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Genes & Nutrition

Xue Zhao, Zhao Chen, Zengyuan Zhou, Yuzheng Li, Yuanyuan Wang, Zihao Zhou, Huimin Lu, Changhao Sun, Xia Chu
Background: Hepatic insulin resistance (IR) plays a crucial role in the development of many metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of IR and related diseases; however, studies of miRNAs in hepatic IR are limited. Method: In this study, we adopted a high-throughput sequencing approach to construct small RNA libraries in the livers of normal mice and high-fat diet-induced hepatic IR mice. Results: Through analysis of data, 107 known and 56 novel miRNAs were identified as differentially expressed miRNAs between the two groups...
2019: Genes & Nutrition
Bastien Vallée Marcotte, Hubert Cormier, Véronique Garneau, Julie Robitaille, Sophie Desroches, Marie-Claude Vohl
Objective: The purpose of this study was to draw a global portrait of the current knowledge and interest regarding nutrigenetics in a population of French Canadians from the province of Quebec (Canada). Methods: A total of 2238 residents from the province of Quebec, Canada, were recruited via social networks and from the Laval University employee/student lists to participate in a 37-question online survey on nutrigenetics. Results: Most participants were not familiar with the term "nutrigenetics" (82...
2019: Genes & Nutrition
Kai Lüersen, Thomas Röder, Gerald Rimbach
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been increasingly recognized as an important model organism in nutrition research. In order to conduct nutritional studies in fruit flies, special attention should be given to the composition of the experimental diets. Besides complex diets, which are often based on maize, yeast, sucrose, and agar, Drosophila can be also fed chemically defined diets. These so-called holidic diets are standardized in terms of their macro- and micronutrient composition although the quantitative nutrient requirements of flies have yet not been fully established and warrant further investigations...
2019: Genes & Nutrition
H Diao, A R Jiao, B Yu, X B Mao, D W Chen
Background: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of gastric infusion of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on gut barrier function in a pig model. In this study, 21 DLY barrows with an average initial body weight of (8.31 ± 0.72) kg were randomly allotted into three treatments: (1) control, (2) infusing low SCFA, S1, (3) infusing high SCFA, S2. The experimental period lasted for 7 days. Results: Gastric infusion of SCFA increased the concentrations of SCFA in serum and digesta, and enhanced the mRNA and protein abundances of SCFA receptors in pig intestine ( P  < 0...
2019: Genes & Nutrition
Giuseppe Iacomino, Paola Russo, Pasquale Marena, Fabio Lauria, Antonella Venezia, Wolfgang Ahrens, Stefaan De Henauw, Pasquale De Luca, Ronja Foraita, Kathrin Günther, Lauren Lissner, Dénes Molnár, Luis A Moreno, Michael Tornaritis, Toomas Veidebaum, Alfonso Siani
Background: Nearly 10 years ago, the World Health Organization reported the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity worldwide as a challenge for public health due to the associated adverse consequences. Epidemiological studies established a firm relationship between an elevated body mass index and chronic conditions such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, heart disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and some types of cancer. Omic studies demonstrated that microRNA (miRNA) profile changes in tissues correlate with a number of diseases, including obesity...
2019: Genes & Nutrition
Dieter-Christian Gottschling, Frank Döring
The suitability of C. elegans as a model for the question of nutritional science is a controversial topic. The discussion makes clear that C. elegans is its own best model for revealing, via genetic approaches, biological principles of nutritional behavior, and the biochemical function of vitamins. In this case, the model has a discovery function. Worm research serves also in the identification of nutrition-dependent pathways that could be used for novel approaches in human nutritional studies. This heuristic function of the model guides the applied nutrition research in an innovative direction...
