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Journal of Physiological Anthropology

Yingzhong Yang, Hui Du, Yuhong Li, Wei Guan, Feng Tang, Qin Ga, Ri-Li Ge
BACKGROUND: High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a life-threatening form of non-cardiogenic edema which occurs in unacclimatized individuals after rapid ascent to high altitude. NR3C1 gene encodes for glucocorticoid receptor (GR) which plays an important role in stress and inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the association of NR3C1 polymorphisms with the susceptibility to HAPE in Han Chinese. METHODS: The 30 SNPs in the NR3C1 gene were genotyped by the Sequenom MassARRAY SNP assay in 133 HAPE patients (HAPE-p) and 135 matched Han Chinese resistant to HAPE (HAPE-r)...
April 18, 2019: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Junichiro Hayano, Emi Yuda
Although analysis of heart rate variability is widely used for the assessment of autonomic function, its fundamental framework linking low-frequency and high-frequency components of heart rate variability with sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic divisions has developed in the 1980s. This simplified framework is no longer able to deal with much evidence about heart rate variability accumulated over the past half-century. This review addresses the pitfalls caused by the old framework and discusses the points that need attention in autonomic assessment by heart rate variability...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Tetsuo Katsuura, Soomin Lee
Here, we review the history and the trends in the research on the nonvisual effect of light in the field of physiological anthropology. Research on the nonvisual effect of light in the field of physiological anthropology was pioneered by Sato and colleagues in the early 1990s. These authors found that the color temperature of light affected physiological functions in humans. The groundbreaking event with regard to the study of nonvisual effects of light was the discovery of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the mammalian retina in the early 2000s...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Yuki Ikeda, Yuki Nishimura, Shigekazu Higuchi
BACKGROUND: It is known that the activities of the mirror system are related to imitation and understanding of the intention of an action. It has been reported that the activity of the mirror system is higher for observations for imitating and understanding the intention of an action than for simple observations. However, observations that facilitate the mirror system's activities, if they are observations intending to imitate an action or observations for understanding the intention of an action, have not been clarified to date...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Yohana Siswandari, Shuping Xiong
After the publication of the original article [1] it was highlighted that there was an omission regarding the online resources for the traffic signs in the section of "Experimental stimuli".
December 20, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Soomin Lee, Naoshi Kakitsuba, Tetso Katsuura
BACKGROUND: It is well known that light containing the blue component stimulates the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) and plays a role in melatonin suppression and pupillary constriction. In our previous studies, we verified that simultaneous exposure to blue and green light resulted in less pupillary constriction than blue light exposure. Hence, we hypothesized that the nonvisual effects of polychromatic white light might be increased by blocking the green component...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Alexandra C Tuggle, Jeffrey H Cohen, Douglas E Crews
BACKGROUND: Immigration is a disruptive event with multiple implications for health. Stressors, including family separation, acculturation, job insecurity, restricted mobility, sojourns, dangerous border crossings, stigmatization, and marginalization, shape immigrant health in ways we are only beginning to untangle. Around the world, there are over 200 million international migrants. In 2015, there were 43.2 million immigrants living in the US, 26.8% of whom were born in Mexico. Investigating how stress affects health among migrants facilitates better understanding of their experiences...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Chia-Hsuan Lee, Tien-Lung Sun
BACKGROUND: Previous research on balance mostly focused on the assessment, training, and improvements of balance through interventions. We investigated tools commonly used to study static balance. Differences in postural stability were analyzed using multiscale entropy (MSE) and feature analysis. METHODS: A force plate and inertial sensor were used to collect acceleration and center-of-pressure (COP) nonlinear signals. MSE was also used to detect fractal correlations and assess the complexity of univariate data complexity...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Alemayehu Digssie, Alemayehu Argaw, Tefera Belachew
BACKGROUND: Measurements of erect height in older people, hospitalized and bedridden patients, and people with skeletal deformity is difficult. As a result, using body mass index for assessing nutritional status is not valid. Height estimated from linear body measurements such as arm span, knee height, and half arm span was shown to be useful surrogate measures of stature. However, the relationship between linear body measurements and stature varies across populations implying the need for the development of population-specific prediction equation...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Junko Hasegawa, Hideki Suzuki, Taro Yamauchi
BACKGROUND: Although the benefits of physical activity are well-known, levels of physical inactivity are increasing in many countries. Physical activity, particularly for preventive care of the elderly, must be encouraged. The level of physical activity undertaken by people is influenced by season; however, little is known about seasonal fluctuations of physical activity and its relation to muscle strength/mass. Consequently, we clarified the association between physical activity levels and muscle strength/skeletal muscle mass during non-snowy and snowy seasons in northern Japan...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Yuki Nishimura, Yuki Ikeda, Shigekazu Higuchi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of the inhibition of automatic imitation in social interactions. Additionally, cognitive traits are known to vary among individuals. According to the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) model, personality can be quantified by empathizing and systemizing drives in causal cognition. Since inhibition of automatic imitation is strongly related to social cognition, the level of inhibition may be explained by personal cognitive traits...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Tomoaki Kozaki, Yuki Hidaka, Jun-Ya Takakura, Yosuke Kusano
