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Debjyoti Paul, Krishnendu Manna, Aaveri Sengupta, Sayani Mukherjee, Sanjit Dey, Prasanta K Bag, Pubali Dhar
AIM: The present work provides first-time empirical and molecular interaction evidence to establish the higher biofunctionality of a therapeutic lipid, α-eleostearic acid (ESA), encapsulated in a novel and thoroughly characterized biocompatible nanoemulsion (NE) system (particle size <200 nm). MATERIALS & METHODS: A novel methodology was employed to fabricate novel formulations of ESA. Molecular biological tools and assays were used to arrive at definite conclusions...
February 12, 2019: Nanomedicine
Elia Bari, Sara Perteghella, Laura Catenacci, Marzio Sorlini, Stefania Croce, Melissa Mantelli, Maria A Avanzini, Milena Sorrenti, Maria L Torre
AIM: To validate the use of ultrafiltration (UF) as an alternative applicable industrial method to replace ultracentrifugation (UC) in the purification of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-secretome. MATERIALS & METHODS: Pharmaceutical formulations containing secretome and/or extracellular vesicles were extracted from adipose-MSCs and bone marrow-MSCs by combining UF or UC with lyophilization. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: UF led to higher protein, lipid, cytokine and exosomes yields compared with UC...
February 11, 2019: Nanomedicine
Vanesa Andreu, Ane Larrea, Pablo Rodriguez-Fernandez, Salvador Alfaro, Begoña Gracia, Ainhoa Lucía, Laura Usón, Andromeda-Celeste Gomez, Gracia Mendoza, Alicia Lacoma, Jose Dominguez, Cristina Prat, Victor Sebastian, José Antonio Ainsa, Manuel Arruebo
AIM: Production of Matryoshka-type gastroresistant microparticles containing antibiotic-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. MATERIALS & METHODS: The emulsification and evaporation methods were followed for the synthesis of PLGA-NPs and methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate-based coatings to protect rifampicin from degradation under simulated gastric conditions. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: The inner antibiotic-loaded NPs here reported can be released under simulated intestinal conditions whereas their coating protects them from degradation under simulated gastric conditions...
February 8, 2019: Nanomedicine
Safia Hameed, Ali T Khalil, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Numan, Saleh Khamlich, Zabta K Shinwari, Malik Maaza
AIM: To investigate the physical and biological properties of Silybum marianum inspired ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), Ag-ZnO heterostructures. Experiment: Nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, high resolution electron microscopy, ζ potential and thermo-gravimetric analysis etc. Results: Ag-ZnO-NPs indicated slightly higher antimicrobial potential then ZnO-NPs. Good antileishmanial (IC50  = 246 μg/ml for Ag-ZnO; 341 μg/ml for ZnO) and antioxidant potential while moderate enzyme inhibition is reported...
February 4, 2019: Nanomedicine
Alireza Partoazar, Narjes Talaei, Abbas Bahador, Maryam Pourhajibagher, Saman Dehpour, Marjan Sadati, Azam Bakhtiarian
AIM: To evaluate the antibiofilm effect and esp gene downregulation of Enterococcus faecalis through nanozinc oxide fabricated on natural zeolite (NanoZnO/Ze). Materials & methods:Zeolite and NanoZnO/Ze materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence and field emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to evaluate zinc release. E. faecalis biofilm formation and its esp gene expression were assessed under nanocomposite treatment...
January 31, 2019: Nanomedicine
Jinjun Cheng, Meiling Zhang, Ziwei Sun, Fang Lu, Wei Xiong, Juan Luo, Hui Kong, Qingguo Wang, Huihua Qu, Yan Zhao
AIM: To explore the hemostatic and hepatoprotective bioactivity of Junci Medulla Carbonisata-derived Carbon Dots (JMC-CDs). MATERIALS & METHODS:  The JMC-CDs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, HPLC, Fourier transform IR, UV, fluorescence and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The hemostatic effect of JMC-CDs was evaluated and confirmed by trauma hemorrhagic animal models and internal hemorrhage animal model induced by Deinagkistrodon acutus venom...
January 30, 2019: Nanomedicine
Diana P Gaspar, Joana Vital, María C Leiva, Lídia Md Gonçalves, Pablo Taboada, Carmen Remuñán-López, Jorge Vítor, António J Almeida
AIM: Cationically modified solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were investigated as plasmid DNA (pDNA) carriers and transfection agents for the pulmonary route. MATERIALS & METHODS: pDNA-loaded SLN were produced using glyceryl dibehenate or tristearate as matrix lipids and chitosan as surface charge modifier, and encapsulated by spray-drying in mannitol and trehalose microspheres. RESULTS: Nanoparticles of 200 nm, and zeta potential around +15 mV were produced...
