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Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology

Belinda Jackson, Pete De Cruz
Non-adherence has been a key barrier to the efficacy of medical treatments in ulcerative colitis (UC). Engaging patients in their IBD care via shared decision making (SDM) to facilitate self-management may improve adherence to therapy. Areas covered: This review aims to summarize the most recent trial evidence from 2012-2017 for mild-to-moderate UC in order to develop clinical algorithms that guide SDM to facilitate self-management. A structured literature search via multiple electronic databases was performed using the search terms 'ulcerative colitis,' 'treatment,' 'management,' 'medication,' 'maintenance,' 'remission,' '5-ASA,' and 'inflammatory bowel disease...
October 4, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Zachary A Borman, Justin Côté-Daigneault, Jean-Frédéric Colombel
Crohn's disease and Ulcerative Colitis are forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic diseases treated with medical and surgical therapy. Patients with IBD are treated with potent immunomodulatory agents, leading to immunosuppression, and the potential for opportunistic infections. In 2014, the ECCO guidelines were released to guide the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of a variety of these opportunistic infections. Since 2014, there have been a number of new agents released as well as a significant expansion in our knowledge of the safety profile of IBD medications...
October 2, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Dai Shimizu, Mitsuro Kanda, Yasuhiro Kodera, Junichi Sakamoto
In recent decades, adjuvant therapy has secured a firm position in the treatment of gastric cancer by improving patient prognosis. Currently, standard therapy varies between East Asia, Europe and North America due to heterogeneities of the tumor, race, medical environment and/or surgical procedure. Although adjuvant strategies, proved effective in each region and implemented to clinical practice, certain patient populations with advanced gastric cancer show recurrence and a fatal prognosis. The development of a universal adjuvant therapy with a high efficacy and acceptable adverse events or with less toxicity and non-inferiority seems to have become urgent and imperative...
October 1, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Johan Noble, Thomas Jouve, Paolo Malvezzi, Lionel Rostaing
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are the major causes of chronic liver disease. HBV and HCV affect nearly 7% of the world's population. Extra-hepatic complications and particularly renal failure have different mechanisms and manifestations. The underlying mechanism, although differing for each disease, mainly involves the immune system and antibody deposits in the kidney, which can lead to tissue damage. Areas covered: We do not cover in this review hepatorenal syndrome. We report on the renal complications of viral hepatitis (HBV, HCV, hepatitis E), autoimmune hepatitis, cirrhosis, and Wilson's disease...
October 1, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Lucas Zhihong Liu, Jian Sun, Jinlin Hou, Henry Lik Yuen Chan
The primary goals of managing chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are prevention of liver-related complications and reduction of mortality. Universal vaccination has dramatically reduced the incidence of new infection, but the management of existing CHB patients are still challenging. Areas covered: This review compares the similarities and differences among the latest published regional guidelines on the indications and choices of antiviral therapy. We have summarized advances in virological biomarkers and non-invasive tests for liver fibrosis in disease assessment...
September 29, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Roberta Elisa Rossi, Sara Massironi
The incidental detection rate of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) has significantly increased. However, little is known about the natural history of these tumors. Their optimal management and appropriate follow-up are still unclear. We have, therefore, reviewed the available literature on IPMN focusing on their diagnosis, treatment according to the risk of malignant transformation, and follow-up. Areas covered: Bibliographical searches were performed in PubMed for the terms "intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm" and "natural history" and "diagnosis" and "treatment" and "surgery" and "follow-up" and "prognosis"...
September 28, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Frank Tacke, Ralf Weiskirchen
Chronic injury to the liver, such as viral hepatitis, alcoholism, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), promotes extracellular matrix deposition and organ scarring, termed hepatic fibrosis. Fibrosis might progress to cirrhosis and predisposes to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but is also associated with extrahepatic morbidity and mortality in NAFLD/NASH. The improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying chronic inflammation and fibrogenesis in the liver prompted recent advances in antifibrotic therapies...
