Journals Expert Review of Clinical Immu...

Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Miguel Ángel González-Gay, Elena Heras-Recuero, Teresa Blázquez-Sánchez, Claritza Caraballo-Salazar, Fernando Rengifo-García, Santos Castañeda, Raquel Largo
INTRODUCTION: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a large vessel (LV) vasculitis thataffects people aged 50 years and older. Classically, GCA was considered adisease that involved branches of the carotid artery. However, the advent ofnew imaging techniques has allowed us to reconsider the clinical spectrum ofthis vasculitis. AREASCOVERED: The review describesclinical differences between patients with the cranial GCA and those with apredominantly extracranial LV-GCA disease pattern...
May 17, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Haiyang Li, Lingwa Wang, Zhaohui Ruan, Xiaoyan Li, Yifan Yang, Jugao Fang, Ru Wang
BACKGROUND: Rising cancer-related mortality underscores the importance of biomarkers for treatment and prognosis, with Chromosome Segregation 1 Like (CSE1L) linked to various cancers yet its roles remain partially understood. This study investigates CSE1L's expression and oncogenic mechanisms in solid tumors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed multi-omics data from 31 solid tumors, measured CSE1L in 41 head and neck carcinoma patients post-chemotherapy via qRT-PCR, and evaluated the impact of CSE1L knockdown on cell proliferation in A549 and HepG2 cells...
May 16, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Carlotta Schenone, Greta Pacini, Emanuele Gotelli, Elvis Hysa, Rosanna Campitiello, Silvia Sammorì, Sabrina Paolino, Alberto Sulli, Maurizio Cutolo
INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most prevalent autoimmune disease in reproductive years, exhibits a higher incidence in females, suggesting involvement of estrogens, genetics and environmental factors in disease onset. Literature shows smaller families in RA patients, driving increased interest in Assisted Reproductive Techniques. AREAS COVERED: This review elucidates how immunotolerance mechanisms contribute to favorable pregnancy outcomes in RA, emphasizing the need for a careful pregnancy planning to mitigate fetal complications and postnatal flares, which surpass those in the general population...
May 15, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Alexandra Dreyzin, Alexander W Rankin, Katia Luciani, Tatyana Gavrilova, Nirali N Shah
INTRODUCTION: While CAR T-cell therapy has led to remarkable responses in relapsed B-cell hematologic malignancies, only 50% of patients ultimately have a complete, sustained response. Understanding the mechanisms of resistance and relapse after CAR T-cell therapy is crucial to future development and improving outcomes. AREAS COVERED: We review reasons for both primary resistance and relapse after CAR T-cell therapies. Reasons for primary failure include CAR T-cell manufacturing problems, suboptimal fitness of autologous T-cells themselves, and intrinsic features of the underlying cancer and tumor microenvironment...
May 14, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Ahmad Z Al Meslamani, Eman Merghani Ali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Alejandra Paola García-Hernández, Gricelda Sánchez-Sánchez, Angeles Carlos-Reyes, César López-Camarillo
INTRODUCTION: Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) alludes to the ability of cancer cells to organize on three-dimensional channels-like structures to obtain nutrients and oxygen. This mechanism confers an aggressive phenotype, metastatic potential, and resistance to chemotherapy resulting in a poor prognosis. Recent studies have been focused on the identification of microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate the VM representing potential therapeutic targets in cancer. AREAS COVERED: A overview of the roles of miRNAs on VM development, and their functional relationships with tumor microenvironment...
May 7, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Gabriella Szűcs, Szilvia Szamosi, Zoltán Szekanecz
INTRODUCTION: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic autoimmune rheumatic disease characterized by microvascular alterations, immunopathology and widespread fibrosis involving various organs. It is considered difficult to treat due to several reasons: complex pathogenesis, heterogeneity, late diagnosis, limited treatment options for certain organ manifestations, lack of personalized medicine. AREAS COVERED: This review presents the heterogeneity, survival and organ manifestations with their risk factors of systemic sclerosis and their current treatment options, while drawing attention to difficult-to-treat forms of the disease, based on literature indexed in PubMed...
May 7, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Mehmet Ali Karaselek, Tugce Duran, Serkan Kuccukturk, Esra Hazar, Oznur Dogar, Ayca Kıykım, Sukru Guner, Ismail Reisli, Sevgi Keles
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we explored the expression of transcription factors, cytokines, and co-stimulatory molecules within the helper T (Th) cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg) of patients with hypomorphic DCLRE1C gene mutations. METHODS: The study comprised eight patients and five controls. Transcription factor and cytokine expressions of Th subsets and co-stimulatory molecules were investigated by qPCR and flow cytometric following T cell stimulation. The findings were compared between patients (non-HSCT) and with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
May 5, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Yi Jin, Eric S Christenson, Lei Zheng, Keyu Li
INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly aggressive malignancy characterized by a dismal five-year survival rate of less than 10%. Neutrophils are key components of the innate immune system, playing a pivotal role in the PDAC immune microenvironment. AREAS COVERED: This review provides a comprehensive survey of the pivotal involvement of neutrophils in the tumorigenesis and progression of PDAC. Furthermore, it synthesizes preclinical and clinical explorations aimed at targeting neutrophils within the milieu of PDAC, subsequently proposing a conceptual framework to propel further inquiry focused on enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of PDAC through neutrophil-targeted strategies...
May 1, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Keyi Zheng, Amanda Y Chong, Alexander J Mentzer
INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has posed unprecedented global health challenges since its emergence in December 2019. The rapid availability of vaccines has been estimated to save millions of lives, but there is variation in how individuals respond to vaccines, influencing their effectiveness at an individual, and population level. AREAS COVERED: This review focuses on human genetic factors influencing the immune response and effectiveness of vaccines, highlighting the importance of associations across the HLA locus...
