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Perspectives on Psychological Science

Raymond P Tucker
Transgender adults serve in the U.S. military at 2 to 3 times the rate of the general adult population. Unfortunately, transgender veterans die by suicide at twice the rate of their cisgender veteran peers and approximately 5.85 times the rate of the general population. This article reviews the literature regarding the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in transgender veterans. Suicide risk and resilience factors are reviewed, and future areas of study are detailed that incorporate findings from the broader suicide-prevention literature and research on transgender mental-health disparities...
April 4, 2019: Perspectives on Psychological Science
Rex A Wright, Christopher Mlynski, Ivan Carbajal
We offer thoughts pertaining to purported conceptual and replication crises that have been discussed in relation to the limited-resource model (LRM) of self-control, functioning as crisis outsiders who have been conducting related research concerned with determinants and cardiovascular correlates of effort. Guiding analyses in our laboratory convey important lessons about experimental generation of the now-classic LRM self-regulatory-fatigue effect on control. They do so by drawing attention to conditions that must be met in fatigue-induction and fatigue-influence phases of relevant experiments...
March 29, 2019: Perspectives on Psychological Science
Leigh K Smith, Emily F Wissel
Recent data suggest that the human body is not so exclusively human after all. Specifically, humans share their bodies with approximately 10 trillion microorganisms, collectively known as the microbiome. Chief among these microbes are bacteria, and there is a growing consensus that they are critical to virtually all facets of normative functioning. This article reviews the ways in which bacteria shape affect, neurological processes, cognition, social relationships, development, and psychological pathology. To date, the vast majority of research on interactions between microbes and humans has been conducted by scientists outside the field of psychology, despite the fact that psychological scientists are experts in many of the topics being explored...
March 28, 2019: Perspectives on Psychological Science
Monika Wróbel, Kamil K Imbir
Emotional contagion has long been conceptualized as the automatic transfer of affective states between people, similar to the spread of diseases. New evidence, however, has challenged this view by demonstrating that emotions, contrary to diseases, spread selectively rather than blindly because their transfer is controlled by social factors. Here, we take a closer look at this top-down social control of emotional contagion. We review literature on the moderating role of social factors in emotional contagion and emotional mimicry, a process often considered a basic mechanism of emotional contagion...
March 7, 2019: Perspectives on Psychological Science
Christopher C Conway, Miriam K Forbes, Kelsie T Forbush, Eiko I Fried, Michael N Hallquist, Roman Kotov, Stephanie N Mullins-Sweatt, Alexander J Shackman, Andrew E Skodol, Susan C South, Matthew Sunderland, Monika A Waszczuk, David H Zald, Mohammad H Afzali, Marina A Bornovalova, Natacha Carragher, Anna R Docherty, Katherine G Jonas, Robert F Krueger, Praveetha Patalay, Aaron L Pincus, Jennifer L Tackett, Ulrich Reininghaus, Irwin D Waldman, Aidan G C Wright, Johannes Zimmermann, Bo Bach, R Michael Bagby, Michael Chmielewski, David C Cicero, Lee Anna Clark, Tim Dalgleish, Colin G DeYoung, Christopher J Hopwood, Masha Y Ivanova, Robert D Latzman, Christopher J Patrick, Camilo J Ruggero, Douglas B Samuel, David Watson, Nicholas R Eaton
For more than a century, research on psychopathology has focused on categorical diagnoses. Although this work has produced major discoveries, growing evidence points to the superiority of a dimensional approach to the science of mental illness. Here we outline one such dimensional system-the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP)-that is based on empirical patterns of co-occurrence among psychological symptoms. We highlight key ways in which this framework can advance mental-health research, and we provide some heuristics for using HiTOP to test theories of psychopathology...
March 7, 2019: Perspectives on Psychological Science
A W M Spithoven, S Cacioppo, L Goossens, J T Cacioppo
Loneliness is a negative and distressing emotional state that arises from a discrepancy between one's desired and achieved levels of social connectedness. The evolutionary theory of loneliness (ETL) posits that experiencing loneliness is an inherited adaptation that signals that salutary social relations are endangered or damaged and prompts people to reconnect to significant others. The basic tenets of the ETL has led researchers to examine the genetic underpinnings of loneliness. The current review provides an updated overview of genetic studies on loneliness and discusses the importance of genetic research for the ETL...
