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PPAR Research

Zhongxia Wang, Tao Zhang, Lizhe Sun, Ruifeng Li, Yuanyuan Wei, Xiaojuan Fan, Zuyi Yuan, Junhui Liu, Tao Chen
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2016/7407153.].
2019: PPAR Research
María Sánchez-Aguilar, Luz Ibarra-Lara, Leonardo Del Valle-Mondragón, María Esther Rubio-Ruiz, Alicia G Aguilar-Navarro, Absalom Zamorano-Carrillo, Margarita Del Carmen Ramírez-Ortega, Gustavo Pastelín-Hernández, Alicia Sánchez-Mendoza
Rosiglitazone (RGZ), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ ) ligand, has been reported to act as insulin sensitizer and exert cardiovascular actions. In this work, we hypothesized that RGZ exerts a PPAR γ -dependent regulation of blood pressure through modulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-type 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin-(1-7)/angiotensin II type-2 receptor (AT2 R) axis in an experimental model of high blood pressure. We carried on experiments in normotensive (Sham) and aortic coarctation (AoCo)-induced hypertensive male Wistar rats...
2019: PPAR Research
Yong-Jik Lee, Yoo-Na Jang, Yoon-Mi Han, Hyun-Min Kim, Hong Seog Seo
Hypertension is a disease with a high prevalence and high mortality rates worldwide. In addition, various factors, such as genetic predisposition, lifestyle factors, and the abnormality of organs related to blood pressure, are involved in the development of hypertension. However, at present, there are few available drugs for hypertension that do not induce side effects. Although the therapeutic effects of ginger on hypertension are well established, the precise mechanism has not been elucidated. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antihypertensive mechanism of 6-gingerol, one of the main ingredients of ginger, and to assist in the development of new drugs for hypertension without side effects...
2018: PPAR Research
Yin-Feng Zhang, Hai-Ming Xu, Fei Yu, Man Wang, Meng-Yang Li, Tao Xu, Yan-Yan Gao, Jian-Xun Wang, Pei-Feng Li
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play vital roles in cardiovascular pathophysiology, such as energy balance, cell proliferation/apoptosis, inflammatory response, and adipocyte differentiation. These vital roles make PPARs potential targets for therapeutic prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Emerging evidence indicates that the crosstalk of microRNAs (miRNAs) and PPARs contributes greatly to CVD pathogenesis. PPARs are inhibited by miRNAs at posttranscriptional mechanisms in the progress of pulmonary hypertension and vascular dysfunction involving cell proliferation/apoptosis, communication, and normal function of endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells...
2018: PPAR Research
Kay-Dietrich Wagner, Ana Vukolic, Delphine Baudouy, Jean-François Michiels, Nicole Wagner
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2016/7631085.].
2018: PPAR Research
Manoj Govindarajulu, Priyanka D Pinky, Jenna Bloemer, Nila Ghanei, Vishnu Suppiramaniam, Rajesh Amin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by abnormal protein accumulation, synaptic dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. The continuous increase in the incidence of AD with the aged population and mortality rate indicates the urgent need for establishing novel molecular targets for therapeutic potential. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ ) agonists such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone reduce amyloid and tau pathologies, inhibit neuroinflammation, and improve memory impairments in several rodent models and in humans with mild-to-moderate AD...
2018: PPAR Research
Hwa Young Ahn, Hwan Hee Kim, Ji-Yeon Hwang, Changhun Park, Bo Youn Cho, Young Joo Park
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) is a fatty liver disease that is closely related to obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Pioglitazone, which was developed as an antidiabetic drug, is known to improve NALFD. Pioglitazone is metabolized by multiple cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, which are regulated by the xenobiotic receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). In this study, we investigated the effects of pioglitazone on NAFLD by absence of CAR activity under high-fat (HF)-fed conditions...
