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Future Virology

Leslee Sprague, Lynne Braidwood, Joe Conner, Kevin A Cassady, Fabian Benencia, Timothy P Cripe
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) do more than simply infect and kill host cells. The accepted mechanism of action for OVs consists of a primary lytic phase and a subsequent antitumor and antiviral immune response. However, not all cells are subject to the direct effects of OV therapy, and it is becoming clear that OVs can also impact uninfected cells in the periphery. This review discusses the effects of OVs on uninfected neighboring cells, so-called bystander effects, and implications for OV therapies alone or in combination with other standard of care chemotherapy...
September 2018: Future Virology
Victor Casanova, Filipa H Sousa, Craig Stevens, Peter G Barlow
Human rhinoviruses are the primary etiological agent of the common cold. This infection can be mild and self-limiting in immunocompetent hosts, but can be associated with bronchiolitis in infants, pneumonia in the immunosuppressed and exacerbations of pre-existing pulmonary conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Many of these conditions can place significant economic costs upon healthcare infrastructure. There is currently no licensed vaccine for rhinovirus, as the large variety of rhinovirus serotypes has posed significant challenges for research...
July 2018: Future Virology
Tomaz B Manzoni, Carolina B López
Defective viral genomes (DVGs) are natural products of virus replication that occur in many positive and negative sense RNA viruses, including Ebola, dengue and respiratory syncytial virus. DVGs, which have severe genomic truncations and require a helper virus to replicate, have three well-described functions: interference with standard virus replication, immunostimulation, and establishment of virus persistence. These functions of DVGs were first described almost 50 years ago, yet only recent studies have shown the molecular intersection between their immunostimulatory and pro-persistence activities...
July 2018: Future Virology
David S Hsu, Anand Vr Kornepati, Wayne Glover, Edward M Kennedy, Bryan R Cullen
Aim: The goal of this study was to determine if a single AAV vector, encoding Cas9 and guide RNAs specific for the HPV16 E6 and E7 genes, could inhibit the growth of an HPV16-induced tumor in vivo . Materials & methods: We grew HPV16+ , patient-derived anal cancer explants in immunodeficient mice and then challenged these by injection of AAV-based vectors encoding Cas9 and control or HPV16-specific guide RNAs. Results & conclusion: We observed a significant and selective reduction in tumor growth when the HPV16 E6 and E7 genes were targeted using Cas9...
July 2018: Future Virology
Orkide O Koyuncu, Margaret A MacGibeny, Lynn W Enquist
Alpha herpesviruses are common pathogens of mammals. They establish a productive infection in many cell types, but a life-long latent infection occurs in PNS neurons. A vast majority of the human population has latent HSV-1 infections. Currently, there is no cure to clear latent infections. Even though HSV-1 is among the best studied viral pathogens, regulation of latency and reactivation is not well understood due to several challenges including a lack of animal models that precisely recapitulate latency/reactivation episodes; a difficulty in modeling in vitro latency; and a limited understanding of neuronal biology...
May 2018: Future Virology
Juan Á Patiño-Galindo, Fernando González-Candelas
Nucleotide sequences of HIV isolates are obtained routinely to evaluate the presence of resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs. But, beyond their clinical use, these and other viral sequences include a wealth of information that can be used to better understand and characterize the epidemiology of HIV in relevant populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the main methods used to analyze HIV sequences, the data bases where reference sequences can be obtained, and some caveats about the possible applications for public health of these analyses, along with some considerations about their limitations and correct usage to derive robust and reliable conclusions...
May 2018: Future Virology
Timothy P Sheahan, Ralph S Baric
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Future Virology
Liang Guo, Irina Vlasova-St Louis, Paul R Bohjanen
Viruses alter host-cell gene expression at many biochemical levels, such as transcription, translation, mRNA splicing and mRNA decay in order to create a cellular environment suitable for viral replication. In this review, we discuss mechanisms by which viruses manipulate host-gene expression at the level of mRNA decay in order to enable the virus to evade host antiviral responses to allow viral survival and replication. We discuss different cellular RNA decay pathways, including the deadenylation-dependent mRNA decay pathway, and various strategies that viruses exploit to manipulate these pathways in order to create a virus-friendly cellular environment...
March 2018: Future Virology
Yike Jiang, David Leib
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Future Virology
Colm Atkins, Alexander N Freiberg
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula and the etiological agent of Rift Valley fever. Rift Valley fever is a disease of major public health and economic concern, affecting livestock and humans. In ruminants, RVFV infection is characterized by high mortality rates in newborns and near 100% abortion rates in pregnant animals. Infection in humans is typically manifested as a self-limiting febrile illness, but can lead to severe and fatal hepatitis, encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever or retinitis with partial or complete blindness...
