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Current Clinical Pharmacology

Kannan Sridharan, Gowri Sivaramakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Opioid analgesics are commonly used along with propofol during general anesthesia. Due to dearth of data on the quality of anesthesia achieved with the this combination, the present meta-analysis was carried out. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for appropriate studies using suitable search strategy. Randomized clinical trials comparing the combination of remifentanil/sufentanil/alfentanil with propofol with fentanyl and propofol, were included...
March 13, 2019: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Meral Demir, Emel Oğuz Akarsu, Hava Özlem Dede, Nerses Bebek, Sevda Özel Yıldız, Betül Baykan, Ahmet Gökhan Akkan
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) features and the relation to brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) of frequently used new antiepileptic drugs (NAD) including lamotrigine (LTG), oxcarbazepine (OXC), zonisamide (ZNS) and lacosamide (LCM). Moreover, we investigated their effect on the quality of life (QoL). METHODS: Eighty epileptic patients who had been using the NAD, thirteen healthy participants were included in this cross-sectional study...
March 12, 2019: Current Clinical Pharmacology
A P Mishra, A Bajpai, S Chandra
BACKGROUND: Due to inappropriate diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, regular use of drugs like NSAIDs, sedentary lifestyle, one may feel upper abdominal pain which may be the predictor of the gastrointestinal disorder called Peptic Ulcer. When an imbalance occurs between the defensive factor and aggressive factor of the stomach, ulcer formation in the esophageal lining, stomach, or duodenum takes place. This leads to the formation of small sores that causes pain. Another condition that synergizes the abdominal pain is vomiting, which looks like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, black or tarry stools...
March 12, 2019: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Ehsan Tafazoli Moghadam, Ali Tafazoli
BACKGROUND: Azithromycin is one the most popular antibiotics in current clinical practice. This medication generally considered to be safe and well-tolerated in different demographic populations. Like any other drug, azithromycin use is not without risk and adverse effects. In recent years, cardiovascular accidents have been announced as its major and most important side effect. But azithromycin use can be accompanied with less recognized complications which are significantly discomforting...
March 1, 2019: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Burak Yulug, Mehmet Ozansoy, Merve Alokten, Muzaffer Beyza Cetin Ozansoy, Seyda Cankaya, Lutfu Hanoglu, Ulkan Kilic, Ertugrul Kilic
Antibiotic therapies targeting multiple regenerative mechanisms have the potential for neuroprotective effects, but the diversity of experimental strategies and analyses of non-standardised therapeutic trials are challenging. In this respect, there are no cases of successful clinical application of such candidate molecules when it comes to human patients. To address this problem, we tested minocycline in an in-vitro model of laser-axotomy. Here, we have shown that minocycline exerted a significant neuroprotective effect at 1 and 100μM doses...
February 25, 2019: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Farzaneh Mahikhan, Morteza Hashemian, Tania Dehesh, Elham Jafari, Mandana Jafari, Hamid Reza Rahimi
BACKGROUND: Serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists such as ondansetron have been investigated to attenuate opioid withdrawal signs in studies. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, we designed a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial to evaluate this effect in opioid-addicted patients who were admitted to orthopedic department for surgery due to bone fractures. METHOD: Male adults who were addicted to opioids, aged 18 to 79 years were enrolled (n=96) and randomized into two oral doses (4 & 8 mg) of ondansetron (n=32) and placebo (n=32)...
January 31, 2019: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Mark R Jones, Ivan Urits, John Wolf, Devin Corrigan, Luc Colburn, Emily Peterson, Amber Williamson, Omar Viswanath
Peripheral neuropathy is a painful condition deriving from many and varied etiologies. Certain medications have been implicated in the iatrogenic development of drug induced peripheral neuropathy (DIPN) and include chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobials, cardiovascular drugs, psychotropic, anticonvulsants, among others. In many cases, DIPN develops in a dose dependent fashion following continued use of a neurotoxic agent. The development of DIPN should be suspected in patients who are receiving drug treatment and report new onset symptoms of pain, paresthesia, or weakness...
January 21, 2019: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Masoud Latifi-Pour, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Helya-Sadat Mortazavi, Shahin Shadnia, Nasim Zamani, Mitra Rahimi
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepine is one of the most important causes of substance abuse and intoxication throughout the world and Iran. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to determine the role of stimulants in reversing CNS level in acute Benzodiazepine poisoning patients who were hospitalized a referral poison center. METHOD: This was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial study on 32 cases with pure acute Benzodiazepine poisoning from March 2016 to February 2017...
January 12, 2019: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Muhammed Rashid, K Shamshavali, Manik Chhabra
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death, among the death caused due to cancer. By 2030, the burden is expected an increase with 1.7 million new cases and 499,000 new deaths. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Nilutamide in metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) patients who underwent orchiectomy. METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted in the Medline/PubMed and Cochrane Library. References from included studies and studies from clinicaltrials...
January 12, 2019: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Claudio D Gonzalez, Jorge Alvariñas, Maria Florencia Gonzalez Bagnes, Guillermo Di Girolamo
BACKGROUND: Metformin is sometimes used as an alternative to insulin in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). It is also used to achieve ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Pre-natal exposure to metformin results from its continuation after a successful ovulation in women with PCOS, its maintenance in women with pre-gestational diabetes or the installation of metformin in GDM. Few is known about the potential consequences of metformin exposure on pregnancy outcomes and offspring development...