2018: PPAR Research
Si-Yu Zeng, Hui-Qin Lu, Qiu-Jiang Yan, Jian Zou
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- α (PPAR- α ) agonist fenofibrate ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy; however, its mechanism of action has not been completely determined. Our previous study indicated that a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 (ADAM17) is required for angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy. This study aimed to determine whether ADAM17 is involved in the protective action of fenofibrate against cardiac hypertrophy. Abdominal artery constriction- (AAC-) induced hypertensive rats were used to observe the effects of fenofibrate on cardiac hypertrophy and ADAM17 expression...
2018: PPAR Research
Qing-Qi Meng, Wei Lei, Hao Chen, Zhen-Cheng Feng, Li-Qiong Hu, Xing-Liang Zhang, Siming Li
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR- γ ) agonist rosiglitazone inhibits NF- κ B expression and endogenous neural stem cell differentiation into neurons and reduces the inflammatory cascade after spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms underlying rosiglitazone-mediated neuroprotective effects and regulation of the balance between the inflammatory cascade and generation of endogenous spinal cord neurons by using a spinal cord-derived neural stem cell culture system as well as SD rat SCI model...
2018: PPAR Research
Sorim Choung, Kyong Hye Joung, Bo Ram You, Sang Ki Park, Hyun Jin Kim, Bon Jeong Ku
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is strongly associated with insulin resistance. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activators, thiazolidinediones, (TZDs), are insulin sensitizers used as a treatment for NAFLD. However, TZDs are a controversial treatment for NAFLD because of conflicting results regarding hepatic steatosis and fibrosis. To evaluate a possible effective drug for treatment of NAFLD, we investigated the effects of a newly developed TZD, lobeglitazone, with an emphasis on hepatic lipid metabolism...
2018: PPAR Research
Jiamiao Hu, Arong Zhou, Peter C K Cheung, Baodong Zheng, Shaoxiao Zeng, Shaoling Lin
GPR43, a G-protein coupled receptor recognizing short-chain fatty acids, has been reported to participate in many biological functions of white adipocytes, such as adipogenesis and lipolysis. However, the functional role of GPR43 in brown adipocytes is still not clear. In this study, we investigated the effects of the PPAR γ agonist rosiglitazone on GPR43 expression in brown adipogenesis. The results demonstrated that GPR43 was expressed during the late phase of brown adipocyte differentiation, which could be further augmented by adipogenic agent rosiglitazone treatment...
2018: PPAR Research
Rehana Parvin, Erika Noro, Akiko Saito-Hakoda, Hiroki Shimada, Susumu Suzuki, Kyoko Shimizu, Hiroyuki Miyachi, Atsushi Yokoyama, Akira Sugawara
Although therapeutic effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR- γ ) agonists rosiglitazone and pioglitazone against Cushing's disease have been reported, their effects are still controversial and inconsistent. We therefore examined the effects of a novel PPAR- γ agonist, MEKT1, on Pomc expression/ACTH secretion using murine corticotroph-derived AtT20 cells and compared its effects with those of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone. AtT20 cells were treated with either 1 nM~10  μ M MEKT1, rosiglitazone, or pioglitazone for 24 hours...
2018: PPAR Research
Natália Bernardi Videira, Fernanda Aparecida Heleno Batista, Artur Torres Cordeiro, Ana Carolina Migliorini Figueira
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARß/ δ ) is considered a therapeutic target for metabolic disorders, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Here, we developed one pipeline for the screening of PPARß/ δ agonists, which reduces the cost, time, and false-positive hits. The first step is an optimized 3-day long cellular transactivation assay based on reporter-gene technology, which is supported by automated liquid-handlers. This primary screening is followed by a confirmatory transactivation assay and by two biophysical validation methods (thermal shift assay (TSA) and (ANS) fluorescence quenching), which allow the calculation of the affinity constant, giving more information about the selected hits...
2018: PPAR Research
Wenwen Wang, Kan Chen, Yujing Xia, Wenhui Mo, Fan Wang, Weiqi Dai, Peiqin Niu
Objective: Previous studies have characterized the hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of oleanolic acid (OA). This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of OA hepatoprotection in concanavalin A- (ConA-) induced acute liver injury. Materials and Methods: ConA (20 mg/kg) was intravenously injected to induce acute liver injury in Balb/C mice. OA pretreatment (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously once daily for 3 consecutive days prior to treatment with ConA; 2, 8, and 24 h after ConA injection, the levels of serum liver enzymes and the histopathology of major factors and inflammatory cytokines were determined...