March 7, 2019: Perspectives on Psychological Science
Carol S Dweck, David S Yeager
A growth mindset is the belief that human capacities are not fixed but can be developed over time, and mindset research examines the power of such beliefs to influence human behavior. This article offers two personal perspectives on mindset research across two eras. Given recent changes in the field, the authors represent different generations of researchers, each focusing on different issues and challenges, but both committed to "era-bridging" research. The first author traces mindset research from its systematic examination of how mindsets affect challenge seeking and resilience, through the ways in which mindsets influence the formation of judgments and stereotypes...
February 1, 2019: Perspectives on Psychological Science
Peter H Ditto, Cory J Clark, Brittany S Liu, Sean P Wojcik, Eric E Chen, Rebecca H Grady, Jared B Celniker, Joanne F Zinger
Baron and Jost (this issue, p. 292) present three critiques of our meta-analysis demonstrating similar levels of partisan bias in liberals and conservatives: (a) that the studies we examined were biased toward finding symmetrical bias among liberals and conservatives, (b) that the studies we examined do not measure partisan bias but rather rational Bayesian updating, and (c) that social psychology is not biased in favor of liberals but rather toward creating false equivalencies. We respond in turn that (a) the included studies covered a wide variety of issues at the core of contemporary political conflict and fairly compared bias by establishing conditions under which both liberals and conservatives would have similar motivations and opportunities to demonstrate bias; (b) we carefully selected studies that were least vulnerable to Bayesian counterexplanation, and most scientists and laypeople consider these studies demonstrations of bias; and (c) there is reason to be vigilant about liberal bias in social psychology, but this does not preclude concerns about other possible biases, all of which threaten good science...
March 2019: Perspectives on Psychological Science
Jonathan Baron, John T Jost
On the basis of a meta-analysis of 51 studies, Ditto et al. (this issue, p. 273) conclude that ideological bias is equivalent on the left and right of U.S. politics. In this commentary, we contend that this conclusion does not follow from the review and that Ditto and his colleagues are too quick to embrace a false equivalence between the liberal left and the conservative right. For one thing, the issues, procedures, and materials used in the studies reviewed by Ditto and his colleagues were selected for purposes other than the inspection of ideological asymmetries...
March 2019: Perspectives on Psychological Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Perspectives on Psychological Science
Michael R Dougherty, L Robert Slevc, James A Grand
There is a growing interest in changing the culture of psychology to improve the quality of our science. At the root of this interest is concern over the reproducibility of key findings. A variety of large-scale replication attempts have revealed that several previously published effects cannot be reproduced, whereas other analyses indicate that the published literature is rife with underpowered studies and publication bias. These revelations suggest that it is time to change how psychological science is carried out and increase the transparency of reporting...
January 10, 2019: Perspectives on Psychological Science
Melissa A Koenig, Valerie Tiberius, J Kiley Hamlin
Children's evaluations of moral and epistemic agents crucially depend on their discerning that an agent's actions were performed intentionally. Here we argue that children's epistemic and moral judgments reveal practices of forgiveness and blame, trust and mistrust, and objection or disapproval and that such practices are supported by children's monitoring of the situational constraints on agents. Inherent in such practices is the understanding that agents are responsible for actions performed under certain conditions but not others...
January 10, 2019: Perspectives on Psychological Science
June Gruber, Darby Saxbe, Brad J Bushman, Timothy McNamara, Marjorie Rhodes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Perspectives on Psychological Science
David G Myers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Perspectives on Psychological Science
James M Jones
I briefly describe my work on race and racism, and the psychology of diversity. Two key aims have been expanding graduate training for students of color and expanding the focus of scientific theorizing, research, and applications in psychology. I argue that history is important for understanding race-related conflict and progress and that cultural context is both a source of obstacles to inclusion (cultural racism) and an important asset in resisting and coping with these obstacles (resilience). I describe ways in which my career represents "doing diversity...
January 2019: Perspectives on Psychological Science
Mesmin Destin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Perspectives on Psychological Science
Albert Bandura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Perspectives on Psychological Science
Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Perspectives on Psychological Science
Andreas Demetriou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Perspectives on Psychological Science
Roger P Weissberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Perspectives on Psychological Science
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