standard in cardiopulmonary fitness assessment). However, CPET requires expensive equipment and may not always be appropriate. The Siconolfi step test (SST) is simpler and cheaper, and could provide an alternative...
2019: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Tomoko Yamaguchi, Osamu Yamamura, Tadanori Hamano, Kazuhiro Murakita, Yasunari Nakamoto
Background: Regaining physical function after a stroke is important for independence and for performing activities of daily living. Particularly, cerebrovascular disease, which includes stroke, is not entirely avoidable. In the present study, we aimed to observe the association between premorbid physical activities and gait independence after a stroke. Methods: Consecutive cerebrovascular stroke patients were asked to fill a questionnaire regarding their premorbid physical activities...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Guanli Xie, Ting Rao, Lili Lin, Zhengkun Lin, Tianshen Xiao, Ming'ge Yang, Ying Xu, Jinmei Fan, Shufang Lin, Jinsong Wu, Xiaodong Feng, Li Li, Jing Tao, Lidian Chen
Backgroud: Tai Chi Chuan was used for stroke survivors with balance impairments. However, even a short-form of Tai Chi Chuan includes forms that make the exercise challenging for the stroke survivors. Tai Chi Yunshou (wave hands in the cloud) is the "mother" form and the fundamental form of all Tai Chi Chuan styles, which is considered more suitable and feasible for stroke survivors with balance impairments. So this study was designed to evaluate the effects of Tai Chi Yunshou exercise on community-based stroke patients with balance dysfunctions...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Daniel Aggio, Olia Papacosta, Lucy T Lennon, Sarah Ash, Peter H Whincup, S Goya Wannamethee, Barbara J Jefferis
Background: Previous physical activity (PA) tracking studies have examined the stability of overall PA and/or PA types, but few have investigated how specific types of sport/exercise track over the life course. The aim of this study was to determine how specific sports/exercises in midlife track and predict future sport/exercise and PA in men transitioning to old age. Methods: Seven thousand seven hundred thirty-five men (aged 40-59 years) recruited in 1978-80 were followed up after 12, 16 and 20 years...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Shruti Patelia, Rachael C Stone, Rona El-Bakri, Mehrnaz Adli, Joseph Baker
Background: Identifying the optimal type and amount of activity for the maintenance of function in older adults has proved challenging. On the one hand, Masters Athletes have been proposed as the ideal model of successful aging but most of this research has focused on physical functioning. On the other hand, the importance of cognitive engagement has been emphasized, which may be more strongly related to activities such as playing chess. The current study aimed to compare physical health outcomes (i...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Pierre Louis Bernard, Hubert Blain, Aurelie Gerazime, Olivier Maurelli, Jean Bousquet, Grégory Ninot
Background: The aims of this study were (i) to define the relationship between a physical reconditioning cycle using balance exercises and muscular-articular stress and the balance capabilities of sedentary older adults and (ii) to assess whether older adults with weaker equilibrium abilities have a significantly limited progression. Our sample consisted of 338 people (263 women, 75 men) with an age, weight and height of 74.4 years (+/- 8.6), 67 kg (+/- 13.6) and 161.4 cm (+/- 8) and with a body mass index of 25...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Akito Yoshiko, Aya Tomita, Ryosuke Ando, Madoka Ogawa, Shohei Kondo, Akira Saito, Noriko I Tanaka, Teruhiko Koike, Yoshiharu Oshida, Hiroshi Akima
Background: Older individuals have been shown to present muscle atrophy in conjunction with increased fat fraction in some muscles. The proportion of fat and connective tissue within the skeletal muscle can be estimated from axial B-mode ultrasound images using echo intensity (EI). EI was used to calculate the index of muscle quality. Walking, home-based weight-bearing resistance training, and its combinations are considered simple, easy, and practical exercise interventions for older adults...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Anne K Gulsvik, Marius Myrstad, Ida Wilson Landgraff, Nina Emaus, Anette Hylen Ranhoff
Background: Physical activity (PA) is generally beneficial for bone health, but the effect of high levels of PA over many years, in older women, is unknown. Methods: T-score from Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and self-reported baseline characteristics were recorded for 24 female, cross-country-skiing-competitors, aged 68-76 years, from the Birkebeiner Ageing Study. Data from 647 women in the same age range from the Tromso-6 population study, with recorded DXA findings, were used for comparison...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Jitka Vseteckova, Manik Deepak-Gopinath, Erica Borgstrom, Caroline Holland, Jan Draper, Yannis Pappas, Eamonn McKeown, Klara Dadova, Steve Gray
Objectives: Research suggests targeted exercise is important for people living with dementia, especially those living in residential care. The aim of this review was to collect and synthesize evidence on the known barriers and facilitators to adherence to group exercise of institutionalized older people living with dementia. Methods: We searched all available electronic databases. Additionally, we searched trial registries (, and WHO ICTRP) for ongoing studies...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Thwe Zar Chi Htut, Vimonwan Hiengkaew, Chutima Jalayondeja, Mantana Vongsirinavarat
Background: Physical exercise (PE), virtual reality-based exercise (VRE), and brain exercise (BE) can influence physical and cognitive conditions in older persons. However, it is not known which of the three types of exercises provide the best effects on physical and cognitive status, and which exercise is preferred by older persons. This study compared the effects of PE, VRE, and BE on balance, muscle strength, cognition, and fall concern. In addition, exercise effort perception and contentment in older persons was evaluated...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Anne-Violette Bruyneel, Simone C Gafner, Serge Ferrari, Gabriel Gold, Dominique Monnin, Philippe Terrier, Caroline H Bastiaenen, Lara Allet
