Journals Expert Review of Clinical Immu...

Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Shabana Habib, Gabriel Osborn, Zena Willsmore, Min Waye Chew, Sophie Jakubow, Amanda Fitzpatrick, Yin Wu, Khushboo Sinha, Hawys Lloyd-Hughes, Jenny L C Geh, Alastair D MacKenzie-Ross, Sean Whittaker, Victoria Sanz-Moreno, Katie E Lacy, Sophia N Karagiannis, Rebecca Adams
INTRODUCTION: Despite the success of immunotherapies for melanoma in recent years, there remains a significant proportion of patients who do not yet derive benefit from available treatments. Immunotherapies currently licensed for clinical use target the adaptive immune system, focussing on Tcell interactions and functions. However, the most prevalent immune cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME) of melanoma are macrophages, a diverse immune cell subset displaying high plasticity, to which no current therapies are yet directly targeted...
March 27, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Abdo Meyiah, Eyad Elkord
INTRODUCTION: Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) transcription factor plays critical roles in controlling immune responses and cancer progression in different cancers. FoxP3 expression within the tumor microenvironment (TME) may influence clinical outcomes negatively or positively, and it could play dual roles in cancer, either by promoting or inhibiting tumor development and progression. Some studies reported that high levels of FoxP3 could be associated with tumor progression and worse prognosis, while others reported contradictory results...
March 21, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Rand Abedalweli, Michelle Nguyen, Atul Deodhar
INTRODUCTION: The advent of biologic and targeted synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (b/tsDMARDs) have transformed the management of immune-mediated rheumatic diseases, including spondylarthritis (SpA). However, the data about combining b/ts DMARDs in the treatment of SpA are scarce. The study objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of combination b/tsDMARD in SpA. METHODS: We conducted systematic literature review (PubMed and Medline) with two independent reviewers, one adjudicator, exploring the efficacy and safety of combination b/tsDMARDs in the treatment of SpA...
March 21, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Xu-Ying Pei, Xiao-Jun Huang
INTRODUCTION: Leukemia relapse following stem cell transplantation remains a significant barrier to long-term remission. Timely and balanced immune recovery after transplantation is crucial for preventing leukemia relapse. AREAS COVERED: After an extensive literature search of PubMed and Web of Science through October 2023, we provide an overview of the dynamics of immune reconstitution and its role in controlling leukemia relapse. We also discuss strategies to promote immune reconstitution and reduce disease recurrence following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation...
May 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Svetlana Eckert, Dejan Jakimovski, Robert Zivadinov, Mark Hicar, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman
INTRODUCTION: The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unknown. Pathogenesis likely relies on a complex interaction between multiple environmental, genetic, and behavioral risk factors. However, a growing body of literature supports the role of a preceding Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) infection in the majority of cases. AREAS COVERED: In this narrative review, we summarize the latest findings regarding the potential role of EBV as a predisposing event inducing new onset of MS...
March 13, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Jie Wang, Bo Yang, Jyotsna Chandra, Andrei Ivanov, J Mark Brown, Florian Rieder
INTRODUCTION: Intestinal fibrosis is a common and serious complication of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) driving stricture formation in Crohn's disease patients and leading to submucosal damage in ulcerative colitis. Recent studies provided novel insights into the role of immune and nonimmune components in the pathogenesis of intestinal fibrosis. Those new findings may accelerate the development of anti-fibrotic treatment in IBD patients. AREAS COVERED: This review is designed to cover the recent progress in mechanistic research and therapeutic developments on intestinal fibrosis in IBD patients, including new cell clusters, cytokines, proteins, microbiota, creeping fat and anti-fibrotic therapies...
March 12, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Marta C Amaral, F Seguro Paula, Joana Caetano, Paul Rj Ames, J Delgado Alves
BACKGROUND: Primary Raynaud's phenomenon (pRP) is difficult to distinguish from secondary (sRP). Although nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC) may detect early alterations, no universal criteria yet discriminate between pRP from sRP. OBJECTIVES: To create and validate two NFC scores that could distinguish pRP from sRP and that could predict systemic sclerosis (SSc), respectively. METHODS: We performed NFC on two separate cohorts with isolated RP, and recorded number of capillaries per field, enlarged/giant capillaries, crossed/bizarre patterns, microhemorrhages, neoangiogenesis, rarefaction, edema, blood flow velocity, stasis...
March 11, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Jinge Huang, Qingmiao Zhu, Baizhou Wang, Hanzheng Wang, Zhijun Xie, Xingyu Zhu, Ting Zhao, Zi Yang
OBJECTIVE: This article aims to evaluate the magnitude of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) risks associated with different antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) profiles in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Multiple databases were investigated to identify articles that explored the relationship between aPLs and APOs in SLE patients. A random effects model was used for calculating pooled odds ratios (OR). Stata version 15.0 was utilized to conduct the meta-analysis...
March 11, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Haoyi Zou, Chao Liu, Yuli Ruan, Lin Fang, Tong Wu, Shuling Han, Tianjiao Dang, Hongxue Meng, Yanqiao Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Different pathological types of colorectal cancer have distinguished immune landscape, and the efficacy of immunotherapy will be completely different. Colorectal medullary carcinoma, accounting for 2.2-3.2%, is characterized by massive lymphocyte infiltration. However, the attention to the immune characteristics of colorectal medullary carcinoma is insufficient. AREA COVERED: We searched the literature about colorectal medullary carcinoma on PubMed through November 2023to investigate the hallmarks of colorectal medullary carcinoma's immune landscape, compare medullary carcinoma originating from different organs and provide theoretical evidence for precise treatment, including applying immunotherapy and BRAF inhibitors...
