journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38265882/pediatric-cholestatic-diseases-common-and-unique-pathogenic-mechanisms
#1
REVIEW
Harry Sutton, Saul J Karpen, Binita M Kamath
Cholestasis is the predominate feature of many pediatric hepatobiliary diseases. The physiologic flow of bile requires multiple complex processes working in concert. Bile acid (BA) synthesis and excretion, the formation and flow of bile, and the enterohepatic reuptake of BAs all function to maintain the circulation of BAs, a key molecule in lipid digestion, metabolic and cellular signaling, and, as discussed in the review, a crucial mediator in the pathogenesis of cholestasis. Disruption of one or several of these steps can result in the accumulation of toxic BAs in bile ducts and hepatocytes leading to inflammation, fibrosis, and, over time, biliary and hepatic cirrhosis...
January 24, 2024: Annual Review of Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38265881/chance-and-opportunity-a-personal-story
#2
REVIEW
Abul K Abbas
This article summarizes my personal life story, from early education in India to research, teaching, and other activities in Boston and San Francisco. I have tried to illustrate how unplanned events shape one's path, and why the willingness to go with the flow is among one's most valuable attributes.
January 24, 2024: Annual Review of Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38265880/acetaminophen-hepatotoxicity-paradigm-for-understanding-mechanisms-of-drug-induced-liver-injury
#3
REVIEW
Hartmut Jaeschke, Anup Ramachandran
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the clinically most relevant drug hepatotoxicity in western countries, and, because of translational relevance of animal models, APAP is mechanistically the most studied drug. This review covers intracellular signaling events starting with drug metabolism and the central role of mitochondrial dysfunction involving oxidant stress and peroxynitrite. Mitochondria-derived endonucleases trigger nuclear DNA fragmentation, the point of no return for cell death. In addition, adaptive mechanisms that limit cell death are discussed including autophagy, mitochondrial morphology changes, and biogenesis...
January 24, 2024: Annual Review of Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38265879/neutrophils-in-physiology-and-pathology
#4
REVIEW
Alejandra Aroca-Crevillén, Tommaso Vicanolo, Samuel Ovadia, Andrés Hidalgo
Infections, cardiovascular disease, and cancer are major causes of disease and death worldwide. Neutrophils are inescapably associated with each of these health concerns, by either protecting from, instigating, or aggravating their impact on the host. However, each of these disorders has a very different etiology, and understanding how neutrophils contribute to each of them requires understanding the intricacies of this immune cell type, including their immune and nonimmune contributions to physiology and pathology...
January 24, 2024: Annual Review of Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37871131/enpp1-in-blood-and-bone-skeletal-and-soft-tissue-diseases-induced-by-enpp1-deficiency
#5
REVIEW
Carlos R Ferreira, Thomas O Carpenter, Demetrios T Braddock
The enzyme ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 ( ENPP1 ) codes for a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein that hydrolyzes extracellular ATP to generate pyrophosphate (PPi ) and adenosine monophosphate, thereby contributing to downstream purinergic signaling pathways. The clinical phenotypes induced by ENPP1 deficiency are seemingly contradictory and include early-onset osteoporosis in middle-aged adults and life-threatening vascular calcifications in the large arteries of infants with generalized arterial calcification of infancy...
January 24, 2024: Annual Review of Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37832948/clonal-hematopoiesis-inflammation-and-hematologic-malignancy
#6
REVIEW
Rashmi Kanagal-Shamanna, David B Beck, Katherine R Calvo
Somatic or acquired mutations are postzygotic genetic variations that can occur within any tissue. These mutations accumulate during aging and have classically been linked to malignant processes. Tremendous advancements over the past years have led to a deeper understanding of the role of somatic mutations in benign and malignant age-related diseases. Here, we review the somatic mutations that accumulate in the blood and their connection to disease states, with a particular focus on inflammatory diseases and myelodysplastic syndrome...
January 24, 2024: Annual Review of Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37832944/role-of-the-microenvironment-in-glioma-pathogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Maya Anjali Jayaram, Joanna J Phillips
Gliomas are a diverse group of primary central nervous system tumors that affect both children and adults. Recent studies have revealed a dynamic cross talk that occurs between glioma cells and components of their microenvironment, including neurons, astrocytes, immune cells, and the extracellular matrix. This cross talk regulates fundamental aspects of glioma development and growth. In this review, we discuss recent discoveries about the impact of these interactions on gliomas and highlight how tumor cells actively remodel their microenvironment to promote disease...