January 30, 2019: Nanomedicine
Mandeep Singh, Ana Guzman-Aranguez, Afzal Hussain, Cheerneni S Srinivas, Indu P Kaur
AIM: Evaluation of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for ocular delivery of isoniazid (INH). MATERIALS & METHODS: INH-SLNs were characterized for morphological, thermal, crystalline and nuclear magnetic resonance properties. In vitro release and ex vivo corneal permeability of INH-SLNs was also evaluated. Proof-of-concept uptake studies were performed in corneal and conjunctival cell lines and in vivo in rat eye using fluorescein-labeled SLNs. Antimycobacterial activity of INH-SLNs was confirmed...
January 29, 2019: Nanomedicine
Jun Zhang, Jia Song, Xiao Liang, Yunzhi Yin, Tiantian Zuo, Daijie Chen, Qi Shen
AIM: Enzyme CYP1B1 (CYP1B1) is usually overexpressed in multidrug resistance (MDR) breast cancer cells, which could metabolically inactivate docetaxel (DTX). MATERIALS & METHODS: The cationic core-shell nanoparticles (hyaluronic acid/polyethyleneimine nanoparticles [HA/PEI NPs]) modified with hyaluronic acid (HA) were developed and coloaded with DTX and α-napthtoflavone (ANF, a CYP1B1 inhibitor) to overcome MDR in breast cancer induced by CYP1B1. Physicochemical characterization, MDR reversing effect in vitro and pharmacokinetics in vivo of HA/PEI NPs were evaluated...
January 29, 2019: Nanomedicine
Yong-Jiang Li, Jun-Yong Wu, Xiong-Bin Hu, Jie-Min Wang, Da-Xiong Xiang
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanoscale natural membrane vesicles released by cells and are involved in intercellular communication. A number of studies have used autologous cancer cell-derived EVs (ACCD-EVs) as nanocarriers for delivery of therapeutics as they may be more efficiently uptaken by the cancer cells themselves. However, they also have been suggested to promote proliferation, survival and metastasis of cancers. Here, we evaluated the targeting efficacy, therapeutic outcome and safety of ACCD-EVs...
January 29, 2019: Nanomedicine
Ahmed O Elzoghby
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2019: Nanomedicine
Rafaela L Fogaça, Larissa M Alvarenga, Thiago D Woiski, Alessandra Becker-Finco, Kadima N Teixeira, Sabrina K Silva, Rosana N de Moraes, Lúcia de Noronha, Magali Noiray, Bonald C de Figueiredo, Philippe Billiald, Juliana de Moura
AIM: To develop a monoclonal antibody against dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and miniaturize it, generating a single-chain antibody variable fragment (scFv) against DHEA as an adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) marker. MATERIAL & METHODS: DHEA conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin was used as an immunogen to obtain anti-DHEA hybridomas. Variable fragments were cloned from hybridoma 5B7 total RNA, and used to detect DHEA in normal adrenal tissue and ACC cells. RESULTS: IgM monoclonal antibody was highly specific, and the recombinant scFv preserved parental antibody characteristics, allowing tissue localization of DHEA...
January 29, 2019: Nanomedicine
Iqra Afzal, Hafiz Shoaib Sarwar, Muhammad Farhan Sohail, Sanjay Varikuti, Sarwat Jahan, Sohail Akhtar, Masoom Yasinzai, Abhay R Satoskar, Gul Shahnaz
AIM: The present study evaluates the efficacy of paromomycin (PM)-loaded mannosylated thiomeric nanoparticles for the targeted delivery to pathological organs for the oral therapy of visceral leishmaniasis. MATERIALS & METHODS: Mannosylated thiolated chitosan (MTC)-coated PM-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (MTC-PLGA-PM) were synthesized and evaluated for morphology, drug release, permeation enhancing and antileishmanial potential. RESULTS: MTC-PLGA-PM were spherical in shape with a size of 391...
January 28, 2019: Nanomedicine
M Natalia Calienni, Cristian R Lillo, M Jimena Prieto, Roxana M Gorojod, Silvia Del V Alonso, Mónica L Kotler, Mónica C Gonzalez, Jorge Montanari
AIM: Amino functionalization is a first step modification aiming to achieve biomedical applications of silicon nanoparticles, for example, for photodynamic therapy or radiotherapy. Nevertheless, toxicity and low quantum yields due to the positive charge of amino groups emerge as a problem that could be solved with subsequent derivatizations. MATERIALS & METHODS: Folic and PEG-conjugated nanoparticles were obtained from amino-functionalized silicon nanoparticle (NH2 SiNP)...