March 8, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Rishi R Goel, Alain H Rook
INTRODUCTION: Primary cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL) are a heterogenous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas derived from skin-homing T cells. These include mycosis fungoides and its leukemic variant Sezary syndrome, as well as the CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders. AREAS COVERED: In this review, we provide a summary of the current literature on CTCL, with a focus on the immunopathogenesis and treatment of mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome. EXPERT OPINION: Recent advances in immunology have provided new insights into the biology of malignant T cells...
March 7, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Francesco Reggiani, Matteo Stella, Marta Calatroni, Renato Alberto Sinico
INTRODUCTION: ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV), classified into granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis represent a group of disorders characterized by necrotizing vasculitis of small vessels, endothelial injury and tissue damage. The outcomes and prognosis of AAV have undergone significant changes with the introduction of glucocorticoids (GCs) and other immunosuppressants (cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, methotrexate, and mycophenolate mofetil)...
March 6, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Kelly Hawkins, Eden David, Jacob W Glickman, Ester Del Duca, Emma Guttman-Yassky, James G Krueger
INTRODUCTION: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic inflammatory skin disorder driven by an intricate interplay of genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. AREAS COVERED: As a clinically heterogenous condition, AD may be stratified into subtypes based on factors including, chronicity, immunoglobulin E levels, severity, age, and ethnicity. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses in skin and blood help elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of these AD subtypes, referred to as AD endotypes...
March 4, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Ivan Foeldvari, Harry Petrushkin
INTRODUCTION: The management of refractory juvenile idiopathic associated uveitis (JIAU) or childhood-onset chronic anterior uveitis (CAU) is a challenge. There is no clear consensus or evidence base for to suggest the most appropriate therapy after primary or secondary failure of biweekly adalimumab. In this scenario, most clinicians advocate switching to another anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor; however, there are a variety of other disease modifying agents to choose from albeit with a differing levels of evidence...
March 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Timothy Kaniecki, Michael Hughes, Zsuzsanna McMahan
INTRODUCTION: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease with heterogeneous presentation. Gastrointestinal (GI) complications of SSc are characterized by esophageal reflux, abnormal motility, and microbiome dysbiosis, which impact patient quality of life and mortality. Preventative therapeutics are lacking, with management primarily aimed at symptomatic control. AREAS COVERED: A broad literature review was conducted through electronic databases and references from key articles...
February 26, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Noha Abdel-Wahab, Maria E Suarez-Almazor
INTRODUCTION: The advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in cancer treatment has marked a transformative era, albeit tempered by immune-related adverse events (irAEs), including those impacting the musculoskeletal system. The lack of precise epidemiologic data on rheumatic irAEs is attributed to factors such as potential underrecognition, underreporting in clinical trials, and the tendency to overlook manifestations without immediate life-threatening implications, further complicating the determination of accurate incidence rates, while the complete understanding of the mechanisms driving rheumatic irAEs remains elusive...
February 24, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Claudia Del Fante, Cesare Perotti
INTRODUCTION: Extracorporeal Photopheresis (ECP) may be considered the unique large-scale cell therapy currently available. It is currently employed mainly as second-line treatment, especially in steroid-resistant or steroid-dependent Graft versus Host Disease (GvHD) with good results and very few limitations. AREAS COVERED: Many points need to be clarified regarding the ECP mechanism of action, that conditions the lack of uniqueness among the different centers, essentially cycle frequency, treatment duration, and the number of cells to be treated to obtain a response, according to the organs involved...
February 20, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Howard Trachtman, Radko Komers, Jula Inrig
INTRODUCTION: IgA nephropathy is one of the most common forms of glomerular disease. Patients with persistent proteinuria are at increased risk of progression to kidney failure. There is a significant need for safe and effective therapies to lower proteinuria in these patients. Sparsentan is a non-immunosuppressive agent that acts as a dual angiotensin and endothelin receptor antagonist. It lowers proteinuria in experimental models of glomerular disease and in affected patients. AREAS COVERED: This review covers the immunological and non-immunological actions of sparsentan in glomerular disease...
February 16, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Christophe Dupont, A Wesley Burks, David M Fleischer, Katharine J Bee, Sarita Chainani, Hugh A Sampson
INTRODUCTION: DBV712 250 µg, (also referred to as Viaskin Peanut or peanut patch; Viaskin is a trademark of DBV Technologies), is an innovative approach to epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT). The patch-based technology system facilitates peanut protein (allergen) absorption into the intact non-vascularized epidermis to promote desensitization to peanut while limiting systemic allergen exposure. AREAS COVERED: Efficacy and safety in children have been evaluated in four completed phase 3 studies...
February 7, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Yi Liao, Yan Yang, Guanghong Zhou, Lijuan Chen, Yang Yang, Shujin Guo, Qiunan Zuo, Jun Zou
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the relevance of anoikis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and identify associated biomarkers and signaling pathways. METHOD: Unsupervised consensus cluster analysis was employed to categorize IPF patients into subtypes. We utilized Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) and Protein-Protein Interaction network construction to identify anoikis-related modules and key genes. A prognostic signature was developed using Lasso and multivariate Cox regression analysis...
February 6, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Xi Chen, Lu Gao, Zhen Zhen, Ying Wang, Jia Na, Wen Yu, Zhiyu Tian, Yue Yuan, Suyun Qian
OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery lesions (CALs) are a major complication of Kawasaki disease (KD), however, data on CAL incidence and risk factors in recurrent KD is limited. METHODS: 97 children with recurrent KD were retrospectively enrolled from 2013 to 2022 and CAL incidence was tracked at admission, discharge, and during follow-up. RESULTS: Initially, 27.8% had CAL at admission and discharge, declining to 7.2% at 12 months post-discharge...
February 5, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
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