Journals Expert Review of Clinical Phar...

Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Tina Noutsos, Geoffrey K Isbister
INTRODUCTION: Snakebite is a neglected public health issue causing death and disability, disproportionately affecting tropical and subtropical resource poor countries globally. Snakebite-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) occurs in a subset of snakebites and is associated with acute kidney injury (sometimes requiring renal replacement therapy), and a risk of chronic kidney disease. AREAS COVERED: This expert review synthesizes current evidence on therapeutic interventions in snakebite-associated TMA, via PubMed search for cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCT) in snakebite-associated TMA from 1970 to October 2022...
June 1, 2023: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Jue-Hui Mao, Lu Han, Xiao-Qin Liu, Zheng Jiao
INTRODUCTION: Olanzapine is widely used for treating schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder. Due to its high pharmacokinetic variability, several population pharmacokinetic studies have been performed to identify factors contributing to the variability and thus facilitate individualized dosing. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of published population pharmacokinetic studies and explore potential covariates. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases from their inception to 31 December 2022...
May 25, 2023: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Ming Li, Lujing Xiang, Yan Li
OBJECTIVE: Compound glycyrrhizin (CG) is widely used to treat vitiligo in China, and the efficacy and adverse events (AEs) of CG for vitiligo need further analysis. This study aimed to systematically reevaluate the efficacy and safety of CG in the patients with vitiligo. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Eight literature databases were searched up to 31 December 2022, and randomized controlled trials which compared CG plus conventional treatments with conventional treatments alone were included...
May 23, 2023: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Alberto Ortiz, Roberto Alcázar Arroyo, Pedro Pablo Casado Escribano, Beatriz Fernández-Fernández, Francisco Martínez Debén, Juan Diego Mediavilla, Alfredo Michan-Doña, Maria Jose Soler, Jose Luis Gorriz
INTRODUCTION: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk of CKD progression and cardiovascular events. Despite treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and SGLT-2 inhibitors, the residual risk is substantial. There is preclinical and clinical evidence supporting a key role of mineralocorticoid receptor in cardiorenal injury in T2DM. AREAS COVERED: Finerenone is a selective and nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist that reduces -on preclinical studies- heart and kidney inflammation and fibrosis...
May 16, 2023: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Jingwen Niu, Wenmin Hu, Yuntao Lu, Hui Tang
AIM: Our aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and safety of oliceridine in patients with postoperative pain. METHODS: Four databases were searched from the beginning of the database to the present. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCT) that evaluated the efficacy and safety of oliceridine in patients with postoperative pain. Our endpoints were the proportion of treatment responders to the oliceridine regimen and the incidence of adverse effects such as nausea and vomiting...
May 12, 2023: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Andrew Padilla, Ashraf S Habib
INTRODUCTION: Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) affects 30% of all patients undergoing surgery and up to 80% of high-risk patients. Antiemetics for PONV prophylaxis target a variety of receptor systems, with varying degrees of efficacy and side effect profile. Neurokinin -1 receptor antagonists are the most recent class of compounds investigated for PONV prophylaxis, with aprepitant being the only one currently approved for this indication. AREAS COVERED: This review covers the pathophysiology of PONV, current recommendations for PONV prophylaxis, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of aprepitant, and the evidence for its efficacy in the management of PONV as a single agent and in combination therapy...
May 8, 2023: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Vera Battini, Giovanna Cirnigliaro, Luca Giacovelli, Maria Boscacci, Silvia Massara Manzo, Giulia Mosini, Greta Guarnieri, Michele Gringeri, Beatrice Benatti, Emilio Clementi, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Carla Carnovale
INTRODUCTION: Immunoassay urine drug screen (UDS) is frequently used in clinical practice for initial screening process, being generally available, fast, and inexpensive. Exposure to widely prescribed drugs might determine false positive UDS amphetamines, leading to diagnostic issues, wrong therapeutic choices, impairment of physician-patient relationship and legal implications. AREAS COVERED: To summarize and comment on a comprehensive list of compounds responsible for UDS false positive for amphetamines, we conducted a literature review on PubMed along with a comparison with Real World Data from the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database analysis between 2010 and 2022...
May 5, 2023: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Rosanna Ruggiero, Raffaella Di Napoli, Nunzia Balzano, Donatella Ruggiero, Consiglia Riccardi, Antonietta Anatriello, Andrea Cantone, Liberata Sportiello, Francesco Rossi, Annalisa Capuano
INTRODUCTION: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) represent an innovative therapeutic approach of oncologic diseases. In Europe, this therapeutic class currently includes eight agents: ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab, atezolizumab, avelumab, cemiplimab, durvalumab and dostarlimab. Despite their proved clinical benefits, they can induce immune related adverse events (irADRs), that can also involve the nervous system. AREAS COVERED: Despite their rarity, neurological irADRs related to ICI-treatments can lead to serious and dangerous complications, highlighting the importance of a strict monitoring of patients...
May 5, 2023: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Gema Ariceta
INTRODUCTION: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) are two rare and severe conditions caused by chronic complement (C') system dysregulation. Treatment with eculizumab, a recombinant, humanized monoclonal antibody against complement C5, changed the natural history of both diseases inducing remission and improving patient outcome. Ravulizumab, a new long-acting next-generation C5 inhibitor has been recently approved for treatment of PNH and aHUS...