January 24, 2024: Annual Review of Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37738511/genetics-and-pathogenesis-of-dystonia
#8
REVIEW
Mirja Thomsen, Lara M Lange, Michael Zech, Katja Lohmann
Dystonia is a clinically and genetically highly heterogeneous neurological disorder characterized by abnormal movements and postures caused by involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contractions. A number of groundbreaking genetic and molecular insights have recently been gained. While they enable genetic testing and counseling, their translation into new therapies is still limited. However, we are beginning to understand shared pathophysiological pathways and molecular mechanisms. It has become clear that dystonia results from a dysfunctional network involving the basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and cortex...
January 24, 2024: Annual Review of Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37906947/haploinsufficient-transcription-factors-in-myeloid-neoplasms
#9
REVIEW
Tanner C Martinez, Megan E McNerney
Many transcription factors (TFs) function as tumor suppressor genes with heterozygous phenotypes, yet haploinsufficiency generally has an underappreciated role in neoplasia. This is no less true in myeloid cells, which are normally regulated by a delicately balanced and interconnected transcriptional network. Detailed understanding of TF dose in this circuitry sheds light on the leukemic transcriptome. In this review, we discuss the emerging features of haploinsufficient transcription factors (HITFs). We posit that: ( a ) monoallelic and biallelic losses can have distinct cellular outcomes; ( b ) the activity of a TF exists in a greater range than the traditional Mendelian genetic doses; and ( c ) how a TF is deleted or mutated impacts the cellular phenotype...
October 31, 2023: Annual Review of Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37871132/toward-explainable-artificial-intelligence-for-precision-pathology
#10
REVIEW
Frederick Klauschen, Jonas Dippel, Philipp Keyl, Philipp Jurmeister, Michael Bockmayr, Andreas Mock, Oliver Buchstab, Maximilian Alber, Lukas Ruff, Grégoire Montavon, Klaus-Robert Müller
The rapid development of precision medicine in recent years has started to challenge diagnostic pathology with respect to its ability to analyze histological images and increasingly large molecular profiling data in a quantitative, integrative, and standardized way. Artificial intelligence (AI) and, more precisely, deep learning technologies have recently demonstrated the potential to facilitate complex data analysis tasks, including clinical, histological, and molecular data for disease classification; tissue biomarker quantification; and clinical outcome prediction...
October 23, 2023: Annual Review of Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37832947/genome-instability-and-dna-repair-in-somatic-and-reproductive-aging
#11
REVIEW
Stephanie Panier, Siyao Wang, Björn Schumacher
Genetic material is constantly subjected to genotoxic insults and is critically dependent on DNA repair. Genome maintenance mechanisms differ in somatic and germ cells as the soma only requires maintenance during an individual's lifespan, while the germline indefinitely perpetuates its genetic information. DNA lesions are recognized and repaired by mechanistically highly diverse repair machineries. The DNA damage response impinges on a vast array of homeostatic processes and can ultimately result in cell fate changes such as apoptosis or cellular senescence...
October 13, 2023: Annual Review of Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37832946/comparative-pathogenesis-of-severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronaviruses
#12
REVIEW
Jingshu Zhang, Melanie Rissmann, Thijs Kuiken, Bart L Haagmans
Over the last two decades the world has witnessed the global spread of two genetically related highly pathogenic coronaviruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2. However, the impact of these outbreaks differed significantly with respect to the hospitalizations and fatalities seen worldwide. While many studies have been performed recently on SARS-CoV-2, a comparative pathogenesis analysis with SARS-CoV may further provide critical insights into the mechanisms of disease that drive coronavirus-induced respiratory disease...
October 13, 2023: Annual Review of Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37832945/cancer-as-a-disease-of-development-gone-awry
#13
REVIEW
Ben Z Stanger, Geoffrey M Wahl
In the 160 years since Rudolf Virchow first postulated that neoplasia arises by the same law that regulated the embryonic development, scientists have come to recognize the striking overlap between the molecular and cellular programs used by cancers and embryos. Advances in cancer biology and molecular techniques have further highlighted the similarities between carcinogenesis and embryogenesis, where cellular growth, differentiation, motility, and intercellular cross talk are mediated by common drivers and regulatory networks...
October 13, 2023: Annual Review of Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37832943/hypoxia-induced-signaling-in-gut-and-liver-pathobiology
#14
REVIEW
Sumeet Solanki, Yatrik M Shah
Oxygen (O2 ) is essential for cellular metabolism and biochemical reactions. When the demand for O2 exceeds the supply, hypoxia occurs. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are essential to activate adaptive and survival responses following hypoxic stress. In the gut (intestines) and liver, oxygen gradients or physiologic hypoxia are necessary to maintain normal homeostasis. While physiologic hypoxia is beneficial and aids in normal functions, pathological hypoxia is harmful as it exacerbates inflammatory responses and tissue dysfunction and is a hallmark of many cancers...