Background: Reduced hip muscle strength has been shown to be a major factor related to falls in older persons. However, comprehensive assessment of hip abduction strength in the clinical setting is challenging. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and intra-rater reliability of a quick and simple hip abductor strength test in a functional standing position. Methods: Individuals over 65 years of age were recruited from the geriatric department of a university hospital and an outpatient clinic...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Kilian Rapp, Stefanie Mikolaizak, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Michael D Denkinger, Jochen Klenk
Background: Physical activity is considered an effective measure to promote health in older people. There is evidence that the number of outdoor trips increases physical activity by increasing walking duration. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between daily time out-of-home and walking duration. Furthermore, predictors for walking duration and time out-of-home were evaluated. Methods: Walking duration was measured prospectively over a 1 week period by a body-fixed sensor and the time out-of-home was assessed by a questionnaire at the same days...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Astrid Bergland, Marit Fougner, Anne Lund, Jonas Debesay
Background: Research that provides better understanding of the motivational processes in older age to maintain a healthy and active lifestyle is sought after. We apply theoretical approaches to cultural capital, active and healthy aging health to shed light on the women's experiences in maintaining physical capabilities through an active lifestyle, and thereby facilitating their own inclusion in society. Thus, the aim of this paper is to explore why older home dwelling women over the age of 70 years or more spend time in physical exercise and their experiences about the importance of participating in group exercise for their daily life...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Philippe Jean-Luc Gradidge, Shane A Norris, Richard Munthali, Nigel J Crowther
Background: The increasing prevalence of obesity in sub-Saharan African women is not well understood, and black South African women in the region are particularly vulnerable. This study aimed to examine whether the relationship of socioeconomic status (SES) with changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) is mediated by physical activity in ageing African women. Methods: In a longitudinal analysis of the 518 caregivers associated with the Birth to Twenty Plus study, the role of SES associated with 10-year changes in BMI and WC was tested using structural equation modelling (SEM)...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Sunghye Kim, Michael E Miller, Marina Lin, W Jack Rejeski, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Anthony P Marsh, Leanne Groban
Background: Mobility is fundamental to maintenance of an independent lifestyle and can predict clinical outcomes after health events among older individuals. However, certain clinical situations do not accommodate physical or self-assessments. This investigation examines whether proxy-reported assessments of function using the Mobility Assessment Tool-short (MAT-sf) form is a reliable alternative. Methods: Sixty-six older persons (≥ age 70) and their proxies were enrolled...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Elias Villiger, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
Background: The participation of master cross-country (XC) skiers in training and competition has increased during the last decades; however, little is known yet about whether these athletes differ from their younger counterparts in aspects of performance such as pacing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the combined effect of age and performance (race time) on pacing in cross-country (XC) skiing. We analyzed all finishers ( n  = 79,722) in 'Vasaloppet' from 2012 to 2017, the largest cross-country skiing race in the world, classified according to their race time into 10 groups: 3-4 h, 4-5 h, ...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Kohei Watanabe, Motoki Kouzaki, Madoka Ogawa, Hiroshi Akima, Toshio Moritani
Background: Since age-related muscle strength loss cannot be explained solely by muscle atrophy, other determinants would also contribute to muscle strength in elderly. The present study aimed to clarify contribution of neuromuscular activation pattern to muscle strength in elderly group. From 88 elderlies (age: 61~ 83 years), multi-channel surface electromyography (EMG) of the vastus lateralis muscle was recorded with two-dimensional 64 electrodes during isometric submaximal ramp-up knee extension to assess neuromuscular activation pattern...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Ren Ru Zhao, Anthony J O'Sullivan, Maria A Fiatarone Singh
Background: Diabetes is an important risk factor for cognitive impairment. Although some studies suggest that physical exercise can minimize age-related cognitive declines or improve brain morphology or function, benefits in diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance are unclear. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of exercise or physical activity on cognition in adults with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance. Methods: An electronic search for studies published from the earliest record until February 2017 was conducted using Medline, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Oron Levin, Yael Netz, Gal Ziv
The decline in cognitive and motor functions with age affects the performance of the aging healthy population in many daily life activities. Physical activity appears to mitigate this decline or even improve motor and cognitive abilities in older adults. The current systematic review will focus mainly on behavioral studies that look into the dual effects of different types of physical training (e.g., balance training, aerobic training, strength training, group sports, etc.) on cognitive and motor tasks in older adults with no known cognitive or motor disabilities or disease...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
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