2018: PPAR Research
Qiang Zhang, Lingyan Xu, Jie Xia, Dongmei Wang, Min Qian, Shuzhe Ding
Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent chronic disease arising as a serious public health problem worldwide. Diet intervention is considered to be a critical strategy in glycemic control of diabetic patients. Recently, the low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet is shown to be effective in glycemic control and weight loss. However, hepatic lipid accumulation could be observed in mice treated with ketogenic diet. On the other hand, exercise is a well-known approach for treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We thus hypothesize that the combination of ketogenic diet and exercise could improve insulin sensitivity, while minimizing adverse effect of hepatic steatosis...
2018: PPAR Research
Chang Jiang, Shuhao Liu, Yuanwu Cao, Hongping Shan
Diabetes mellitus is a multiorgan disorder affecting many types of connective tissues, including bone and cartilage. High glucose could accelerate the autophagy in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. In our present study, we investigated whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR- γ ) pathway is involved into autophagy regulation in NP cells under high glucose condition. After NP cells were treated with different high glucose concentrations for 72 hours, the rate of autophagy increased. Moreover, the levels of PPAR γ , Beclin-1, and LC3II were significantly increased and p62 was significantly decreased compared to control group...
2018: PPAR Research
Qinghui Zhang, Shihao Xiang, Qingqian Liu, Tao Gu, Yongliang Yao, Xiaojie Lu
Background and Aims: Accumulating evidence reveals that PPAR γ plays a unique role in the regulation of hepatic fibrosis and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. This study was aimed at investigating the role of PPAR γ in hypoxia-induced hepatic fibrogenesis and its possible mechanism. Methods: Rats used for CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis model were exposed to hypoxia for 8 hours each day. Rats exposed to hypoxia were treated with or without the PPAR γ agonist rosiglitazone...
2018: PPAR Research
Seong-Hoon Yun, Sang-Heum Han, Joo-In Park
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ) is part of a nuclear receptor superfamily that regulates gene expression involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, immune/inflammation response, and lipid metabolism. PPAR γ coactivator-1 α (PGC-1 α ), initially identified as a PPAR γ -interacting protein, is an important regulator of diverse metabolic pathways, such as oxidative metabolism and energy homeostasis. The role of PGC-1 α in diabetes, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular disease is particularly well known...
2018: PPAR Research
Yajing Huo, Xuqing Wu, Jing Ding, Yang Geng, Weiwei Qiao, Anyan Ge, Cen Guo, Jianing Lv, Haifeng Bao, Wei Fan
Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for vascular disease, is associated with metabolic syndrome. Our study was aimed at exploring the effect of long-term hyperhomocysteinemia with metabolic disturbances on vascular remodeling. We also studied oxidative stress and expression of PPAR γ in the coronary arteriole as a possible mechanism underlying vascular remodeling. Rats were treated with standard rodent chow (Control) or diet enriched in methionine (Met) for 48 weeks. Plasma homocysteine, blood glucose, serum lipids, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured...
2018: PPAR Research
Rui Kong, Hui Luo, Nan Wang, Jingjing Li, Shizan Xu, Kan Chen, Jiao Feng, Liwei Wu, Sainan Li, Tong Liu, Xiya Lu, Yujing Xia, Yanhong Shi, Yingqun Zhou, Weigang He, Qi Dai, Yuejuan Zheng, Jie Lu
Portulaca oleracea L. is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been used as adjuvant therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanism of its activity in IBD still remains unclear. Since previous studies have documented the anti-inflammatory effect of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors- γ (PPAR- γ ), Portulaca regulation of PPAR- γ in inflammation was examined in current study. Ulcerative colitis (UC) was generated by 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice and four groups were established as normal control, DSS alone, DSS plus mesalamine, and DSS plus Portulaca ...
2018: PPAR Research
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