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Mathias Buff, Ewa Drab, Kaori Sugihara
The detection limits of impedance biosensors are dictated by the presence of background nonspecific binding, yet almost all the detection limits reported in the literature are determined using a clean buffer solution without confronting this real challenge. In this work, the authors employed the simplest "differential" impedance biosensor, composed of poly-l-lysine-polyethylene glycol-biotin-coated gold electrodes for the detection of streptavidin in the presence of 0.1% fetal calf serum, and studied the effect of the nonspecific binding on the performance of the differential impedance biosensing...
February 11, 2019: Biointerphases
Shun Tao, Wen-Wen Wang, Li-Qiang Chu, Tian-Wei Jia, Yang Yang
Glycan biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy have attracted a great deal of interest due to their potential applications in numerous biological and biomedical fields. Controlled immobilization of sugar probes on a gold substrate is believed to be critical for the performance of these SPR biosensors. In this regard, herein the authors report a direct coupling of mannose probes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) layer on the gold substrate via a squaric acid-mediated reaction under mild conditions, in which the BSA layer provides not only reactive amine groups but also a nonfouling surface property...
February 6, 2019: Biointerphases
Anouck L S Burzava, Aurelien Forget, Frances J Harding, Michaelia P Cockshell, Daniella Penko, Camille Rouzaud, Vincent Ahmadi, Paula F Marina, Darling Rojas-Canales, Claudine S Bonder, P Toby H Coates, Michaela Waibel, Helen E Thomas, Thomas W Kay, Thomas Loudovaris, Anton Blencowe, Nicolas H Voelcker
PolyJet three-dimensional (3D) printing allows for the rapid manufacturing of 3D moulds for the fabrication of cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) microwell arrays (PMAs). As this 3D printing technique has a resolution on the micrometer scale, the moulds exhibit a distinct surface roughness. In this study, the authors demonstrate by optical profilometry that the topography of the 3D printed moulds can be transferred to the PMAs and that this roughness induced cell adhesive properties to the material. In particular, the topography facilitated immobilization of endothelial cells on the internal walls of the microwells...
January 30, 2019: Biointerphases
Daniel Moreno-Cerrada, Chloe Rodríguez, Francisco Moreno-Madrid, Ekaterina Selivanovitch, Trevor Douglas, Pedro J de Pablo, Miguel Manso Silván
The organization of virus-like particles (VLPs) on surfaces is a relevant matter for both fundamental and biomedical sciences. In this work, the authors have tailored surfaces with different surface tension components aiming at finding a relationship with the affinity of the different geometric/surface features of icosahedral P22 VLPs. The surfaces have been prepared by titanate assisted organosilanization with glycidyloxy, amino, and perfluoro silanes. Vibrational and photoelectron spectroscopies have allowed identifying the different functional groups of the organosilanes on the surfaces...
January 28, 2019: Biointerphases
Kateřina Pachnerová Brabcová, Lembit Sihver, Egor Ukraintsev, Václav Štěpán, Marie Davídková
Compromised detection of short DNA fragments can result in underestimation of radiation-induced clustered DNA damage. The fragments can be detected with atomic force microscopy (AFM), followed by image analysis to compute the length of plasmid molecules. Plasmid molecules imaged with AFM are represented by open or closed curves, possibly with crossings. For the analysis of such objects, a dedicated algorithm was developed, and its usability was demonstrated on the AFM images of plasmid pBR322 irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays...
December 31, 2018: Biointerphases
Vanessa Belaud, Tatiana Petithory, Arnaud Ponche, Cyril Mauclair, Christophe Donnet, Laurent Pieuchot, Stephane Benayoun, Karine Anselme
Understanding how topographical cues can control cell behavior is a major fundamental question which is of particular interest for implant design. Recent findings show that cell-scale curvature, as well as nanoscale topography, can affect different aspects of cell migration. However, the correlation between specific curvature radii and cell behavior, as well as the combinatorial effect of nanoscale topography and cell-scale curvature, has not yet been investigated. Herein, the authors employ a new femtosecond laser ablation method to generate multiscale topographical patterns directly on titanium surfaces...
December 31, 2018: Biointerphases
Stéphanie Blockhuys, Per Malmberg, Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede
Copper (Cu) is an essential transition metal ion that acts as a cofactor in many key enzymes. Cu is also needed for several hallmarks of cancer, and many copper-binding proteins are upregulated in various cancers. However, Cu-dependent cellular mechanisms and molecular pathways involved in cancer progression are not known. Fundamental to a better understanding of such phenomena is the investigation of the Cu subcellular distribution in cancer cells. The authors here show that Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry combined with delayed extraction can be successfully applied to probe Cu localization in fixed MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells providing subcellular resolution...
December 20, 2018: Biointerphases
Ranganathan Parthasarathy, Anil Misra, Linyong Song, Qiang Ye, Paulette Spencer
Dentin adhesive systems for composite tooth restorations are composed of hydrophilic/hydrophobic monomers, solvents, and photoinitiators. The adhesives undergo phase separation and concomitant compositional change during their application in the wet oral environment; phase separation compromises the quality of the hybrid layer in the adhesive/dentin interface. In this work, the adhesive composition in the hybrid layer can be represented using the phase boundaries of a ternary phase diagram for the hydrophobic monomer/hydrophilic monomer/water system...
December 17, 2018: Biointerphases
Steven J Roeters, Elaine H Tronic, Joe E Baio, David G Castner, Tobias Weidner
The blood-clotting protein von Willebrand factor (vWF) can be activated by small molecules, high shear stress, and interactions with interfaces. It subsequently binds platelet receptor glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα) at the surface of platelets, thereby playing a crucial role in blood clotting due to platelet activation, which is an important process to consider in the design of cardiovascular implants and biomaterials used in blood-contacting applications. The influence of surfaces on the activation and the molecular-level structure of surface-bound vWF is largely unknown...