September 27, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Fardous F El-Senduny, Saeideh Momtaz, Fatemeh Parvizi, Amin Iranpanah, Devesh Tewari, Rozita Naseri, Amir Hossein Abdolghaffari, Nima Rezaei
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory disorder. A wealth of data pointed out that various aspects of chronic inflammation may be affected by several specific dietary factors. This paper calls attention to anthocyanins enriched plant food and anthocyanin dietary supplements, whose role in the management of IBD and its associated oncogenesis deems crucial. Area covered: We updated the most relevant dietary anthocyanins with potential anti-colitis and preventive effect on inflammatory associated colorectal cancer based on the recent animal and human researches along with revealing the major cellular and molecular mechanisms of action...
September 26, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Victor Chedid, Priya Vijayvargiya, Michael Camilleri
Chronic idiopathic constipation (CC) is highly prevalent worldwide. A subset of patients with CC have reduced fecal (and by inference, intra-colonic) bile acids (BA). Elobixibat, a locally-acting ileal bile acid transporter (IBAT) inhibitor, leads to increased BA delivery to the colon and represents a new class of treatment for CC. BAs accelerate colonic transit and increase colonic secretion. Therefore, IBAT inhibitors have potential to treat patients with CC. Areas covered: Rationale for IBAT inhibitor in therapeutics, and preclinical and clinical pharmacology of elobixibat: In vitro, elobixibat is a highly potent, selective IBAT inhibitor...
September 11, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Abimbola Adike, Elizabeth J Carey, Keith D Lindor
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare cholestatic disorder that presents with multifocal biliary strictures. PSC has a variable course but often leads to progressive liver disease, and most patients will eventually require liver transplantation. PSC has a strong association with inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune liver disease. Areas covered: The objective of this article is to compare and contrast the clinical features and natural history of PSC in children to adults. We performed a PubMed search of the English literature using keywords 'primary sclerosing cholangitis', 'PSC', 'children', and 'pediatric...
September 10, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Ruihong Zhao, Jianke Ma, Pengcheng Li, Hong Fang, Shanshan Sun, Wei Wu, Jingdan Chen, Hong Zhao, Linfeng Jin, Yu Shi, Jifang Sheng
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiological features of bacterial infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in cirrhotic patients and their impact on mortality. METHODS: A retrospective study of cirrhotic patients with culture-confirmed bacterial infections was performed between 2011 and 2017. RESULTS: A total of 635 episodes in 563 patients with cirrhosis were included. Bacterial infections caused by MDR isolates accounted for 44...
September 5, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Ling-Yun Zhao, Rong-Rui Huo, Xiao Xiang, Guido Torzilli, Ming-Hua Zheng, Tian Yang, Xin-Min Liang, Xi Huang, Pei-Ling Tang, Bang-De Xiang, Le-Qun Li, Xue-Mei You, Jian-Hong Zhong
BACKGROUND: With the aging population and increasing incidence of hepatic malignancies in elderly patients, establishing the safety and efficacy of hepatic resection for elderly patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is crucial. The present systematic review investigates postoperative morbidity, hospital mortality, median survival time, overall and disease-free survival in elderly patients with undergoing hepatic resection. METHODS: Some databases were systematically searched for prospective or retrospective studies to reveal the safety and efficacy of hepatic resection for elderly patients with primary HCC...
September 5, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Baskar Balakrishnan, Veena Taneja
Many studies have shown the relationship between autoimmune diseases and the gut microbiome in humans: those with autoimmune conditions display gut microbiome dysbiosis. The big question that needs to be addressed is if restoring eubiosis of the gut microbiota can help suppress the autoimmune condition by activating various immune regulatory mechanisms. Inducing these self-healing mechanisms should prolong good health in affected individuals. Area covered: Here, we review the available clinical and preclinical studies that have used selective bacteria for modulating gut microbiota for treating autoimmune diseases...
