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Carbon Balance and Management

Abyot Dibaba, Teshome Soromessa, Bikila Workineh
BACKGROUND: Unlike in the developed countries, Ethiopia does not have carbon inventories and databank to monitor and enhance carbon sequestration potential of different forests. Only small efforts have been made so far to assess the biomass and soil carbon sequestration at micro-level. This study was carried out to obtain sufficient information about the carbon stock potential of Gerba-Dima forest in south-western Ethiopia. A total of 90 sample plots were laid by employing stratified random sampling...
February 2, 2019: Carbon Balance and Management
Fabiano A Ximenes, Amrit Kathuria, Morton A Barlaz, Annette L Cowie
BACKGROUND: There has been growing interest in the development of waste-specific decay factors for estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from landfills in national greenhouse gas inventories. Although engineered wood products (EWPs) and paper represent a substantial component of the solid waste stream, there is limited information available on their carbon dynamics in landfills. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of carbon loss for EWPs and paper products commonly used in Australia...
December 27, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Aude Valade, Sebastiaan Luyssaert, Patrick Vallet, Sylvestre Njakou Djomo, Ingride Jesus Van Der Kellen, Valentin Bellassen
BACKGROUND: Concern about climate change has motivated France to reduce its reliance on fossil fuel by setting targets for increased biomass-based renewable energy production. This study quantifies the carbon costs and benefits for the French forestry sector in meeting these targets. A forest growth and harvest simulator was developed for French forests using recent forest inventory data, and the wood-use chain was reconstructed from national wood product statistics. We then projected wood production, bioenergy production, and carbon balance for three realistic intensification scenarios and a business-as-usual scenario...
December 13, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Collins O Oduor, Nancy Karanja, Richard Onwong'a, Stephen Mureithi, David Pelster, Gert Nyberg
BACKGROUND: Pasture enclosures play an important role in rehabilitating the degraded soils and vegetation, and may also influence the emission of key greenhouse gasses (GHGs) from the soil. However, no study in East Africa and in Kenya has conducted direct measurements of GHG fluxes following the restoration of degraded communal grazing lands through the establishment of pasture enclosures. A field experiment was conducted in northwestern Kenya to measure the emission of CO2 , CH4 and N2 O from soil under two pasture restoration systems; grazing dominated enclosure (GDE) and contractual grazing enclosure (CGE), and in the adjacent open grazing rangeland (OGR) as control...
December 7, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Carlos Roberto Sanquetta, Ana Paula Dalla Corte, Alexandre Behling, Luani Rosa de Oliveira Piva, Sylvio Péllico Netto, Aurélio Lourenço Rodrigues, Mateus Niroh Inoue Sanquetta
BACKGROUND: Biomass models are useful for several purposes, especially for quantifying carbon stocks and dynamics in forests. Selecting appropriate equations from a fitted model is a process which can involves several criteria, some widely used and others used to a lesser extent. This study analyzes six selection criteria for models fitted to six sets of individual biomass collected from woody indigenous species of the Tropical Atlantic Rain Forest in Brazil. Six models were examined and the respective fitted equations evaluated by the residual sum of squares, adjusted coefficient of determination, absolute and relative estimates of the standard error of estimate, and Akaike and Schwartz (Bayesian) information criteria...
December 7, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Sá Nogueira Lisboa, Benard Soares Guedes, Natasha Ribeiro, Almeida Sitoe
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, forests are an important carbon sink and thus are key to mitigate the effects of climate change. Mountain moist evergreen forests in Mozambique are threatened by agricultural expansion, uncontrolled logging, and firewood collection, thus compromising their role in carbon sequestration. There is lack of local tools for above-ground biomass (AGB) estimation of mountain moist evergreen forest, hence carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation are not adequately known...
November 26, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Blanca Bernal, Lara T Murray, Timothy R H Pearson
BACKGROUND: Forest landscape restoration (FLR) has been adopted by governments and practitioners across the globe to mitigate and adapt to climate change and restore ecological functions across degraded landscapes. However, the extent to which these activities capture CO2 with associated climate mitigation impacts are poorly known, especially in geographies where data on biomass growth of restored forests are limited or do not exist. To fill this gap, we developed biomass accumulation rates for a set of FLR activities (natural regeneration, planted forests and woodlots, agroforestry, and mangrove restoration) across the globe and global CO2 removal rates with corresponding confidence intervals, grouped by FLR activity and region/climate...