2019: Genes & Nutrition
Giulia Praticò, Qian Gao, Claudine Manach, Lars O Dragsted
Allium vegetables are widely consumed around the world and are known for their potential bioactive components improving human health. These effects have been extensively investigated; however, the results were inconsistent in human studies. Biomarkers of food intake (BFIs) could provide objective measurements of food intake in observational studies and assess compliance in intervention studies. Therefore, the discovery and application of BFIs for Allium vegetables would facilitate the exploring and understanding of the health benefit of Allium vegetables...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Songhwa Choi, Hyeonyoung Ko, Kayoung Lee, Joohon Sung, Yun-Mi Song
Background: Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent worldwide. It is more prevalent in Eastern Asia region, including Korea. In addition to various environmental factors that influence serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, genetic influence also plays a significant role based on studies estimating the heritability of 25(OH)D in non-Asian populations. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic influence on serum 25(OH)D concentration in Korean men using the twin and family data...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Mostafa Moradi Sarabi, Seyed Abdollah Zahedi, Naser Pajouhi, Peyman Khosravi, Shahrokh Bagheri, Hassan Ahmadvand, Soroosh Shahryarhesami
Background: There is increasing evidence indicating an aberrant expression of miRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Growing evidence has suggested that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) could modulate the remodeling of the epigenome. No study has yet been published to examine the direct effect of PUFA on the promoter methylation of miRNAs. This study aimed to examine the potential clinical application of PUFA on the promoter DNA methylation of miR-126 and its angiogenic target molecule (VEGF) in the CRC cells...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Azraul Mumtazah Razak, Shy Cian Khor, Faizul Jaafar, Norwahidah Abdul Karim, Suzana Makpol
Background: Several muscle-specific microRNAs (myomiRs) are differentially expressed during cellular senescence. However, the role of dietary compounds on myomiRs remains elusive. This study aimed to elucidate the modulatory role of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on myomiRs and myogenic genes during differentiation of human myoblasts. Young and senescent human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMM) were treated with 50 μg/mL TRF for 24 h before and after inducing differentiation. Results: The fusion index and myotube surface area were higher ( p  < 0...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Marynka Ulaszewska, Natalia Vázquez-Manjarrez, Mar Garcia-Aloy, Rafael Llorach, Fulvio Mattivi, Lars O Dragsted, Giulia Praticò, Claudine Manach
Fruit is a key component of a healthy diet. However, it is still not clear whether some classes of fruit may be more beneficial than others and whether all individuals whatever their age, gender, health status, genotype, or gut microbiota composition respond in the same way to fruit consumption. Such questions require further observational and intervention studies in which the intake of a specific fruit can be precisely assessed at the population and individual levels. Within the Food Biomarker Alliance Project (FoodBAll Project) under the Joint Programming Initiative "A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life", an ambitious action was undertaken aiming at reviewing existent literature in a systematic way to identify validated and promising biomarkers of intake for all major food groups, including fruits...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Domenico Sergi, Fiona M Campbell, Christine Grant, Amanda C Morris, Eva-Maria Bachmair, Christiane Koch, Fiona H McLean, Aifric Muller, Nigel Hoggard, Baukje de Roos, Begona Porteiro, Mark V Boekschoten, Fiona C McGillicuddy, Darcy Kahn, Phyllis Nicol, Jonas Benzler, Claus-Dieter Mayer, Janice E Drew, Helen M Roche, Michael Muller, Ruben Nogueiras, Carlos Dieguez, Alexander Tups, Lynda M Williams
Background: Energy homeostasis is regulated by the hypothalamus but fails when animals are fed a high-fat diet (HFD), and leptin insensitivity and obesity develops. To elucidate the possible mechanisms underlying these effects, a microarray-based transcriptomics approach was used to identify novel genes regulated by HFD and leptin in the mouse hypothalamus. Results: Mouse global array data identified serpinA3N as a novel gene highly upregulated by both a HFD and leptin challenge...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Pedapati S C Sri Harsha, Roshaida Abdul Wahab, Mar Garcia-Aloy, Francisco Madrid-Gambin, Sheila Estruel-Amades, Bernhard Watzl, Cristina Andrés-Lacueva, Lorraine Brennan
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s12263-018-0614-6.].
