journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38368074/the-parasomnias-what-lies-beneath
#1
EDITORIAL
Alon Y Avidan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2024: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38368073/trauma-associated-sleep-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Daniel A Barone
Trauma-associated sleep disorder (TASD) is a recently described parasomnia that develops following a traumatic event. It consists of trauma-related nightmares, disruptive nocturnal behaviors, and autonomic disturbances, and shares similarities with post-traumatic stress disorder and rapid eye movement behavior disorder. The underlying pathophysiology of TASD and how it relates to other parasomnias are still not entirely understood; proposed treatment is similarly nebulous, with prazosin at the forefront along with management of comorbid sleep disorders...
March 2024: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38368072/rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-management-and-prognostic-counseling
#3
REVIEW
Roneil Malkani
Management of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) includes reducing injurious dream-enactment behaviors, risk of injury to self and bedpartner, and vivid or disruptive dreams and improving sleep quality and bedpartner sleep disruption. Safety precautions should be reviewed at each visit. Medications to reduce RBD symptoms such as melatonin, clonazepam, pramipexole, and rivastigmine should be considered for most patients. Isolated RBD confers a high lifetime risk of neurodegenerative diseases with a latency often spanning many years...
March 2024: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38368071/rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-clinical-presentation-and-diagnostic-criteria
#4
REVIEW
Brandon M Jones, Stuart J McCarter
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) classically presents with repetitive complex motor behavior during sleep with associated dream mentation. The diagnosis requires a history of repetitive complex motor behaviors and polysomnographic demonstration of REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) or capturing dream enactment behaviors. RSWA is best evaluated in the chin or flexor digitorum superficialis muscles. The anterior tibialis muscle is insufficiently accurate to be relied upon solely for RBD diagnosis...
March 2024: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38368070/sleep-terrors
#5
REVIEW
Muna Irfan
Sleep terrors, categorized under disorders of arousal, more prevalent in pediatric population, generally are self-limited but sometimes can persist or occur in adulthood. These are primed by factors enhancing homeostatic drive on backdrop of developmental predisposition and are precipitated by factors increasing sleep fragmentation resulting in dissociated state of sleep with some cerebral regions showing abnormal slow wave activity and others fast activity. This phenotypically evolves into abrupt partial arousal with individual arousing from N3 or N2 sleep with behaviors representing intense fear such as crying with autonomic hyperactivity...
March 2024: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38368069/sleep-related-eating-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Melissa C Lipford, R Robert Auger
Sleep-related eating disorder is a non-rapid-eye movement parasomnia typified by recurrent episodes of eating/drinking following arousals, with associated partial/complete amnesia. Adverse health consequences and quality of life impairments are common. The condition can be idiopathic but most often accompanies unrecognized/untreated comorbid sleep disorders and/or is induced by psychoactive medications. As such, management consists of addressing comorbidities and removing potentially offending medications. While a thorough clinical history is often sufficient, additional sleep testing may help identify coexisting sleep disorders and/or other phenomena that may cause arousals...
March 2024: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38368068/somnambulism
#7
REVIEW
Ramona Cordani, Regis Lopez, Lucie Barateau, Sofiene Chenini, Lino Nobili, Yves Dauvilliers
Somnambulism, also called sleepwalking, classified as a non-rapid eye movement sleep parasomnia, encompasses a range of abnormal paroxysmal behaviors, leading to sleepwalking in dissociated sleep in an altered state of consciousness with impaired judgment and configuring a kind of hierarchical continuum with confusional arousal and night terror. Despite being generally regarded as a benign condition, its potential severity entails social, personal, and even forensic consequences. This comprehensive review provides an overview on the current state of knowledge, elucidating the phenomenon of somnambulism and encompassing its clinical manifestations and diagnostic approaches...