November 2017: Future Virology
Olayinka Obanewa, Marie-Louise Newell
To systematically review the association between maternal nutritional status in pregnancy and infant immune response to childhood vaccines. We reviewed literature on maternal nutrition during pregnancy, fetal immune system and vaccines and possible relationships. Thereafter, we undertook a systematic review of the literature of maternal nutritional status and infant vaccine response, extracted relevant information, assessed quality of the nine papers identified and present findings in a narrative format. From limited evidence of average quality, intrauterine nutrition deficiency could lead to functional deficit in the infant's immune function; child vaccine response may thus be negatively affected by maternal malnutrition...
September 2017: Future Virology
Mausumi Basu, Margo A Brinton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Future Virology
Jaclyn A Kaiser, Tian Wang, Alan Dt Barrett
West Nile virus (WNV), a neurotropic mosquito-borne flavivirus, has become endemic in the USA and parts of Europe since 1999. There is no licensed WNV vaccine for humans. Considering the robust immunity from immunization with live, attenuated vaccines, a live WNV vaccine is an ideal platform for disease control. Animal and mosquito studies have identified a number of candidate attenuating mutations, including the structural proteins premembrane/membrane and envelope, and the nonstructural proteins NS1, NS2A, NS3, NS4A, NS4B and NS5, and the 3' UTR...
May 2017: Future Virology
Justin Maroun, Miguel Muñoz-Alía, Arun Ammayappan, Autumn Schulze, Kah-Whye Peng, Stephen Russell
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are engineered and/or evolved to propagate selectively in cancerous tissues. They have a dual mechanism of action; direct killing of infected cancer cells cross-primes anticancer immunity to boost the killing of uninfected cancer cells. The goal of the field is to develop OVs that are easily manufactured, efficiently delivered to disseminated sites of cancer growth, undergo rapid intratumoral spread, selectively kill tumor cells, cause no collateral damage and pose no risk of transmission in the population...
April 2017: Future Virology
Joris Sprokholt, Leanne C Helgers, Teunis Bh Geijtenbeek
Dengue is a worldwide disease with 400 million annual infections that can lead to septic shock and viral hemorrhagic fever with internal bleeding. These symptoms are the result of uncontrolled immune activation. Macrophages and dendritic cells are the main target of dengue virus (DENV) and the cellular source of cytokines associated with this immune activation. Macrophages and dendritic cells express several innate immune receptors that have been implicated in DENV immune activation, of which, CLEC5A, RIG-I and MDA5 are most important...
March 2017: Future Virology
Victoria Williamson, Bronwyne Coetzee, Ashraf Kagee, Mark Tomlinson
Despite advances in preventive treatments for HIV, children continue to become infected with HIV. Research has investigated adult and adolescents' willingness to participate in hypothetical HIV vaccine trials; however, maternal willingness to enroll their infants in such trials remains underexplored. AIM: This study explored the factors influencing mothers' decision-making about enrolling their HIV negative infants in a hypothetical HIV vaccine trial. Methods: HIV infected and uninfected mothers (n = 22) were interviewed...
January 2017: Future Virology
Flavia Hodel, Marion Patxot, Tiia Snäkä, Angela Ciuffi
More than 35 million people remain infected with HIV-1. Upon antiretroviral therapy cessation, HIV-1-positive individuals systematically fail to achieve sustained virological remission, revealing the presence of a reservoir. This reservoir takes into account anatomical sanctuaries where HIV-1 continues to replicate, and latently infected cells also known as the latent reservoir (LR). A better understanding of the nature and features of the LR and its quantification are crucial to evaluate the efficiency of therapeutic strategies aiming at purging HIV-1...
December 2016: Future Virology
Matthew Cotten, Marion Koopmans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Future Virology
Eleanor Burnett, Catherine Yen, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar
As of May 2016, 81 countries have introduced Rotarix or RotaTeq rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization program. Despite initially slow uptake in some countries and differences in vaccine effectiveness (VE) between high-, low- and middle-income countries, impact of the vaccines has been swift and striking in all settings, with good VE against vaccine-type and nonvaccine-type strains. Newly published research indicates poor nutrition is associated with decreased VE and breastfeeding at the time of vaccination does not affect vaccine response...
October 2016: Future Virology
Susan J Morris, Sarah Sebastian, Alexandra J Spencer, Sarah C Gilbert
Replication incompetent human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-C5) has been extensively used as a delivery vehicle for gene therapy proteins and infectious disease antigens. These vectors infect replicating and nonreplicating cells, have a broad tissue tropism, elicit high immune responses and are easily purified to high titers. However, the utility of HAdV-C5 vectors as potential vaccines is limited due to pre-existing immunity within the human population that significantly reduces the immunogenicity of HAdV-C5 vaccines...
September 2016: Future Virology
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