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Linda H Münger, Mar Garcia-Aloy, Rosa Vázquez-Fresno, Doreen Gille, Albert Remus R Rosana, Anna Passerini, María-Trinidad Soria-Florido, Grégory Pimentel, Tanvir Sajed, David S Wishart, Cristina Andres Lacueva, Guy Vergères, Giulia Praticò
Dairy and egg products constitute an important part of Western diets as they represent an excellent source of high-quality proteins, vitamins, minerals and fats. Dairy and egg products are highly diverse and their associations with a range of nutritional and health outcomes are therefore heterogeneous. Such associations are also often weak or debated due to the difficulty in establishing correct assessments of dietary intake. Therefore, in order to better characterize associations between the consumption of these foods and health outcomes, it is important to identify reliable biomarkers of their intake...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Pedapati S C Sri Harsha, Roshaida Abdul Wahab, Mar Garcia Aloy, Francisco Madrid-Gambin, Sheila Estruel-Amades, Bernhard Watzl, Cristina Andrés-Lacueva, Lorraine Brennan
There is a growing interest in assessing dietary intake more accurately across different population groups, and biomarkers have emerged as a complementary tool to replace traditional dietary assessment methods. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature available and evaluate the applicability and validity of biomarkers of legume intake reported across various observational and intervention studies. A systematic search in PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge identified 44 studies which met the inclusion criteria for the review...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Richard J Munthali, Venesa Sahibdeen, Juliana Kagura, Liesl M Hendry, Shane A Norris, Ken K Ong, Felix R Day, Zané Lombard
Background: Ninety-seven independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are robustly associated with adult body mass index (BMI kg/m2 ) in Caucasian populations. The relevance of such variants in African populations at different stages of the life course (such as childhood) is unclear. We tested whether a genetic risk score composed of the aforementioned SNPs was associated with BMI from infancy to early adulthood. We further tested whether this genetic effect was mediated by conditional weight gain at different growth periods...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Liang Hu, Fei Han, Lin Chen, Xie Peng, Daiwen Chen, De Wu, Lianqiang Che, Keying Zhang
Background: Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) neonates impair postnatal skeletal muscle growth. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high nutrient intake (HNI) during the suckling period could improve muscle growth and metabolic status of IUGR pigs. Methods: Twelve pairs of IUGR and normal birth weight (NBW) pigs (7 days old) were randomly assigned to adequate nutrient intake and HNI formula milk groups. Psoas major (PM) muscle sample was obtained after 21 days of rearing...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Charlotte C J R Michielsen, Enrique Almanza-Aguilera, Elske M Brouwer-Brolsma, Mireia Urpi-Sarda, Lydia A Afman
Background: To unravel true links between diet and health, it is important that dietary exposure is accurately measured. Currently, mainly self-reporting methods (e.g. food frequency questionnaires and 24-h recalls) are used to assess food intake in epidemiological studies. However, these traditional instruments are subjective measures and contain well-known biases. Especially, estimating the intake of the group of confectionary products, such as products containing cocoa and liquorice, remains a challenge...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Anne Leiteritz, Benjamin Dilberger, Uwe Wenzel, Elena Fitzenberger
Background: The neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease is caused by the accumulation of toxic aggregates of β-amyloid in the human brain. On the one hand, hyperhomocysteinemia has been shown to be a risk factor for cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. On the other hand, betaine has been demonstrated to attenuate Alzheimer-like pathological changes induced by homocysteine. It is reasonable to conclude that this is due to triggering the remethylation pathway mediated by betaine-homocysteine-methyltransferase...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Tine Iskov Kopp, Malene Outzen, Anja Olsen, Ulla Vogel, Gitte Ravn-Haren
Background: Selenium is an essential trace element and is suggested to play a role in the etiology of a number of chronic diseases. Genetic variation in genes encoding selenoproteins, such as selenoprotein P and the glutathione peroxidases, may affect selenium status and, thus, individual susceptibility to some chronic diseases. In the present study, we aimed to (1) investigate the effect of mussel and fish intake on glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity and (2) examine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in the GPX1 , GPX4 , and SELENOP genes modify the effect of mussel and fish intake for 26 weeks on whole blood selenium, plasma selenoprotein P concentrations, and erythrocyte GPX enzyme activity in a randomized intervention trial in Denmark...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
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