March 2024: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38368067/understanding-sexual-parasomnias-a-review-of-the-current-literature-on-their-nature-diagnosis-impacts-and-management
#8
REVIEW
Monica Levy Andersen, Carlos H Schenck, Sergio Tufik
Sexual behavior during sleep, known as sexual parasomnias, has captured the interest of researchers and clinicians. These parasomnias involve various sexual activities that occur unconsciously during sleep. Although relatively rare, they can profoundly affect well-being and relationships and can carry legal consequences. Understanding their nature, prevalence, and causes is crucial for advancing knowledge in this field. This article revisits the topic of sexsomnia, presenting new data and discussing cases published from 2007 to 2023...
March 2024: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38368066/educational-resources-to-support-patients-with-parasomnias
#9
REVIEW
Courtney D Molina, Adreanne Rivera, Alon Y Avidan
This article serves to help reduce patient burden in searching for credible information about parasomnias-abnormal behaviors during sleep-including sleepwalking, night terrors, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. It exhibits a compiled list of accessible online resources about parasomnias as well as detailed descriptions about each resource. By increasing patient accessibility to clinically validated resources, patients are more empowered to take an active role in managing their conditions, collaborating with their health-care practitioners in clinical management, enrolling in registries, and joining newsletters sponsored by these resources...
March 2024: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38368065/forensic-implications-of-the-parasomnias
#10
REVIEW
Brian Holoyda
Although many sleep-related behaviors are benign, others can result in physical or sexual aggression toward bed partners or others. Individuals who engage in sleep-related violence (SRV) and sexual behavior in sleep (SBS) may face legal sanctions for their behavior. Attorneys or legal decision-makers may call on an expert to evaluate a defendant and opine about the veracity of an alleged parasomnia diagnosis, the criminal responsibility of the defendant, and his risk of violence to others. This article reviews the phenomena of SRV and SBS and guides evaluators in the forensic considerations relevant to parasomnias...
March 2024: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38368064/parasomnias-during-the-covid-19-pandemic
#11
REVIEW
Felice Di Laudo, Greta Mainieri, Federica Provini
COVID-19 had a massive impact on sleep, resulting in overall increase of sleep disturbances. During lockdown many factors contributed to sleep disturbances, in particular changes in sleep-wake habits and stress. This article will describe the frequency and features of the principal parasomnias and the impact of the pandemic and the government restriction measures on sleep. Among different pathophysiological hypotheses, we will discuss the role of stress, considered as an expression of the allostatic load. Finally, during the pandemic, parasomnias were mainly investigated by questionnaires, with controversial results; video-polysomnographic studies are crucial to obtain a definitive diagnosis, even in critical conditions...
March 2024: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38368063/sleep-related-urologic-dysfunction
#12
REVIEW
Rosalia Silvestri
This article reports on the epidemiology, prevalence, and physiopathology of sleep-related urinary dysfunction, a new syndromic category proposed by the recently revised ICSD-3-TR classification. Sleep enuresis, whether primary or secondary, monosymptomatic or plurisymptomatic, will be reviewed in terms of risk factors, comorbidity, and diagnostic and therapeutic indications. A definition of nocturia and its impact on patients' health, quality of life, and mortality will follow. Finally, the impact of urge incontinence on various medical and neurologic disorders will be discussed...
March 2024: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38368062/sleep-related-dissociative-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Alan S Eiser
In sleep-related dissociative disorders, phenomena of the psychiatrically defined dissociative disorders emerge during the sleep period. They occur during sustained wakefulness, either in the transition to sleep or following an awakening from sleep. Behaviors during episodes vary widely, and can result in injury to self or others. Daytime dissociative episodes and a background of trauma are almost always present; there is typically major co-existing psychopathology. Diagnosis is based on both clinical history and polysomnography; differential diagnosis primarily involves other parasomnias and nocturnal seizures...
