Journals Expert Review of Respiratory M...

Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
YuJing Wu, Ahan Shi, Laite Chen, Dejun Su
BACKGROUND: Given the observed within-Asian disparity in Covid-19 incidence, we aimed to explore the differential preventive behaviors among Asian subgroups in the United States. METHODS: Based on data from the Asian subsample ( N  = 982) of the 2020 Health, Ethnicity and Pandemic survey, we estimated the weighted proportion of noncompliance with Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines on preventive behaviors and Covid-19 testing by Asian subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Other Asian)...
November 29, 2023: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Matthew Brandorff, Clark G Owyang, Joseph E Tonna
INTRODUCTION: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) facilitated resuscitation was first described in the 1960s, but only recently garnered increased attention with large observational studies and randomized trials evaluating its use. AREAS COVERED: In this comprehensive review of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR), we report the history of resuscitative ECMO, terminology, circuit configuration and cannulation considerations, complications, selection criteria, implementation and management, and important considerations for the provider...
November 27, 2023: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Nazanin Kermani, Ali Versi, Aurore Gay, Jelmer Vlasma, Akshaya Keerthi Saikumar Jayalatha, Gerard H Koppelman, Martijn Nawijn, Alen Faiz, Maarten van den Berge, Ian M Adcock, Kian Fan Chung
INTRODUCTION: The use and generation of gene signatures have been established as a method to define molecular endotypes in complex diseases such as severe asthma. Bioinformatic approaches have now been applied to large omics datasets to define the various co-existing inflammatory and cellular functional pathways driving or characterizing a particular molecular endotype. AREAS COVERED: Molecular phenotypes and endotypes of Type 2 inflammatory pathways and also of non-Type 2 inflammatory pathways, such as IL-6 trans-signaling, IL-17 activation, and IL-22 activation, have been defined in the Unbiased Biomarkers for the Prediction of Respiratory Disease Outcomes dataset...
November 24, 2023: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
L van Riel, R A van Hulst, L van Hest, Rja van Moorselaar, B G Boerrigter, S M Franken, Rmf Wolthuis, H J Dubbink, S J Marciniak, N Gupta, I van de Beek, A C Houweling
INTRODUCTION: Although very uncommon, severe injury and death can occur during scuba diving. One of the main causes of scuba diving fatalities is pulmonary barotrauma due to significant changes in ambient pressure. Pathology of the lung parenchyma, such as cystic lesions, might increase the risk of pulmonary barotrauma. AREAS COVERED: Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD), caused by pathogenic variants in the FLCN gene, is characterized by skin fibrofolliculomas, an increased risk of renal cell carcinoma, multiple lung cysts and spontaneous pneumothorax...
November 22, 2023: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Chelsea L Powell, Sahar A Saddoughi, Dennis A Wigle
INTRODUCTION: Multifocal lung adenocarcinoma (MFLA) is becoming increasingly recognized as a distinct subset of lung cancer, with unique biology, disease course, and treatment outcomes. While definitions remain controversial, MFLA is characterized by the development and concurrent presence of multiple independent (non-metastatic) lesions on the lung adenocarcinoma spectrum. Disease progression typically follows an indolent course measured in years, with a lower propensity for nodal and distant metastases than other more common forms of non-small cell lung cancer...
November 20, 2023: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Audrey N Miller, Edward G Shepherd, George El-Ferzli, Leif D Nelin
INTRODUCTION: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic respiratory disease in neonates and infants, which often presents with multisystem organ involvement, co-morbidities, and prolonged hospital stays. Therefore, a multidisciplinary chronic care approach is needed in the severest forms of BPD to optimize outcomes. However, this approach can be challenging to implement. The objective of this article is to review and synthesize the available literature regarding multidisciplinary care in infants and children with established BPD, and to provide a framework that can guide clinical practice and future research...
November 20, 2023: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Frank M Smith, Sejal Saglani
INTRODUCTION: Wheezing disorders in preschool children are common. Current treatment approaches assume all preschool wheezers are the same and will respond to a short course of oral corticosteroids (OCS) during acute attacks and subsequent maintenance inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) to prevent future attacks. But we have increasing evidence showing preschool wheezing disorders are markedly heterogeneous and the response to corticosteroids either during acute attacks or as maintenance therapy can be variable between patients and is determined by disease severity and underlying pathological phenotype...
November 18, 2023: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Abhishek Kumar, Joseph K Salama
INTRODUCTION: The oligometastatic state in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has recently become well-established. However, the specific definition of oligometastases remains unclear. Several smaller randomized studies have investigated the safety and efficacy of radiation as metastasis-directed therapy (MDT) in oligometastatic NSCLC, which have led the way to larger studies currently accruing patients globally. AREAS COVERED: This review covers the definitions of 'oligometastases' and explains why the oligometastatic state is becoming increasingly relevant in metastatic NSCLC...
November 14, 2023: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Kamal Hamed, Glenn Tillotson
INTRODUCTION: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a diverse group of mycobacterial species that are ubiquitous in the environment. They are opportunistic pathogens that can cause a range of diseases in both animals and humans, especially in individuals with underlying structural lung disease or compromised immune systems. AREAS COVERED: This paper provides an in-depth analysis of NTM infections, including microbiology, environmental sources and transmission pathways, risk factors for disease, epidemiology, clinical manifestations and diagnostic approaches, guideline-based treatment recommendations, drugs under development, and management challenges...
November 14, 2023: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Yuta Takashima, Masahide Oki
INTRODUCTION: Radial probe endobronchial ultrasound (rEBUS) improves the diagnostic yield of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs). A notable methodological limitation of rEBUS is that it does not provide real-time images during transbronchial biopsy (TBB) procedures. To overcome this limitation, a guide sheath (GS) method was developed. AREAS COVERED: This review covers the procedures and complications of rEBUS-guided TBB with a GS (EGS method). We also present the data from key randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the EGS method and summarize the usefulness of combining the EGS method with various techniques...