December 24, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Pernille Schjøtt, Martina Šutovská, Jan Schjøtt
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic drug monitoring is a relevant tool in drug treatment of elderly patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of therapeutic drug monitoring of the most important potential interactions in nursing homes. METHOD: A material of prescribed drugs to 446 patients in three nursing homes in Bergen, Norway from a single day in March 2016 was analysed. Clinically relevant drug interactions (pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic) were identified and classified with Stockley`s Interaction Alerts...
December 24, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Peyman Amini, Sedighe Kolivand, Hana Saffar, Saeed Rezapoor, Elahe Motevaseli, Masoud Najafi, Farzad Nouruzi, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Ahmed Eleojo Musa
BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to detect the changes in the level of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 cytokines and their downstream genes including interleukin-13 receptor subunit alpha-2 (IL13Ra2), interleukin-4 receptor subunit alpha-1 (IL4Ra1), dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1) and dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2). The protective effects of Selenium-L-methionine on radiation-induced histopathological damages and changes in the level of these cytokines and genes were detected. METHODS: Four groups of 20 rats (5 rats in each) namely control; Selenium-L-methionine, radiation; and radiation plus Selenium-L-methionine, were used in this study...
December 13, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
M E Sales, A J Español, A R Salem, P Pulido Martínez, Y Sanchez, F Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) have attracted interest as targets for therapeutic interventions in different illnesses like Alzheimer´s disease, viral infections and different tumors. Regarding the latter, many authors have studied each subtype of mAChRs, which seem to be involved in the progression of distinct types of malignancies. METHODS: We carefully revised research literature focused on mAChRs expression and signaling as well as in their involvement in cancer progression and treatment...
December 2, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Radha Goel, Prasoon Saxena
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is one of the most common and severe brain disorders in the world, characterized by recurrent spontaneous seizures due to an imbalance between cerebral excitability and inhibition. Oxidative stress is a biochemical state in which reactive oxygen species are generated and associated with various diseases including epilepsy. Pycnogenol, a polyphenol obtained from the pine tree and has antioxidant& anti-inflammatory activity. So, The aim of the study was carried out to evaluate the effect of pycnogenol on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice...
November 21, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Palanirajan Vijayaraj Kumar, Marwan Abdelmahmoud Abdelkarim Maki, Yeong Siew Wei, Lee Ming Tatt, Manogaran Elumalai, Shiau-Chuen Cheah, Bharathy Raghavan, Abu Bakar Bin Abdul Majeed
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (rHuKGF) has gained considerable attention by researchers as epithelial cells proliferating agent. Moreover, intravenous truncated rHuKGF (palifermin) has been approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat and prevent chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis and small intestine ulceration. The labile structure and short circulation time of rHuKGF in-vivo are the main obstacles that reduce the oral bioactivity and dosage of such proteins at the target site...
November 19, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Luxitaa Goenka, R Padmanaban, Melvin George
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is defined as a decline in the renal function and an increase in the amount of albuminuria (>300 mg/day). The well-established first-line drug therapies for DN include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and the second line drug therapies include calcium channel blockers or diuretics. The interruption of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by ACEi and ARBs has been beneficial in reducing the progression of renal diseases; however, there is an increase in the levels of aldosterone due to the aldosterone escape phenomenon...
November 15, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
R S Kilari, A I J Bashir, A Devitt, C J Perry, S T Safrany, Iain D Nicholl
BACKGROUND: Oesophageal cancer (OC) is a deadly cancer because of its aggressive nature with survival rates that have barely improved in decades. Epidemiologic studies have shown that low-dose daily intake of aspirin can decrease the incidence of OC. METHODS: The toxicity of aspirin and aspirin derivatives to OC and a colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line were investigated in the presence and absence of platins. RESULTS: The data in this study show the effects of a number of aspirin analogues and aspirin on OC cell lines that originally presented as squamous cell carcinoma (SSC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC)...
November 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Sapan Kumar Behera, Saibal Das, K G Chengappa, Alphienes Stanley Xavier, Sandhiya Selvarajan
Aim Multiple drug intolerance syndrome (MDIS) is a unique clinical entity distinct from other drug hypersensitivity syndromes. The aim of this review was to critically appraise the various aspects of MDIS. Methods A review was conducted to search for the causes, mechanism, clinical features, and management of MDIS. Results The most common cause of MDIS is antibiotics followed by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Although some non-specific immunological mechanisms are involved, the immunological tests for MDIS are negative...
November 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Muhammad Farhan, Fatima Riaz, Sana Wali, Hamna Rafiq
BACKGROUND: Psychostimulants can induce behavioral sensitization by their chronic use. The main target for the action of these drugs is dopamine, nor epinephrine and serotonin transporters. Serotonin is synthesized by the precursor L-tryptophan. Tryptophan and methylphenidate being 5-HT agonists both increase the level of serotonin thereby may cause desensitization of 5-HT1a receptors. Present study investigated whether behavioral sensitization induced by Methylphenidate is decreased in tryptophan administrated animals...
November 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Georgios Papazisis, Spyridon Siafis
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic drugs are the cornerstone of schizophrenia treatment but are also indicated for other psychotic and mood disorders. Different antipsychotic drugs and their formulations are available, though liquid forms have been overlooked. METHODS: Herein the added value of liquid antipsychotics is reviewed, with a focus on the recently introduced liquid quetiapine, a frequently used antipsychotic. RESULTS: Liquid antipsychotics are easily administrated via the preferable oral route, while compliance under supervised administration is transparent...
November 2, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
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