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Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine

Wen Yang, Xiaoning Liu, Kegang Wang, Jiabei Hu, Guohua Geng, Jun Feng
Sex determination from skeletons is a significant step in the analysis of forensic anthropology. Previous skeletal sex assessments were analyzed by anthropologists' subjective vision and sexually dimorphic features. In this paper, we proposed an improved backpropagation neural network (BPNN) to determine gender from skull. It adds the momentum term to improve the convergence speed and avoids falling into local minimum. The regularization operator is used to ensure the stability of the algorithm, and the Adaboost integration algorithm is used to improve the generalization ability of the model...
2019: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Arun V Kolanjiyil, Clement Kleinstreuer
The alveolar region, encompassing millions of alveoli, is the most vital part of the lung. However, airflow behavior and particle deposition in that region are not fully understood because of the complex geometrical structure and intricate wall movement. Although recent investigations using 3D computer simulations have provided some valuable information, a realistic analysis of the air-particle dynamics in the acinar region is still lacking. So, to gain better physical insight, a physiologically inspired whole acinar model has been developed...
2019: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Xiaohui Du, Lin Liu, Xiangzhou Wang, Jing Zhang, Guangming Ni, Ruqian Hao, Juanxiu Liu, Yong Liu
Trichomonas examination is one of the important items in the leucorrhea routine detection. And it cannot be recognized by still images because of the unstable morphology and unfixed focal location caused by motion characteristic. We proposed an improved VIBE algorithm. 6 videos (totally 1414 frames) are collected for testing. In order to compare the effects of the algorithms, we segment each frame artificially as ground truth. Experiments show that percentage of correct classification (PCC) achieves 88%. The proposed improved method can effectively suppress the false detection caused by the formed components such as epithelial cells in the leucorrhea microscopic image and the missed detection caused by the background model update during the movement...
2019: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
K Senthil Kumar, K Venkatalakshmi, K Karthikeyan
The objective of this paper is to explore an expedient image segmentation algorithm for medical images to curtail the physicians' interpretation of computer tomography (CT) scan images. Modern medical imaging modalities generate large images that are extremely grim to analyze manually. The consequences of segmentation algorithms rely on the exactitude and convergence time. At this moment, there is a compelling necessity to explore and implement new evolutionary algorithms to solve the problems associated with medical image segmentation...
2019: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Bijan Hasani Lichae, Jafar Biazar, Zainab Ayati
In this paper, the fractional-order differential model of HIV-1 infection of CD4+ T-cells with the effect of drug therapy has been introduced. There are three components: uninfected CD4+ T-cells, x , infected CD4+ T-cells, y , and density of virions in plasma, z . The aim is to gain numerical solution of this fractional-order HIV-1 model by Laplace Adomian decomposition method (LADM). The solution of the proposed model has been achieved in a series form. Moreover, to illustrate the ability and efficiency of the proposed approach, the solution will be compared with the solutions of some other numerical methods...
2019: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Young Han Lee, Jung Jin Kim, In Gwun Jang
Objectives: This study proposes a regression model for the phantomless Hounsfield units (HU) to bone mineral density (BMD) conversion including patient physical factors and analyzes the accuracy of the estimated BMD values. Methods: The HU values, BMDs, circumferences of the body, and cross-sectional areas of bone were measured from 39 quantitative computed tomography images of L2 vertebrae and hips. Then, the phantomless HU-to-BMD conversion was derived using a multiple linear regression model...
2019: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Ceon Ramon, Mark D Holmes, Mackenzie V Wise, Don Tucker, Kevin Jenson, Samuel R Kinn
Our objective was to determine if there are any distinguishable phase cone clustering patterns present near to epileptic spikes. These phase cones arise from episodic phase shifts due to the coordinated activity of cortical neurons at or near to state transitions and can be extracted from the high-density scalp EEG recordings. The phase cone clustering activities in the low gamma band (30-50 Hz) and in the ripple band (80-150 Hz) were extracted from the analytic phase after taking Hilbert transform of the 256-channel high density (dEEG) data of adult patients...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Phuong D Ngo, Susan Wei, Anna Holubová, Jan Muzik, Fred Godtliebsen
Background: Type-1 diabetes is a condition caused by the lack of insulin hormone, which leads to an excessive increase in blood glucose level. The glucose kinetics process is difficult to control due to its complex and nonlinear nature and with state variables that are difficult to measure. Methods: This paper proposes a method for automatically calculating the basal and bolus insulin doses for patients with type-1 diabetes using reinforcement learning with feedforward controller...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Ali Jalali, Allan F Simpao, Jorge A Gálvez, Robert A Berg, Vinay M Nadkarni, Chandrasekhar Nataraj
Introduction: The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been shown to impact patient outcomes. However, post-CPR morbidity and mortality remain high, and CPR optimization is an area of active research. One approach to optimizing CPR involves establishing reliable CPR performance measures and then modifying CPR parameters, such as compressions and ventilator breaths, to enhance these measures. We aimed to define a reliable CPR performance measure, optimize the CPR performance based on the defined measure and design a dynamically optimized scheme that varies CPR parameters to optimize CPR performance...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Hong Zhu, Hanzhi He, Jinhui Xu, Qianhao Fang, Wei Wang
In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for medical image segmentation, which combines the density peaks clustering (DPC) with the fruit fly optimization algorithm, and it has the following advantages. Firstly, it avoids the problem of DPC that needs to artificially select parameters (such as the number of clusters) in its decision graph and thus can automatically determine their values. Secondly, our algorithm uses random step size, instead of the fixed step size as in the fruit fly optimization algorithm, which helps avoid falling into local optima...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Ying-Hwey Nai, Hiroshi Watabe