November 12, 2023: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Konstantina Dimakopoulou, Ioannis Tomos, Effrosyni D Manali, Spyros A Papiris, Anna Karakatsani
BACKGROUND: Lately a potential detrimental effect of air pollution to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has emerged. We aimed to assess the effects of short-term personal air pollution exposure to the clinical course of IPF. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: IPF patients were followed intensively for four nonconsecutive study periods between 13 July 2020 and 5 September 2021. Short-term exposure to O3 , NO2 and PM10 concentrations was estimated using spatio-temporal land use regression models...
November 8, 2023: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Anne E Ioannides, Upasana Tayal, Jennifer K Quint
INTRODUCTION: People with COPD rarely have COPD alone, and the commonest co-morbidities occurring with COPD are cardiovascular. Whilst multiple studies have explored the association between major cardiovascular events and COPD, less attention has been paid to arrhythmias, specifically atrial fibrillation (AF). AF and COPD frequently occur together, posing challenges in diagnosis and management. In this review, we describe the relationship between AF and COPD epidemiologically and physiologically, demonstrating the role of spirometry as a diagnostic and disease management tool...
November 8, 2023: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Yang Yao, Niyati A Borkar, Mengning Zheng, Shengyu Wang, Christina M Pabelick, Elizabeth R Vogel, Y S Prakash
INTRODUCTION: Asthma is a chronic lung disease influenced by environmental and inflammatory triggers and involving complex signaling pathways across resident airway cells such as epithelium, airway smooth muscle, fibroblasts, and immune cells. While our understanding of asthma pathophysiology is continually progressing, there is a growing realization that cellular microdomains play critical roles in mediating signaling relevant to asthma in the context of contractility and remodeling...
October 31, 2023: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Kamran Abbasi, Parveen Ali, Virginia Barbour, Thomas Benfield, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Gregory E Erhabor, Stephen Hancocks, Richard Horton, Laurie Laybourn-Langton, Robert Mash, Peush Sahni, Wadeia Mohammad Sharief, Paul Yonga, Chris Zielinski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2023: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Ingrid G Bustos, Ignacio Martín-Loeches, Alejandro Acosta-González, Sanjay H Chotirmall, Robert P Dickson, Luis Felipe Reyes
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the presence and function of a diverse lung microbiome in acute lung infections, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), is still limited, evidencing significant gaps in our knowledge. AREAS COVERED: In this comprehensive narrative review, we aim to elucidate the contribution of the respiratory microbiome in the development of VAP by examining the current knowledge on the interactions among microorganisms. By exploring these intricate connections, we endeavor to enhance our understanding of the disease's pathophysiology and pave the way for novel ideas and interventions in studying the respiratory tract microbiome...
October 23, 2023: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Garret Duron, Elliot Backer, David Feller-Kopman
INTRODUCTION: Persistent air leaks (PAL) represent a challenging clinical problem for which there is not a clear consensus to guide optimal management. PAL is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and increased length of hospital stay. There are a variety of surgical and non-surgical management options available. AREAS COVERED: This narrative review describes the current evidence for PAL management including surgical approach, autologous blood patch pleurodesis, chemical pleurodesis, endobronchial valves, and one-way valves...
October 19, 2023: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Lian Wang, Dongguang Wang, Tianli Zhang, Ying He, Hong Fan, Yonggang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used extensively for H1N1 influenza and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to improve gas exchange and quickly correct hypoxemia and hypercapnia. This systematic review summarized the evidence on ECMO for the treatment of COVID-19 and influenza-associated ARDS. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies to compare the efficacy and safety of ECMO with conventional mechanical ventilation in adults with COVID-19 and influenza-associated ARDS...
October 17, 2023: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Laura Martino, Rosa Morello, Cristina De Rose, Danilo Buonsenso
INTRODUCTION: There is increasing evidence that also children can develop Long Covid. However, there are no specific reviews providing a clear description of reported respiratory symptoms and potential diagnostics. AREAS COVERED: we performed on Pubmed a systematic search of studies conducted on children aged less than 18 years with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection complaining about persistent respiratory symptoms; the aim of our review is to characterize the incidence, pattern and duration of respiratory symptoms after the acute infection in pediatric population...
October 16, 2023: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Simone Gambazza, Valerie Storms, Vinay Purohit
BACKGROUND: Chronic airway infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa significantly impacts the health of people with cystic fibrosis (PwCF), presenting complex treatment challenges. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: To gain insights into PwCF's experiences, a virtual European Patient Advisory Board was convened. Board explored inhaled antibiotic usage, treatment adherence, and associated challenges. Additionally, an online survey was conducted among PwCF to further understand real-life experiences and unmet needs, particularly related to CFTR modulators...
October 11, 2023: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Alberto Giuseppe Agostara, Laura Roazzi, Federica Villa, Rebecca Romano', Daniele Piscazzi, Francesca Martinelli, Gabriele Ciarlo, Sara Oresti, Francesca Travaglini, Alessandro Marando, Andrea Sartore-Bianchi, Laura Giannetta, Giulio Cerea, Salvatore Siena, Elio Gregory Pizzutilo, Diego Signorelli
INTRODUCTION: Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (IO) have significantly improved outcomes of patients with non-oncogene-addicted non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), becoming the first-line agents for advanced disease. However, resistance remains a significant clinical challenge, limiting their effectiveness. AREAS COVERED: Hereby, we addressed standard and innovative therapeutic approaches for NSCLC patients experiencing progression after IO treatment, discussing the emerging resistance mechanisms and the ongoing efforts to overcome them...
October 10, 2023: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
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