January 28, 2019: Nanomedicine
Shounak Roy, Ankita Sarkar, Amit Jaiswal
AIM: To develop near-infrared (NIR) light-responsive reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-based nanocomposites with improved stability, biocompatibility and enhanced in vitro chemo-photothermal therapeutic efficiency. MATERIALS & METHODS: Poly(allylamine hydrochloride)-functionalized RGO-based nanocomposites (RGO-PAH) were synthesized and thoroughly characterized. In vitro biocompatibility, cellular uptake and in vitro synergistic chemo-photothermal therapeutic efficiency of drug-loaded RGO-PAH nanocomposites were evaluated along with elucidation of cell death mechanism...
January 24, 2019: Nanomedicine
Zhuo Chen, Chao Wang, Tong-Fei Li, Ke Li, Yuan Yue, Xin Liu, Hua-Zhen Xu, Yu Wen, Quan Zhang, Min Han, Naoki Komatsu, Yong-Hong Xu, Li Zhao, Xiao Chen
AIM: To mechanistically compare the effects of doxorubicin (DOX) and DOX conjugated with nanodiamonds (Nano-DOX) on human glioblastoma cells (GC). MATERIALS & METHODS: GC viablity, proliferation and activation of apoptosis and autophagy was assayed in response to DOX and Nano-DOX. Expression and release of HMGB1 were measured and its role in apoptosis and autophagy probed in response to DOX and Nano-DOX.  Results: DOX induced apoptosis in GC while Nano-DOX induced autophagy...
January 24, 2019: Nanomedicine
Sha Li, Sandra Bouchy, Sebastien Penninckx, Riccardo Marega, Ornella Fichera, Bernard Gallez, Olivier Feron, Philippe Martinive, Anne-Catherine Heuskin, Carine Michiels, Stéphane Lucas
AIM: This study aimed at developing antibody-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to selectively target cancer cells and probing their potential radiosensitizing effects under proton irradiation. MATERIALS & METHODS: AuNPs were conjugated with cetuximab (Ctxb-AuNPs). Ctxb-AuNP uptake was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Radioenhancing effect was assessed using conventional clonogenic assay. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: Ctxb-AuNPs specifically bound to and accumulated in EGFR-overexpressing A431 cells, compared with EGFR-negative MDA-MB-453 cells...
January 24, 2019: Nanomedicine
Manuela Costanzo, Federica Vurro, Barbara Cisterna, Federico Boschi, Alessandro Marengo, Elita Montanari, Chiara Di Meo, Pietro Matricardi, Gloria Berlier, Barbara Stella, Silvia Arpicco, Manuela Malatesta
AIM: To elucidate whether different cytokinetic features (i.e., presence or absence of mitotic activity) may influence cell uptake and distribution of nanocarriers, in vitro tests on liposomes, mesoporous silica nanoparticles, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles and nanohydrogels were carried out on C2C12 murine muscle cells either able to proliferate as myoblasts (cycling cells) or terminally differentiate into myotubes (noncycling cells). MATERIALS & METHODS: Cell uptake and intracellular fate of liposomes, mesoporous silica nanoparticles, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles and nanohydrogels were investigated by confocal fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy...
January 22, 2019: Nanomedicine
Razvan Opris, Vlad Toma, Diana Olteanu, Ioana Baldea, Alina Mihaela Baciu, Florica Imre Lucaci, Alexandra Berghian-Sevastre, Corina Tatomir, Bianca Moldovan, Simona Clichici, Luminita David, Adrian Florea, Gabriela Adriana Filip
AIM: To assess ultrastructural changes, alterations in matrix metalloproteinase activity and apoptosis induced by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the rat testicle. MATERIALS & METHODS: For 45 days, two groups of animals received different doses of AgNPs (0.8 and 1.5 mg/kg b.w.), and control group was given the buffer used as vehicle for AgNPs. At 7 and 15 days post-treatment, transmission electron microscopy, TUNEL assay, evaluation of NFkB, pNFkB, p53, Bcl-2 and Nrf2 expressions were performed on the removed testes...
January 18, 2019: Nanomedicine
Shachi P Vyas, Ritobrata Goswami
AIM: To elucidate uptake mechanisms and immunomodulatory potential of differently sized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) to enable their use as an adjunct therapy for treating inflammation-linked lung cancer. METHODS: Internalization of the synthesized (5, 15 and 30 nm) GNPs by various endocytosis pathways was determined. Immunomodulatory mechanisms induced by differently sized GNPs in A549 cells in the presence of TLR4 and TLR9 ligands were evaluated...
January 18, 2019: Nanomedicine
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