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Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30857577/assessment-of-pain-associated-with-the-injection-of-sodium-pentobarbital-in-laboratory-mice-mus-musculus
#1
John W Dutton Iii, James E Artwohl, Xichen Huang, Jeffrey D Fortman
The AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals considers injection of barbiturates to be an acceptable method ofeuthanasia in rodents but states there is a potential for pain when administered intraperitoneally. This study examined thepotential for pain in mice by assessing visceral pain after intraperitoneal administration and acute pain by using a paw-licktest. Male and female mice (n = 160) intraperitoneally received a euthanizing dose of sodium pentobarbital at a concentrationof 5, 50, or 390 mg/mL and were observed for writhing, peritoneum-directed behaviors (PDB), loss of righting reflex, and time to death...
March 11, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30846026/preliminary-evaluation-of-sustained-release-compared-with-conventional-formulations-of-meloxicam-in-sheep-ovis-aries
#2
Misha L Dunbar, Krista J Walkowiak, Jill Schappa Faustich, Aaron K Rendahl
Sustained-release (SR) drugs refine current analgesic regimens by alleviating the need for multiple sessions of handlingand restraint and by reducing the local tissue irritation that can occur due to repeated injections. Although a variety of SRdrugs are already used in lab animal medicine, no studies exist that evaluate the suitability of an SR NSAID in sheep. Thisstudy used HPLC-MS to measure the plasma concentrations of 2 formulations of meloxicam-conventional and SRM-after subcutaneous administration in 6 adult ewes...
March 7, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30819274/intramuscular-administration-of-alfaxalone-alone-and-in-combination-for-sedation-and-anesthesia-of-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus
#3
Michael P Bradley, Carolyn M Doerning, Megan H Nowland, Patrick A Lester
This study compared alfaxalone, alone and in combination with other medications, for sedative and anesthetic propertiesafter intramuscular administration in New Zealand white rabbits. In the main portion of the study, 6 female rabbits wereassigned to 5 treatment regimens in a blinded crossover design. Alfaxalone (6 mg/kg IM) was administered alone and incombination with each of the following: 0.3 mg/kg butorphanol; 1 mg/kg midazolam; 0.2 mg/kg dexmedetomidine; and both0.3 mg/kg butorphanol and 0.2 mg/kg dexmedetomidine...
February 28, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30819273/enrofloxacin-pharmacokinetics-and-sampling-techniques-in-california-sea-hares-aplysia-californica
#4
Sharon E Mason, Mark G Papich, Michael C Schmale, Craig A Harms, A Sally Davis
This pharmacokinetic study was designed to determine the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin at 5 mg/kg when given to seahares in their hemolymph. Enrofloxacin is a commonly used antimicrobial in veterinary medicine and potentially could beused to treat sea hares exposed to susceptible bacterial species. We individually identified 8 juvenile Aplysia californica andgroup housed them in an open seawater flow system at 14 to 18 °C; 2 served as untreated controls. The remaining 6 animalswere injected into the hemocoel with 0...
February 28, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30813985/welfare-and-scientific-considerations-of-tattooing-and-ear-tagging-for-mouse-identification
#5
Johnny V Roughan, Tatum Sevenoaks
Ear tagging is perceived as less painful or stressful than tattooing and therefore is generally considered less harmful or costly to welfare. However, ear tags are more difficult to read than tattoos and can fall out, and mice usually require restraint for the tag numbers to be read accurately. We assessed the welfare and scientific implications of tattooing by using a commercial device compared with restraint in a device versus ear tagging. Male and female BALB/c mice (n = 32) underwent procedures after 1 wk of tail or nonaversive (tunnel) handling to determine whether tunnel handling reduced anxiety...
February 27, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30813984/evaluation-of-the-sterility-of-press-n-seal-cling-film-for-use-in-rodent-surgery
#6
Kathryn M Emmer, Natalie A Celeste, Willie A Bidot, Marcel I Perret-Gentil, Raphael A Malbrue
Aseptic technique, including the use of sterile drapes, is essential to reduce microbial contamination to the lowest practical level and improve surgical outcomes. Recently, some institutions have approved the use of Press'n Seal cling film (CF; Glad Products, Oakland, CA) as a practical, cost-effective alternative to sterile drapes for rodent surgeries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sterility of CF by using ATP and replicate organism detection and counting (RODAC) plates. Wetested 10 boxes of CF at days 0, 14, and 28 after opening the box and compared the results with traditional packaged steriledrapes...
February 27, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30803467/evaluation-of-a-synthetic-bedding-substrate-for-mice-mus-musculus
#7
Michael A Bellin, Kyle J Reitnauer, Amber M Gomez, Robyn B Lee-Stubbs, Albert L Ruff
This study compared a synthetic bedding substrate (SBS), which has the potential to be a particulate-free animal beddingsystem, with the standard woodchip bedding. The objective was to demonstrate that the SBS is habitable for mice and reducesparticulates to levels that would not contaminate the eye or potentially induce ocular (corneal) injury. Newly weaned micewere placed in either standard woodchip bedding or SBS. All mice were monitored regarding overall health (appearance,food and water intake, natural behavior, clinical signs, and provoked behavior) to verify their ability to adjust to the bedding...