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of extending a previously developed amyloid biomathematical screening methodology to support the screening of tau radiotracers during compound development. 22 tau-related PET radiotracers were investigated. For each radiotracer, in silico MLogP, V x , and in vitro K D were input into the model to predict the in vivo K 1 , k 2 , and BPND under healthy control (HC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) conditions. These kinetic parameters were used to simulate the time activity curves (TACs) in the target regions of HC, MCI, and AD and a reference region...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Qian Wang, Yajie Xu, Guoqiang Zeng, Mingshan Sun
Blood pressure (BP) is one of the indispensable elements of physiological health characteristics and a significant indicator for predicting and diagnosing hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. This paper proposes a two-domain fusion model to estimate BP continuously from pulse wave acquired with a pressure sensor. Method . The optimal external pressure applied on the pressure sensor is first determined in order to capture pulse wave in the radial artery. The captured pulse wave is then processed in both the time and frequency domains via filtering and fast Fourier transform...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Haijing Tang, Taoyi Wang, Mengke Li, Xu Yang
Mobile medical care is a hot issue in current medical research. Due to the inconvenience of going to hospital for fetal heart monitoring and the limited medical resources, real-time monitoring of fetal health on portable devices has become an urgent need for pregnant women, which helps to protect the health of the fetus in a more comprehensive manner and reduce the workload of doctors. For the feature acquisition of the fetal heart rate (FHR) signal, the traditional feature-based classification methods need to manually read the morphological features from the FHR curve, which is time-consuming and costly and has a certain degree of calibration bias...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Bahatdin Daşbaşı
In this study, the mathematical model examined the dynamics between pathogen and specific immune system cells (memory T cells) for diseases such as chronic infection and cancer in which nonspecific immune system cells are inadequate to destroy the pathogen and has been suggested by using a system of the fractional-order differential equation with multi-orders. Qualitative analysis of the proposed model reveals the equilibrium points giving important ideas about the proliferation of the pathogen and memory T cells...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Yi Fu, Ji Zhao, Zhiguo Chen
Protein-ligand interactions are a necessary prerequisite for signal transduction, immunoreaction, and gene regulation. Protein-ligand interaction studies are important for understanding the mechanisms of biological regulation, and they provide a theoretical basis for the design and discovery of new drug targets. In this study, we analyzed the molecular interactions of protein-ligand which was docked by AutoDock 4.2 software. In AutoDock 4.2 software, we used a new search algorithm, hybrid algorithm of random drift particle swarm optimization and local search (LRDPSO), and the classical Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA) as energy optimization algorithms...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Donghai Liu, Guangyan Liu, Zaiming Liu
Similarity measure is an important tool in multiple criteria decision-making problems, which can be used to measure the difference between the alternatives. In this paper, some new similarity measures of single-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) and interval-valued neutrosophic sets (IVNSs) are defined based on the Euclidean distance measure, respectively, and the proposed similarity measures satisfy the axiom of the similarity measure. Furthermore, we apply the proposed similarity measures to medical diagnosis decision problem; the numerical example is used to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed similarity measures of SVNSs and IVNSs, which are then compared to other existing similarity measures...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Hisashi Johno, Masahide Saito, Hiroshi Onishi
During respiratory-gated radiotherapy (RGRT), gate on and off latencies cause deviations of gating windows, possibly leading to delivery of low- and high-dose radiations to tumors and normal tissues, respectively. Currently, there are no RGRT systems that have definite tools to compensate for the delays. To address the problem, we propose a framework consisting of two steps: (1) multistep-ahead prediction and (2) prediction-based gating. For each step, we have devised a specific algorithm to accomplish the task...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Francesco Montefusco, Morten Gram Pedersen
Hormones and neurotransmitters are released from cells by calcium-regulated exocytosis, and local coupling between Ca2+ channels (CaVs) and secretory granules is a key factor determining the exocytosis rate. Here, we devise a methodology based on Markov chain models that allows us to obtain analytic results for the expected rate. First, we analyze the property of the secretory complex obtained by coupling a single granule with one CaV. Then, we extend our results to a more general case where the granule is coupled with n CaVs...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Hamenyimana Emanuel Gervas, Nicholas Kwasi-Do Ohene Opoku, Shamsuddeen Ibrahim
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), commonly known as sleeping sickness, is a neglected tropical vector-borne disease caused by trypanosome protozoa. It is transmitted by bites of infected tsetse fly. In this paper, we first present the vector-host model which describes the general transmission dynamics of HAT. In the tsetse fly population, the HAT is modelled by three compartments, while in the human population, the HAT is modelled by four compartments. The next-generation matrix approach is used to derive the basic reproduction number, R 0 , and it is also proved that if R 0 ≤ 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable, which means the disease dies out...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Federico Divina, Miguel García-Torres, Ting Hu, Christian E Schaerer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
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