November 20, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Camille Dezécache, Jean-Michel Salles, Bruno Hérault
BACKGROUND: REDD+ is being questioned by the particular status of High Forest/Low Deforestation countries. Indeed, the formulation of reference levels is made difficult by the confrontation of low historical deforestation records with the forest transition theory on the one hand. On the other hand, those countries might formulate incredibly high deforestation scenarios to ensure large payments even in case of inaction. RESULTS: Using a wide range of scenarios within the Guiana Shield, from methods involving basic assumptions made from past deforestation, to explicit modelling of deforestation using relevant socio-economic variables at the regional scale, we show that the most common methodologies predict huge increases in deforestation, unlikely to happen given the existing socio-economic situation...
October 30, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Carlos Roberto Sanquetta, Ana Paula Dalla Corte, Allan Libanio Pelissari, Margarida Tomé, Greyce Charllyne Benedet Maas, Mateus Niroh Inoue Sanquetta
BACKGROUND: We analyzed the dynamics of carbon (C) stocks and CO2 removals by Brazilian forest plantations over the period 1990-2016. Data on the extent of forests compiled from various sources were used in the calculations. Productivities were simulated using species-specific growth and yield simulators for the main trees species planted in the country. Biomass expansion factors, root-to-shoot ratios, wood densities, and carbon fractions compiled from literature were applied. C stocks in necromass (deadwood and litter) and harvested wood products (HWP) were also included in the calculations...
October 22, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Hamdan Omar, Muhamad Afizzul Misman
BACKGROUND: Malaysia typically suffers from frequent cloud cover, hindering spatially consistent reporting of deforestation and forest degradation, which limits the accurate reporting of carbon loss and CO2 emissions for reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) intervention. This study proposed an approach for accurate and consistent measurements of biomass carbon and CO2 emissions using a single L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor system. A time-series analysis of aboveground biomass (AGB) using the PALSAR and PALSAR-2 systems addressed a number of critical questions that have not been previously answered...
October 19, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Gert-Jan Nabuurs, Eric J M M Arets, Mart-Jan Schelhaas
BACKGROUND: In June 2018, the European Parliament and Council of the European Union adopted a legislative regulation for incorporating greenhouse gas emissions and removals from Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (EU-LULUCF) under its 2030 Climate and Energy Framework. The LULUCF regulation aim to incentivise EU Member States to decrease greenhouse gas emissions and increase removals in the LULUCF sector. The regulation, however, does not set a target for increasing the LULUCF carbon sink, but rather includes a 'no net debit' target for LULUCF (Forests and Agricultural soils)...
October 16, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Meghan Pawlowski, Manyowa N Meki, James R Kiniry, Susan E Crow
BACKGROUND: The environmental costs of fossil fuel consumption are globally recognized, opening many pathways for the development of regional portfolio solutions for sustainable replacement fuel and energy options. The purpose of this study was to create a baseline carbon (C) budget of a conventionally managed sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) production system on Maui, Hawaii, and compare it to three different future energy cropping scenarios: (1) conventional sugarcane with a 50% deficit irrigation (sugarcane 50%), (2) ratoon harvested napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach...
September 24, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
K L Webster, J S Bhatti, D K Thompson, S A Nelson, C H Shaw, K A Bona, S L Hayne, W A Kurz
BACKGROUND: Peatlands are an important component of Canada's landscape, however there is little information on their national-scale net emissions of carbon dioxide [Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE)] and methane (CH4 ). This study compiled results for peatland NEE and CH4 emissions from chamber and eddy covariance studies across Canada. The data were summarized by bog, poor fen and rich-intermediate fen categories for the seven major peatland containing terrestrial ecozones (Atlantic Maritime, Mixedwood Plains, Boreal Shield, Boreal Plains, Hudson Plains, Taiga Shield, Taiga Plains) that comprise > 96% of all peatlands nationally...