February 25, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30795821/pcr-prevalence-of-murine-opportunistic-microbes-and-their-mitigation-by-using-vaporized-hydrogen-peroxide
#8
Natalie H Ragland, Emily L Miedel, Robert W Engelman
Exposing immunodeficient mice to opportunistic microbes introduces risks of data variability, morbidity, mortality, andthe invalidation of studies involving unique human reagents, including the loss of primary human hematopoietic cells,patient-derived xenografts, and experimental therapeutics. The prevalence of 15 opportunistic microbes in a murine researchfacility was determined by yearlong PCR-based murine and IVC equipment surveillance comprising 1738 specimens. Ofthe 8 microbes detected, 3 organisms-Staphylococcus xylosus, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella pneumotropica biotypeHeyl-were most prevalent in both murine and IVC exhaust plenum specimens...
February 22, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30795820/seroconversion-of-1-year-old-mice-to-murine-norovirus
#9
Julia Zaias, Catia Farrington, Robert S Livingston, Linda W Waterman
Rodent sentinel screening for adventitious pathogens is an integral part of many biomedical research institutes and universities that use rodents in research. Typical screening programs involving live sentinel animals typically purchase youngSPF sentinel animals that are sampled and replaced quarterly. Previous reports suggest that mice as old as 6 mo are effectivesentinels for various agents. In efforts to reduce the number of animals used in our sentinel program, we wanted to investigatethe possibility of keeping sentinel animals inhouse for 12 mo at a time...
February 22, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30764898/retrospective-analysis-of-the-effects-of-identification-procedures-and-cage-changing-by-using-data-from-automated-continuous-monitoring
#10
Maria A Lim, Erwin B Defensor, Jordan A Mechanic, Puja P Shah, Evelyn A Jaime, Clifford R Roberts, David L Hutto, Laura R Schaevitz
Many variables can influence animal behavior and physiology, potentially affecting scientific study outcomes. Laboratoryand husbandry procedures-including handling, cage cleaning, injections, blood collection, and animal identification-mayproduce a multitude of effects. Previous studies have examined the effects of such procedures by making behavioral andphysiologic measurements at specific time points; this approach can be disruptive and limits the frequency or duration ofobservations. Because these procedures can have both acute and long-term effects, the behavior and physiology of animalsshould be monitored continuously...
February 14, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30764895/survey-of-behavioral-indices-of-welfare-in-research-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-in-the-united-states
#11
Mollie A Bloomsmith, Andrea W Clay, Susan P Lambeth, Corrine K Lutz, Sarah D Breaux, Michael L Lammey, Andrea N Franklin, Kim A Neu, Jaine E Perlman, Lisa A Reamer, Mary C Mareno, Steven J Schapiro, Maribel Vazquez, Sabrina R Bourgeois
Chimpanzees demand specialized housing and care and the highest degree of attention to animal welfare. The current project used a survey method to collate information on chimpanzee housing and behavioral indices of welfare across all 6 of the chimpanzee research facilities in the United States. Data were compiled on 701 chimpanzees ranging from 2 to 62 y old (mean age, 26.0 y). All chimpanzees except for one were socially housed; the median group size was 7 animals, and group sizes ranged from 1 to 14. All of the subjects had access to outdoor spaces each day...
February 14, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30764891/head-tilt-in-immunodeficient-mice-due-to-contamination-of-drinking-water-by-burkholderia-gladioli
#12
Chereen Collymore, Frank Giuliano, E Kate Banks
Immunodeficient mice in multiple holding rooms presented with head tilt, circling, spinning when picked up by the tail,dehydration, and lethargy. Burkholderia gladioli, a plant pathogen, was identified as the causative agent. Environmental testing revealed the presence of B. gladioli within the automatic watering system, water bottles, and sipper tubes. Here we describe steps taken to reduce the presence of this organism within the automatic watering system and water bottles. Facilities housing immunodeficient mice should take measures to minimize the accumulation of biofilm within their water-supply systems...
February 14, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755291/influence-of-rater-training-on-inter-and-intrarater-reliability-when-using-the-rat-grimace-scale
#13
Emily Q Zhang, Vivian Sy Leung, Daniel Sj Pang
Rodent grimace scales facilitate assessment of ongoing pain. Reported rater training using these scales varies considerablyand may contribute to the observed variability in interrater reliability. This study evaluated the effect of training on interrater reliability with the Rat Grimace Scale (RGS). Two training sets (42 and 150 images) were prepared from acute pain models.Four trainee raters progressed through 2 rounds of training, scoring 42 images (set 1) followed by 150 images (set 2a). After each round, trainees reviewed the RGS and any problematic images with an experienced rater...
February 12, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30704550/ammonia-measurement-in-the-ivc-microenvironment
#14
Robert B Morrow, Rhonda J Wiler
In this review, we describe the methods and technology used to measure intracage ammonia levels; the data were derivedfrom 38 articles published since 1970. Ammonia concentration is commonly used as a surrogate for assessing environmentalquality inside rodent cages. Data generated from this group of publications have been used to support new husbandry practices, determine the effect of ammonia on health, and establish the effectiveness of caging systems. Consequently, the data generated from these studies have a direct effect on animal welfare and therefore should demonstrate a high level of reproducibility...