December 14, 2018: Biointerphases
David G Castner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2018: Biointerphases
Anna Belu, Katharina Maniura, Sally L McArthur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2018: Biointerphases
Hannah J Askew, Karyn L Jarvis, Sally L McArthur
Plasma polymers are often used in applications requiring aqueous immersion; therefore, it is important to understand how this exposure affects the physical and chemical properties of the films. Three different plasma polymer films were deposited at different distances from the electrode, and the film properties were characterized using contact angle, ellipsometry, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The film behaviors in aqueous solutions were studied via quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D)...
December 5, 2018: Biointerphases
Songze Wu, Botao Zhang, Yi Liu, Xinkun Suo, Hua Li
Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are ubiquitous undesirable phenomena in the marine industry and the medical industry, usually causing economic losses and serious health problems. Numerous efforts have been made to reduce bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation, most of which are based on the release of toxic biocides from coatings or substrates. In recent years, surface topography has been found to substantially influence the interaction between bacteria and surfaces. This review summarizes previous work dedicated in searching for the relationship between bacterial adhesion and surface topography in the last eight years, as well as the proposed mechanisms by which surface topographic features interact with bacterial cells...
November 27, 2018: Biointerphases
Javad Naderi, Carla Giles, Solmaz Saboohi, Hans J Griesser, Bryan R Coad
Antimicrobial surface coatings that act through a contact-killing mechanism (not diffusive release) could offer many advantages to the design of medical device coatings that prevent microbial colonization and infections. However, as the authors show here, to prevent arriving at an incorrect conclusion about their mechanism of action, it is essential to employ thorough washing protocols validated by surface analytical data. Antimicrobial surface coatings were fabricated by covalently attaching polyene antifungal drugs to surface coatings...
November 27, 2018: Biointerphases
J Elliott Fowler, Thomas Kleinteich, Johannes Franz, Cherno Jaye, Daniel A Fischer, Stanislav N Gorb, Tobias Weidner, Joe E Baio
Frogs capture their prey with a highly specialized tongue. Recent studies indicate this tongue is covered with fibril-forming mucus that acts as a pressure sensitive adhesive. However, no analysis of the interfacial chemistry of frog tongue mucus has been performed. The goal of this study is to examine the chemical structure of the surface of mucus after a tongue strike. Previous studies of mucus from other animals suggest that mucus from a frog's tongue consists of mucins-serine-, threonine-, and proline-rich glycoproteins...
November 26, 2018: Biointerphases
Matthew D Manning, Albert L Kwansa, Thomas Oweida, James S Peerless, Abhishek Singh, Yaroslava G Yingling
Ligand-functionalized inorganic nanoparticles, also known as monolayer-protected nanoparticles, offer great potential as vehicles for in vivo delivery of drugs, genes, and other therapeutics. These nanoparticles offer highly customizable chemistries independent of the size, shape, and functionality imparted by the inorganic core. Their success as drug delivery agents depends on their interaction with three major classes of biomolecules: nucleic acids, proteins, and membranes. Here, the authors discuss recent advances and open questions in the field of nanoparticle ligand design for nanomedicine, with a focus on atomic-scale interactions with biomolecules...
November 21, 2018: Biointerphases
Santosh Yadav, Pradeep Kumar
High molecular weight polyethylenimines (PEIs) are considered as gold standard for transfection studies; however, cytotoxicity associated with branched ones and lower charge density on linear PEIs as well as lower uptake of the resulting deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) complexes have limited their applications in clinical studies. In order to address these concerns and improve the uptake efficiency of the DNA complexes of linear polyethylenimine (25 kDa), the polymer was grafted with variable amounts of butylboronic acid to obtain a small series of linear polyethylenimine-butylboronic acid polymers...
November 20, 2018: Biointerphases
Alexander G Shard, Louise Wright, Caterina Minelli
This paper provides an empirical formula to calculate the extinction efficiencies of gold nanoparticles over the size range 1-1000 nm in fluids with refractive indexes which extend from n  = 1 to n  = 1.62. The formula contains a shape factor to account for nonspherical particles and aggregates. The empirical curves are fitted to values calculated from accurate Mie and T-Matrix theory and confirm previous descriptions which are restricted to nearly spherical particles in water of diameter between 5 and 100 nm...
November 13, 2018: Biointerphases
Fang Cheng, Mingyang Li, Xuguang Zhao, Hanqi Wang, Wei He, Xin Hua, Qing Wang, Jingping Qu
Traditional strategies for the functionalization of materials displaying hydroxyl groups either require active esterification reagents or involve the nucleophilic attack of the hydroxyl group toward electrophilic groups. The former tends to hydrolyze in aqueous solutions while the latter occurs under harsh conditions. Herein, the authors reported a new method for the functionalization of hydroxyl groups on the surface via catalytic oxa-Michael addition with vinyl sulfones. Using hydroxyl group terminated self-assembled monolayers as a model surface, a series of organocatalysts were screened and triphenylphosphine stood out for the best catalytic activity...
November 8, 2018: Biointerphases
Katarzyna Janicka, Izabella Jastrzebska, Aneta Dorota Petelska
The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between diosgenin analogues [DioA: diosgenin acetate (DAc) and (25 R )-5α,6β-dihydroxyspirostan-3β-ol acetate (DSol)] and cholesterol (Ch) monolayers at the air/water interface. The surface tension of pure and mixed lipid monolayers at 22 °C was measured by using the Langmuir method with a Teflon trough and a Nima 9002 tensiometer. The surface tension values were used to calculate the π-A isotherms and to determine the molecular surface areas...
November 8, 2018: Biointerphases
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