April 27, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Luis Caraballo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 23, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Mariana Correia Marques, Michael J Ombrello, Grant S Schulert
INTRODUCTION: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is a severe inflammatory condition with onset in childhood. It is sporadic, but elements of its stereotypical innate immune responses are likely genetically encoded by both common variants with small effect sizes and rare variants with larger effects. AREAS COVERED: Genomic investigations have defined the unique genetic architecture of sJIA. Identification of the class II HLA locus as the strongest sJIA risk factor for the first time brought attention to T lymphocytes and adaptive immune mechanisms in sJIA...
April 20, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Marcel M Bergmann, Alexandra F Santos
INTRODUCTION: The basophil activation test (BAT) has shown evidence of high sensitivity and high specificity to support the diagnosis of IgE-mediated allergy. It is a functional test that uses live cells analyzed by flow cytometry and thus needs to be performed within 24h of blood collection. BAT has shown to be reproducible and reliable when tested in a clinical diagnostic laboratory with standardized protocols and flow cytometry settings. AREAS COVERED: In this review, we summarize the evidence to support clinical use of BAT and the next steps required for clinical implementation for an improve clinical care for patients with suspected IgE-mediated food allergy...
April 10, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Caezaan Keshvani, Noor Laylani, Pamela Davila-Siliezar, Jonathan Kopel, Andrew G Lee
INTRODUCTION: Vasculitides are a heterogeneous group of disorders producing inflammation of blood vessels (e.g. arteries or veins). All major vasculitides potentially have ophthalmological symptoms and signs including visual loss. Co-morbidity, multimorbidity, polypharmacy and geriatric syndromes all play important roles in patient outcomes for these rheumatic conditions in the elderly. This monograph reviews the NCBI PubMed database (Feb 2023) literature on the neuro-ophthalmic and geriatric considerations in vasculitis...
April 4, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Marufur Rahman, Greg Wells, Juha K Rantala, Thomas Helleday, Munitta Muthana, Sarah J Danson
INTRODUCTION: Immunotherapies have revolutionized cancer treatment, but often fail to produce desirable therapeutic outcomes in all patients. Due to the inter-patient heterogeneity and complexity of the tumor microenvironment, personalized treatment approaches are gaining demand. Researchers have long been using a range of in-vitro assays including 2D models, organoid co-cultures, and cancer-on-a-chip platforms for cancer drug screening. A comparative analysis of these assays with their suitability, high-throughput capacity, and clinical translatability is required for optimal translational use...
March 28, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Shabana Habib, Gabriel Osborn, Zena Willsmore, Min Waye Chew, Sophie Jakubow, Amanda Fitzpatrick, Yin Wu, Khushboo Sinha, Hawys Lloyd-Hughes, Jenny L C Geh, Alastair D MacKenzie-Ross, Sean Whittaker, Victoria Sanz-Moreno, Katie E Lacy, Sophia N Karagiannis, Rebecca Adams
INTRODUCTION: Despite the success of immunotherapies for melanoma in recent years, there remains a significant proportion of patients who do not yet derive benefit from available treatments. Immunotherapies currently licensed for clinical use target the adaptive immune system, focussing on Tcell interactions and functions. However, the most prevalent immune cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME) of melanoma are macrophages, a diverse immune cell subset displaying high plasticity, to which no current therapies are yet directly targeted...
March 27, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Abdo Meyiah, Eyad Elkord
INTRODUCTION: Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) transcription factor plays critical roles in controlling immune responses and cancer progression in different cancers. FoxP3 expression within the tumor microenvironment (TME) may influence clinical outcomes negatively or positively, and it could play dual roles in cancer, either by promoting or inhibiting tumor development and progression. Some studies reported that high levels of FoxP3 could be associated with tumor progression and worse prognosis, while others reported contradictory results...
March 21, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Rand Abedalweli, Michelle Nguyen, Atul Deodhar
INTRODUCTION: The advent of biologic and targeted synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (b/tsDMARDs) have transformed the management of immune-mediated rheumatic diseases, including spondylarthritis (SpA). However, the data about combining b/ts DMARDs in the treatment of SpA are scarce. The study objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of combination b/tsDMARD in SpA. METHODS: We conducted systematic literature review (PubMed and Medline) with two independent reviewers, one adjudicator, exploring the efficacy and safety of combination b/tsDMARDs in the treatment of SpA...
March 21, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Svetlana Eckert, Dejan Jakimovski, Robert Zivadinov, Mark Hicar, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman
INTRODUCTION: The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unknown. Pathogenesis likely relies on a complex interaction between multiple environmental, genetic, and behavioral risk factors. However, a growing body of literature supports the role of a preceding Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) infection in the majority of cases. AREAS COVERED: In this narrative review, we summarize the latest findings regarding the potential role of EBV as a predisposing event inducing new onset of MS...
March 13, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Jie Wang, Bo Yang, Jyotsna Chandra, Andrei Ivanov, J Mark Brown, Florian Rieder
INTRODUCTION: Intestinal fibrosis is a common and serious complication of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) driving stricture formation in Crohn's disease patients and leading to submucosal damage in ulcerative colitis. Recent studies provided novel insights into the role of immune and nonimmune components in the pathogenesis of intestinal fibrosis. Those new findings may accelerate the development of anti-fibrotic treatment in IBD patients. AREAS COVERED: This review is designed to cover the recent progress in mechanistic research and therapeutic developments on intestinal fibrosis in IBD patients, including new cell clusters, cytokines, proteins, microbiota, creeping fat and anti-fibrotic therapies...
March 12, 2024: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
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