BACKGROUND: Bright light at night is known to suppress melatonin secretion. Novel photoreceptors named intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are mainly responsible for projecting dark/bright information to the suprachiasmatic nucleus and thus regulating the circadian system. However, it has been shown that the amplitude of the electroretinogram of ipRGCs is considerably lower under flickering light at 100 Hz than at 1-5 Hz, suggesting that flickering light may also affect the circadian system...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Masahiro Itoh, Masako Yamaoka Endo, Tatsuya Hojo, Miho Yoshimura, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka
BACKGROUND: We investigated cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic challenge in trained spinal cord-injured (SCI) individuals compared to able-bodied (AB) individuals. METHODS: A total of 23 subjects participated, divided into three groups: seven were trained as spinal cord-injured (Tr-SCI) individuals, seven were able-bodied individuals trained as runners (Tr-AB), and nine were untrained able-bodied individuals (UnTr-AB). We measured the cardiovascular autonomic responses in all three groups during each 5-min head-up tilt (HUT) of 0°, 40°, and 80°...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Soomin Lee, Shougo Ishibashi, Yoshihiro Shimomura, Tetsuo Katsuura
Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that the abstract was missing from this article.
August 30, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Sweta Koirala, Masayuki Nakano, Hiroaki Arima, Shouhei Takeuchi, Tomo Ichikawa, Takayuki Nishimura, Hiromu Ito, Basu Dev Pandey, Kishor Pandey, Takayuki Wada, Taro Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Epidemiology of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) are influenced by multiple hosts and environmental factors. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of NCDs and determine their risk factors among the adults residing in an isolated village situated at a rural highland of Nepal. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a village located at 3570 m. Each 188 randomly selected participants of age ≥ 18 years old answered a questionnaire and took a full physical exam that included biomedical measurements of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Nirmala Rathnayake, Gayani Alwis, Janaka Lenora, Sarath Lekamwasam
BACKGROUND: Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) is a measure of body muscle content, and it correlates with nutrition and physical status. Estimation of ASMM using anthropometric models is a well-established strategy to overcome issues related to the restricted availability of sophisticated techniques in measuring ASMM. This study aimed to assess the validity of four selected anthropometric models in estimating ASMM in middle-aged women in Sri Lanka. METHODS: A group of women (n = 165) aged 30-60 years underwent a series of anthropometric measurements such as body weight, height, circumferences, and skin fold thickness at specific sites...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Daijiro Abe, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka, Takafumi Maeda, Masahiro Horiuchi
BACKGROUND: Energy cost of transport per unit distance (CoT) against speed shows U-shaped fashion in walking and linear fashion in running, indicating that there exists a specific walking speed minimizing the CoT, being defined as economical speed (ES). Another specific gait speed is the intersection speed between both fashions, being called energetically optimal transition speed (EOTS). We measured the ES, EOTS, and muscle activities during walking and running at the EOTS under hyperoxia (40% fraction of inspired oxygen) on the level and uphill gradients (+ 5%)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Tomoaki Kozaki, Yuki Hidaka
BACKGROUND: Salivary melatonin levels have been analyzed in many research fields, including physiological anthropology. Although various devices have been utilized for saliva collection, cotton swabs are among the most common. However, previous studies have reported that cotton swabs may interfere with melatonin assay results, whereas synthetic swabs may not. These studies compared only mean melatonin levels between passive and synthetic-polymer swab collection methods but did not evaluate relative and proportional biases...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Yuki Nishimura, Yuki Ikeda, Airi Suematsu, Shigekazu Higuchi
BACKGROUND: The human mirror neuron system exists in adults, and even in children. However, a significant, unanswered question in the literature concerns age differences in the effect of visual orientation of human body movements. The observation of actions performed by others is known to activate populations of neural cells called mirror neuron system. Moreover, the power of mu rhythms (8-13 Hz) in the EEG is known to decrease while performing and observing human movements. Therefore, the mu rhythm could be related to the activity of the mirror neuron system...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Alan C Logan, Susan L Prescott, Tari Haahtela, David L Katz
In 1980, Jonas Salk (1914-1995) encouraged professionals in anthropology and related disciplines to consider the interconnections between "planetary health," sociocultural changes associated with technological advances, and the biology of human health. The concept of planetary health emphasizes that human health is intricately connected to the health of natural systems within the Earth's biosphere; experts in physiological anthropology have illuminated some of the mechanisms by which experiences in natural environments (or the built environment) can promote or detract from health...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
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