September 20, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
David M Bell, Matthew J Gregory, Van Kane, Jonathan Kane, Robert E Kennedy, Heather M Roberts, Zhiqiang Yang
BACKGROUND: Satellite-based aboveground forest biomass maps commonly form the basis of forest biomass and carbon stock mapping and monitoring, but biomass maps likely vary in performance by region and as a function of spatial scale of aggregation. Assessing such variability is not possible with spatially-sparse vegetation plot networks. In the current study, our objective was to determine whether high-resolution lidar-based and moderate-resolution Landsat-base aboveground live forest biomass maps converged on similar predictions at stand- to landscape-levels (10 s to 100 s ha) and whether such differences depended on biophysical setting...
September 14, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Negasi Solomon, Opoku Pabi, Ted Annang, Isaac K Asante, Emiru Birhane
BACKGROUND: Forests play an important role in mitigating global climate change by capturing and sequestering atmospheric carbon. Quantitative estimation of the temporal and spatial pattern of carbon storage in forest ecosystems is critical for formulating forest management policies to combat climate change. This study explored the effects of land cover change on carbon stock dynamics in the Wujig Mahgo Waren forest, a dry Afromontane forest that covers an area of 17,000 ha in northern Ethiopia...
September 6, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
C E Smyth, B P Smiley, M Magnan, R Birdsey, A J Dugan, M Olguin, V S Mascorro, W A Kurz
BACKGROUND: We determine the potential of forests and the forest sector to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by changes in management practices and wood use for two regions within Canada's managed forest from 2018 to 2050. Our modeling frameworks include the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector, a framework for harvested wood products that estimates emissions based on product half-life decay times, and an account of marginal emission substitution benefits from the changes in use of wood products and bioenergy...
September 6, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Alexa J Dugan, Richard Birdsey, Vanessa S Mascorro, Michael Magnan, Carolyn E Smyth, Marcela Olguin, Werner A Kurz
BACKGROUND: United States forests can contribute to national strategies for greenhouse gas reductions. The objective of this work was to evaluate forest sector climate change mitigation scenarios from 2018 to 2050 by applying a systems-based approach that accounts for net emissions across four interdependent components: (1) forest ecosystem, (2) land-use change, (3) harvested wood products, and (4) substitution benefits from using wood products and bioenergy. We assessed a range of land management and harvested wood product scenarios for two case studies in the U...
September 4, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Cristina-Maria Iordan, Xiangping Hu, Anders Arvesen, Pekka Kauppi, Francesco Cherubini
BACKGROUND: Forests and forest products can significantly contribute to climate change mitigation by stabilizing and even potentially decreasing the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) in the atmosphere. Harvested wood products (HWP) represent a common widespread and cost-efficient opportunity for negative emissions. After harvest, a significant fraction of the wood remains stored in HWPs for a period that can vary from some months to many decades, whereas atmospheric carbon (C) is immediately sequestered by vegetation re-growth...
September 4, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Phil Wilkes, Mathias Disney, Matheus Boni Vicari, Kim Calders, Andrew Burt
BACKGROUND: Urban trees have long been valued for providing ecosystem services (mitigation of the "heat island" effect, suppression of air pollution, etc.); more recently the potential of urban forests to store significant above ground biomass (AGB) has also be recognised. However, urban areas pose particular challenges when assessing AGB due to plasticity of tree form, high species diversity as well as heterogeneous and complex land cover. Remote sensing, in particular light detection and ranging (LiDAR), provide a unique opportunity to assess urban AGB by directly measuring tree structure...
June 26, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Stephen M Ogle, Grant Domke, Werner A Kurz, Marcelo T Rocha, Ted Huffman, Amy Swan, James E Smith, Christopher Woodall, Thelma Krug
Land use and management activities have a substantial impact on carbon stocks and associated greenhouse gas emissions and removals. However, it is challenging to discriminate between anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic sources and sinks from land. To address this problem, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change developed a managed land proxy to determine which lands are contributing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals. Governments report all emissions and removals from managed land to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change based on this proxy, and policy interventions to reduce emissions from land use are expected to focus on managed lands...
May 29, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
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