May 2, 2023: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Alan L Myers, Arthur H Jeske
INTRODUCTION: Extraction of impacted molar teeth is a common procedure performed by oral surgeons and general dentists, with postoperative pain being a significant adverse event post-surgery. If mismanaged, pain can lead to complications that impact oral and systemic health. The current scourge of the opioid epidemic has ushered in a new era of provider-directed analgesic (PDA) therapy in dentistry. AREAS COVERED: This article provides an in-depth review on the major pharmacological and therapeutic properties of established and alternative analgesics used to manage dental pain...
April 21, 2023: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Jennifer Tjia, Maki Karakida, Matthew Alcusky, Jon P Furuno
INTRODUCTION: Pharmacotherapy plays a critical role in the delivery of high-quality palliative care, but the intersection of palliative care and deprescribing has received little attention. AREAS COVERED: We conducted a scoping review of English language articles using PubMed to identify relevant publications between 1 January 2000 to 31 July 2022 using search terms of deprescribing, palliative care, end of life, and hospice. We summarize current definitions and developments in palliative care and deprescribing from both clinical and research perspectives...
April 19, 2023: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Mattia Galli, Dominick J Angiolillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2023: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Anjay Rastogi, Steven Fishbane, Edgar Lerma
INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease-associated pruritus (CKD-aP) is often experienced by patients with CKD receiving dialysis. Approximately 40% of hemodialysis patients are "moderately" to "extremely bothered" by itching, associated with reduced quality of life, poor sleep quality, and depression as well as worse clinical outcomes, including increased medication use, infections, hospitalizations, and mortality. AREAS COVERED: This review covers the pathophysiology and treatment landscape of CKD-aP, and the development, clinical efficacy, and safety profile of difelikefalin...
April 3, 2023: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Jinmeng Li, Xinjun Cai, Yueting Chen, Chenyu Wang, Zheng Jiao
INTRODUCTION: Isoniazid (INH) plays an important role in prevention and treatment of tuberculosis (TB). However, large pharmacokinetic (PK) variations are observed in patients receiving standard INH dosages. Considering the influence of PK variations on INH efficacy or adverse reactions, we reviewed the population PK studies of INH and explored significant covariates that influence INH PK. METHODS: The PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched from their inception to January 30, 2023...
March 27, 2023: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Gavin Matthew Joynt, Lowell Ling, Wai Tat Wong, Jeffrey Lipman
INTRODUCTION: The importance of antibiotic treatment for sepsis in critically ill septic patients is well established. Consistently achieving the dose of antibiotics required to optimally kill bacteria, minimize the development of resistance, and avoid toxicity is challenging. The increasing understanding of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) characteristics of antibiotics, and the effects of critical illness on key PK/PD parameters, is gradually re-shaping how antibiotics are dosed in critically ill patients...
March 27, 2023: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Mikolaj Swierczynski, Adam Makaro, Agata Grochowska, Maciej Salaga
INTRODUCTION: Pain is one of the most substantial factors responsible for lowering quality of life in patients with intestinal diseases. Its multifactorial pathogenesis makes intestinal pain difficult to manage with currently available medications, especially considering the risk of serious adverse effects and exacerbation of underlying disease. AREAS COVERED: The most commonly administered drugs in intestinal pain are medications forming the so-called analgesic ladder, which act directly on pain sensation: acetaminophen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and opioids in full range of activity strength...
March 24, 2023: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Zhuo Wu, Ziran Li, Xiaoyan Qiu, Mingkang Zhong, Tianling Ding
BACKGROUND: : High-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-based regimens are the standard treatment for patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL); however, MTX has extensive interpatient variability in pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes, with genetic variation an important factor involved in the variability in drug response. METHODS: 123 PCNSL patients who received 524 courses of chemotherapy were genotyped for 42 single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTX pathway...
March 22, 2023: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Aishwarya Muddebihal, Ananta Khurana, Kabir Sardana
INTRODUCTION: Numerous cutaneous dermatoses mediated by cytokines depend on the JAK STAT pathway for intracellular signaling. JAK inhibitors form a useful therapeutic approach in treating these conditions. The literature on effectiveness of JAK inhibitors in treatment of alopecia areata, vitiligo, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and several other inflammatory and autoimmune diseases is growing, although very few conditions have sufficiently well performed studies to their credit and barring a few indications, their use in rest remains empirical as yet...
March 22, 2023: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Gabriella Guo Sciriha, Janet Sultana, Joseph Borg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2023: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Juan Tamargo, Ricardo Caballero, Eva Delpón Mosquera
INTRODUCTION: Arterial hypertension represents the leading modifiable risk factor for all-cause death and early development of cardiovascular disease in women. Current clinical guidelines for the treatment of hypertension noted that women respond to antihypertensive drugs similarly to men and, therefore, treatment recommendations remain the same for both sexes. However, clinical evidence suggests the existence of sex- and gender-related differences (SGRD) in the prevalence, pathophysiology, pharmacodynamics (efficacy and safety) and pharmacokinetics of antihypertensive drugs...
March 9, 2023: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
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