January 31, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30696520/effects-of-various-commercially-available-enrichment-options-on-handling-and-chronic-stress-markers-in-female-icr-mice
#15
Jessica L Peveler, Melissa P Swan, R'nld R Wheeler, Christine A Boehm, Debra L Hickman
Although social housing of mice generally is preferred, mice must be individually housed in some situations. In these cases, enhanced attention to environmental enrichment is encouraged, but few studies assess the wellbeing of mice provided various enrichments. In this study, we used female ICR mice to evaluate enrichment strategies that encouraged natural behaviorsincluding foraging, exercise, sheltering, and socialization. After 3 mo of exposure to the assigned enrichment strategy,wellbeing was assessed by evaluating behavioral and physiologic differences between groups...
January 29, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30651159/the-likelihood-of-misidentifying-rodent-pasteurellaceae-by-using-results-from-a-single-pcr-assay
#16
Hagit Dafni, Lea Greenfeld, Roni Oren, Alon Harmalin
The precise identification of rodent Pasteurellaceae is known to be highly challenging. An unknown strain of Pasteurellaceaeappeared and rapidly spread throughout our animal facilities. Standard microbiology, combined with biochemical analysis, suggested that the bacteria strain was Rodentibacter pneumotropicus or R. heylii. We submitted samples of theunknown bacteria and known isolates of R. pneumotropicus, R. heylii, and Muribacter muris, to 2 service laboratories thatprovide animal health monitoring. Results of microbiology tests performed by both laboratories, species-specific PCR analysisperformed by one laboratory, and independent 16S rRNA gene sequencing yielded identical identification of the unknownbacteria as Pasteurellaceae (Pasteurella spp...
January 16, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30646968/chemical-contaminants-from-plastics-in-the-animal-environment
#17
Galen J Gorence, Hannah C Pulcastro, Crystal A Lawson, Roy R Gerona, Matthew Friesen, Tegan S Horan, Mary C Gieske, Caroline V Sartain, Patricia A Hunt
Accidental exposure of our mice to bisphenol A (BPA) from damaged polycarbonate cages 20 y ago provided some of thefirst evidence of the harmful effects of exposure to this common chemical. Recently we found that housing mice in damagedpolysulfone cages resulted in similar harmful effects due to exposure to bisphenol S (BPS). This problem was unexpected for2 reasons. First, polysulfone is a far more chemically resistant polymer than polycarbonate. Second, BPS is not a componentin the manufacture of polysulfone...
January 15, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30630557/regional-anesthesia-for-dentistry-and-orofacial-surgery-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#18
Robyn M Engel, Marvin L Thomas Iii, Ron E Banks
Regional anesthesia is a commonly used adjunct to orofacial dental and surgical procedures in companion animals andhumans. However, appropriate techniques for anesthetizing branches of the mandibular and maxillary nerves have not beendescribed for rhesus monkeys. Skulls of 3 adult rhesus monkeys were examined to identify relevant foramina, establish appropriate landmarks for injection, and estimate injection angles and depth. Cadaver heads of 7 adult rhesus monkeys (4 male,3 female) were then injected with thiazine dye to demonstrate correct placement of solution to immerse specific branches of the mandibular and maxillary nerves...
January 10, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30626468/capnography-guided-endotracheal-intubation-as-an-alternative-to-existing-intubation-methods-in-rabbits
#19
Lyon Y Lee, Dongbin Lee, Hakhyun Ryu, Janet H Han, Jungho Ko, John W Tyler
Rabbits provide a unique challenge for routine endotracheal intubation in clinical practice because of various distinctiveanatomic and physiologic features. Many previously proposed methods for endotracheal intubation in rabbits are limited byseveral factors, including the needs for expensive equipment and high levels of technical expertise. We evaluated capnographyfor its effectiveness in assisting endotracheal intubation in rabbits. New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 3 groupsof 5 animals. In the first 2 groups, mainstream (nondiverting) or sidestream (diverting) capnography (MC and SC groups, respectively)was used; in the third group (LS group), a laryngoscope with a size 00 Miller blade was used to guide endotracheal tube placement...
January 9, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30609948/evaluation-of-4-presurgical-skin-preparation-methods-in-mice
#20
Brenda L Kick, Sanjeev Gumber, Heqiong Wang, Reneé H Moore, Douglas K Taylor
Mice routinely undergo surgical procedures for use in research; however, studies of skin preparation methods to achieveantisepsis are rare. The present study evaluated 4 skin preparation treatments: depilatory agent followed by povidone-iodine and alcohol scrub; depilatory agent followed by povidone-iodine and saline scrub; electric clippers followed by povidone-iodine and alcohol scrub; and electric clippers followed by povidone-iodine and saline scrub. Swabs for bacterial culturewere obtained immediately after hair removal and after scrubbing to measure the reduction in bacterial load...
January 4, 2019: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
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