September 3, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Michele S Barnhill, Mark Real, James H Lewis
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains an increasingly recognized cause of hepatotoxicity and liver failure worldwide. In 2017, we continued to learn about predicting, diagnosing, and prognosticating drug hepatotoxicity. Areas covered: In this review, we selected from over 1200 articles from 2017 to synopsize updates in DILI. There were new HLA haplotypes associated with medications including HLA-C0401 and HLA-B*14. There has been continued work with quantitative systems pharmacology, particularly with the DILIsym® initiative, which employs mathematical representations of DILI mechanisms to predict hepatotoxicity in simulated populations...
September 3, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Ala I Sharara, Samir Al Awadhi, Othman Alharbi, Hisham Al Dhahab, Mohamed Mounir, Leonardo Salese, Ena Singh, Nancy Sunna, Nadine Tarcha, Mahmoud Mosli
Ulcerative colitis is an idiopathic, chronic, inflammatory bowel disorder characterized by an unpredictable course of alternating cycles of relapse and remission. Traditionally viewed as a disease of Western countries, the prevalence of ulcerative colitis is reported to be increasing in the developing world. In these regions, there is the potential to further explore the etiology of the disease, mainly through genetic studies. With this in mind, we consider available data relating to the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and disease course of ulcerative colitis in Africa and the Middle East...
September 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Loris R Lopetuso, Marco Napoli, Gianenrico Rizzatti, Franco Scaldaferri, Francesco Franceschi, Antonio Gasbarrini
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection produces drastic changes in the gastric microenvironment, which, in turn, influence the gastric microbiota composition and might be correlated with large intestinal microbiota changes. This excellent perturbing actor could trigger important modifications in the homeostatic functions exerted by gut commensals leading to a new gastrointestinal balance. At the same time, the therapeutic strategies used to eradicate Hp can modulate this physiological symbiosis, but can be also conversely affected by its properties...
September 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Ludovico Abenavoli, Laura Di Renzo, Luigi Boccuto, Nuha Alwardat, Santo Gratteri, Antonino De Lorenzo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide. Insulin resistance and obesity-related inflammatory status, associated with genetic, dietary, and lifestyle factors, are involved in its pathogenesis. There is no consensus concerning the pharmacological treatment of NAFLD. However, the international guidelines agree to define a dietetic nutritional management to achieve weight loss, as an essential component of any therapeutic strategy. Areas covered: An overview on the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD...
September 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Grainne Holleran, Deirdre McNamara
Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias (GIADs) have a wide variety of presentations, which can be significant and debilitating in a subset of patients. Endoscopic ablation is currently the most effective treatment for GIADs, however re-bleeding rates are high. Several medical have been used for GIADs and reported in the literature, however these medications have significant side effect profiles and randomized controlled trials are lacking. A relatively poor understanding of the pathophysiology of GIAD formation has limited the development of more effective treatments and improved diagnostic and prognostic markers for GIAD...
September 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Gui-Qi Zhu, Min Sun, Wei-Ting Liao, Wei-Hua Yu, Shao-Lai Zhou, Zheng-Jun Zhou, Ying-Hong Shi, Jia Fan, Jian Zhou, Li-Xin Qiu, Zhi Dai
BACKGROUND: Major treatments for small hepatocellular carcinoma (SHCC) include percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), percutaneous acetic acid injection (PAI), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), or surgical resection (SR). We aimed to compare these therapies concerning with effectiveness and safety. METHODS: Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Embase were searched for randomized controlled studies (RCTs) from inception to 30 April 2017. Odds ratios (OR) for proportion dead (PD), local recurrence (LR) and adverse events (AEs)...
September 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Gerolamo Bevivino, Giovanni Monteleone
Cytokines represent the key pathophysiologic elements that govern the initiation, progression, and, in some circumstances, the resolution of the inflammation occurring in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Areas covered: In this review, we will focus on the main effector and anti-inflammatory cytokines produced in IBD and discuss the results of recent trials in which cytokine-based therapy has been used for treating IBD patients. Expert commentary: The possibility to sample mucosal biopsies from IBD patients and analyze which molecular pathways are prominent during the active phases of the disease and the easy access to various models of experimental colitis has largely advanced our understanding about the role of cytokines in IBD...
September 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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