October 13, 2023: Annual Review of Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37832942/epigenomic-characterization-of-lymphoid-neoplasms
#15
REVIEW
Martí Duran-Ferrer, José Ignacio Martín-Subero
Lymphoid neoplasms represent a heterogenous group of disease entities and subtypes with markedly different molecular and clinical features. Beyond genetic alterations, lymphoid tumors also show widespread epigenomic changes. These severely affect the levels and distribution of DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin accessibility, and three-dimensional genome interactions. DNA methylation stands out as tracer of cell identity and memory, as B cell neoplasms show epigenetic imprints of their cellular origin and proliferative history, which can be quantified by an epigenetic mitotic clock...
October 13, 2023: Annual Review of Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37832941/neurodegenerative-disease-tauopathies
#16
REVIEW
Benjamin C Creekmore, Ryohei Watanabe, Edward B Lee
Tauopathies are a diverse group of progressive and fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by aberrant tau inclusions in the central nervous system. Tau protein forms pathologic fibrillar aggregates that are typically closely associated with neuronal cell death, leading to varied clinical phenotypes including dementia, movement disorders, and motor neuron disease. In this review, we describe the clinicopathologic features of tauopathies and highlight recent advances in understanding the mechanisms that lead to spread of pathologic aggregates through interconnected neuronal pathways...
October 13, 2023: Annual Review of Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37832940/within-host-evolution-of-bacterial-pathogens-in-acute-and-chronic-infection
#17
REVIEW
John P Dekker
Bacterial pathogens undergo remarkable adaptive change in response to the selective forces they encounter during host colonization and infection. Studies performed over the past few decades have demonstrated that many general evolutionary processes can be discerned during the course of host adaptation, including genetic diversification of lineages, clonal succession events, convergent evolution, and balanced fitness trade-offs. In some cases, elevated mutation rates resulting from mismatch repair or proofreading deficiencies accelerate evolution, and active mobile genetic elements or phages may facilitate genome plasticity...
October 13, 2023: Annual Review of Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37788577/control-of-cell-death-in-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Nobuhiko Kayagaki, Joshua D Webster, Kim Newton
Apoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis are genetically programmed cell death mechanisms that eliminate obsolete, damaged, infected, and self-reactive cells. Apoptosis fragments cells in a manner that limits immune cell activation, whereas the lytic death programs of necroptosis and pyroptosis release proinflammatory intracellular contents. Apoptosis fine-tunes tissue architecture during mammalian development, promotes tissue homeostasis, and is crucial for averting cancer and autoimmunity. All three cell death mechanisms are deployed to thwart the spread of pathogens...
October 3, 2023: Annual Review of Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37758242/update-on-epithelial-mesenchymal-plasticity-in-cancer-progression
#19
REVIEW
Rosa Fontana, Aida Mestre-Farrera, Jing Yang
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular process by which epithelial cells lose their characteristics and acquire mesenchymal traits to promote cell movement. This program is aberrantly activated in human cancers and endows tumor cells with increased abilities in tumor initiation, cell migration, invasion, metastasis, and therapy resistance. The EMT program in tumors is rarely binary and often leads to a series of gradual or intermediate epithelial-mesenchymal states. Functionally, epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity (EMP) improves the fitness of cancer cells during tumor progression and in response to therapies...
September 27, 2023: Annual Review of Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37738512/antibody-and-b-cell-responses-to-sars-cov-2-infection-and-vaccination-the-end-of-the-beginning
#20
REVIEW
Katharina Röltgen, Scott D Boyd
As the COVID-19 pandemic has evolved during the past years, interactions between human immune systems, rapidly mutating and selected SARS-CoV-2 viral variants, and effective vaccines have complicated the landscape of individual immunological histories. Here, we review some key findings for antibody and B cell-mediated immunity, including responses to the highly mutated omicron variants; immunological imprinting and other impacts of successive viral antigenic variant exposures on antibody and B cell memory; responses in secondary lymphoid and mucosal tissues and non-neutralizing antibody-mediated immunity; responses in populations vulnerable to severe disease such as those with cancer, immunodeficiencies, and other comorbidities, as well as populations showing apparent resistance to severe disease such as many African populations; and evidence of antibody involvement in postacute sequelae of infection or long COVID...
September 22, 2023: Annual Review of Pathology
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