March 2024: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38368061/sleep-related-hallucinations
#14
REVIEW
Flavie Waters, Ivan Ling, Somayyeh Azimi, Jan Dirk Blom
The diagnostic category of sleep-related hallucinations (SRH) replaces the previous category of Terrifying Hypnagogic Hallucinations in the 2001 edition of International Classification of Sleep Disorders-R. Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations (HHH) that occur in the absence of other symptoms or disorder and, within the limits of normal sleep, are most likely non-pathological. By contrast, complex nocturnal visual hallucinations (CNVH) may reflect a dimension of psychopathology reflecting different combinations of etiologic influences...
March 2024: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38368060/exploding-head-syndrome-a-systematic-scoping-review
#15
REVIEW
Dónal G Fortune, Helen L Richards
Exploding head syndrome (EHS) has historically been viewed as a disorder predominantly affecting older people and being more common in females. Through a comprehensive review of data since 2005, this scoping review provides updated evidence from 4082 participants reporting EHS across a variety of study designs on: how EHS presents; key information on comorbidity and correlates of EHS; how EHS is experienced in terms of symptoms and beliefs; causal theories arising from the research reviewed; and evidence-based information on how research has reported on the management of EHS...
March 2024: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38368059/nightmare-disorder
#16
REVIEW
Victoria R Garriques, Deepali M Dhruve, Michael R Nadorff
This article presents a comprehensive review of nightmare disorder, covering diagnosis, treatment approaches, guidelines, and considerations. It begins with an introduction, defining the disorder and addressing its prevalence and psychosocial implications. The article explores assessment tools for diagnosis and then delves into psychological and pharmacologic treatment modalities, examining their efficacy and side effects. Considerations for optimizing therapeutic outcomes are highlighted, including medication versus psychotherapy, co-morbidities, cultural implications, and the use of technology and service animals...
March 2024: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38368058/recurrent-isolated-sleep-paralysis
#17
REVIEW
Ambra Stefani, Qi Tang
Recurrent isolated sleep paralysis has a 7.6% lifetime prevalence of at least one episode in the general population. Episodes resolve spontaneously and are benign. Sleep paralysis represents a dissociate state, with persistence of the rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep muscle atonia in the waking state. The intrusion of alpha electroencephalogram into REM sleep is followed by an arousal response and then by persistence of REM atonia into wakefulness. Predisposing factors include irregular sleep-wake schedules, sleep deprivation, and jetlag...
March 2024: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38368057/the-clinical-spectrum-of-the-parasomnias
#18
REVIEW
Alon Y Avidan
Parasomnias are defined as abnormal movements or behaviors that occur in sleep or during arousals from sleep. Parasomnias vary in frequency from episodic events that arise from incomplete sleep state transition. The framework by which parasomnias are categorized and diagnosed is based on the International Classification of Sleep Disorders-Third Edition, Text Revision (ICSD-3-TR), published by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The recent Third Edition, Text Revision (ICSD-3-TR) of the ICSD provides an expert consensus of the diagnostic requirements for sleep disorders, including parasomnias, based on an extensive review of the current literature...
March 2024: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37532377/envisioning-tomorrow-using-dawn-s-first-light
#19
EDITORIAL
Steven J Holfinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2023: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37532376/a-2022-survey-of-commercially-available-smartphone-apps-for-sleep-most-enhance-sleep
#20
REVIEW
Tracy Jill Doty, Emily K Stekl, Matthew Bohn, Grace Klosterman, Guido Simonelli, Jacob Collen
Commercially available smartphone apps represent an ever-evolving and fast-growing market. Our review systematically surveyed currently available commercial sleep smartphone apps to provide details to inform both providers and patients alike, in addition to the healthy consumer market. Most current sleep apps offer a free version and are designed to be used while awake, prior to sleep, and focus on the enhancement of sleep, rather than measurement, by targeting sleep latency using auditory stimuli. Sleep apps could be considered a possible strategy for patients and consumers to improve their sleep, although further validation of specific apps is recommended...
September 2023: Sleep Medicine Clinics
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