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Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology

Mustafa Gok, Hilal Altas, Hasan Burhanettin Kapti
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of single intravitreal Dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®) on ocular blood flow velocities in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) and retinal vein occlusions (RVO). METHODS: This prospective non-randomized interventional study included injected and fellow eyes of 12 patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) and of 16 patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) treated with intravitreal Ozurdex®. Color Doppler Ultrasonography (CDU) measures of the central retinal artery (CRA), posterior ciliary artery (PCA), ophthalmic artery (OA) those are peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) were performed in both injected and uninjected eyes before injection, at one week, one month after injection, and prior to re-injection...
February 17, 2019: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
J S Pelletier, J Devine, K Capriotti, S B Barone, J A Capriotti
PURPOSE: To determine the ocular and systemic toxicity of a novel, topically applied ophthalmic gel preparation of povidone-iodine and dimethylsulfoxide in Dutch-Belted rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rabbits were administered doses of the test material or control by ocular instillation four times/eye/day, seven days/week, for a minimum of 14 consecutive days. Dosing consisted of instillation of 50 µl of the appropriate test material solution or control material (saline) into each eye of the rabbit...
February 10, 2019: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Kyung Eun Han, Mi Hye Park, Kyoung Hye Kong, Euno Choi, Kyu-Ryong Choi, Roo Min Jun
PURPOSE: To compare the therapeutic effects of human derivatives in a mouse alkali burn model. METHODS: The right eyes of mice were injured using NaOH. After alkali injury, one of the following agents was topically administered for 7 days: human amniotic membrane (hAM) suspension, human umbilical cord serum (hUCS), and human peripheral blood serum (hPBS), or saline. The epithelial defect areas on days 1, 2, and 3, degrees of opacity on days 2, 3, and 7, and corneal neovascularization (NV) areas on day 7 were evaluated...
February 10, 2019: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Zeynep Duru
PURPOSE: Islamic Ramadan is the month of fasting, in which intake of food and drink is restricted from sunrise until sunset. The objective of the present study was to find out the effects of religious fasting on posterior ocular structures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 34 eyes of 34 healthy volunteers with a mean age of 34.09 ± 7.20 years were enrolled. Volunteers with any systemic disorder and eyes with pathology or previous surgery were excluded...
February 6, 2019: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Murat Okutucu, Hüseyin Fındık, Mehmet Gökhan Arslan
PURPOSE: To investigate the acute effects of brinzolamide, betaxolol, and latanoprost (drugs commonly used in the medical management of glaucoma) on choroidal thickness using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). METHODS: Ninety healthy volunteers were evaluated in this prospective study. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups. Brinzolamide, betaxolol and latanoprost were administered into the left eyes of the first group (n = 30), second group (n = 30) and third group (n = 30), respectively, and artificial tear (Sodium hyaluronate) was instilled into the right eyes of all participants...
February 5, 2019: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Cezmi Doğan, Hüseyin Yetik, Osman Şevki Arslan, Hakkı Oktay Seymen, Öner Süzer, Övgü Aydin, Burak Mergen
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of intravitreally injected aspirin on normal ocular tissues. METHODS: Six eyes of 3 rabbits as control group, 18 eyes of 9 albino rabbits which were injected aspirin intravitreally were studied. In the control group, the same volume of balanced salt solution (BSS) as in drug groups were injected. Clinical examination methods including biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, and Schiotz tonometry, electrophysiological test including ERG and histopathological examination including light microscopy were used to evaluate the ocular effects after drug injections...
February 5, 2019: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Ayhan Vurmaz, Reşat Duman, Mehmet Cem Sabaner, Tolga Ertekin, Abdülkadir Bilir
PURPOSE: The etiopathogenesis of steroid-induced cataracts is unknown. One hypotheseis is that the higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. ROS plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several disorders, including the evolution of cataracts. This study investigated the antioxidant effects of piperine in our steroid-induced chick embryo lens model. METHODS: The study included 36 specific pathogen-free (SPF) fertilized eggs divided into six groups: phosphate buffer saline (PBS, pH 7...
January 24, 2019: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Isa An, Murat Ozturk
OBJECTIVE: Some plants may cause cutaneous side effects called phytodermatitis due to skin contact. Plants that cause phytodermatitis vary according to countries and regions. The aim of this study was to examine the phytodermatitis cases seen in Turkey's east and southeast and compare them with phytodermatitis cases seen previously in the literature in these provinces and to revise the literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, 34 patients with phytodermatitis were prospectively evaluated...
December 26, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Pedro Vazquez-Ferreiro, Francisco Javier Carrera Hueso, Belén Alvarez Lopez, Marta Diaz-Rey, Xavier Martinez-Casal, Maria Auxiliadora Ramón Barrios
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to use meta-regression to evaluate the safety of the maximum allowable dose of formaldehyde in terms of eye irritation symptoms. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of literature published in the PubMed, Embase, Lilacs, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. We selected clinical trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies that compared eye irritation between patients exposed and not exposed to formaldehyde...
December 26, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Kazim Sahin, Fatih Akdemir, Cemal Orhan, Mehmet Tuzcu, Hasan Gencoglu, Nurhan Sahin, Ibrahim H Ozercan, Shakir Ali, Ismet Yilmaz, Vijaya Juturu
PURPOSE: Zeaxanthin protects the macula from ocular damage due to light or radiation by scavenging harmful reactive oxygen species. In the present study, zeaxanthin product (OmniXan®; OMX), derived from paprika pods (Capsicum annum; Family-Solanaceae), was tested for its efficacy in the rat retina against photooxidation. METHODS: Forty-two male 8-week-old Wistar rats exposed to 12L/12D, 16L/8D and 24L/0D hours of intense light conditions were orally administrated either 0 or 100 mg/kg BW of zeaxanthin concentration...
December 4, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Varun Pai, Haladi Sudhir Prabhu, Faizan Kalekhan, Rashmi Theresa Mathai, Arnadi Ramachandrayya Shivashankara, Ramakrishna Pai Jakribettu, Nandakishore Bala, Paul Simon, Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga
INTRODUCTION: Tiger dancing or Hulivesha, where the volunteers paint their bare body like a tiger and dance is a ritual during the Navaratri festival in Mangalore, India. There are no scientific studies done with the hulivesha dancers at all and therefore we investigated the adverse effects of painting body like a tiger and dancing in the volunteers. OBJECTIVE/AIM: In this study we investigated the clinicohematological effects of topical application of lead containing paint and dancing for three consecutive days in these dancers to ascertain the toxic effects of whole body painting and dancing...
December 2, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Peng Chen, Fucaho Chen, Benhong Zhou
BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis was conducted to assess the risk of dermatological toxicities of combined BRAF and MEK inhibition versus BRAF inhibition alone in melanoma patients. METHODS: We considered relevant prospective randomized phase I, II, and III trials of melanoma patients on the combined BRAF and MEK inhibition versus BRAF inhibition, describing events of rash, photosensitivity reaction (PR), hyperkeratosis (HK), alopecia, cutaneous squamous-cell carcinom(cSCC), skin papilloma(SP), pruritus, and hand-foot syndrome(HFS), as eligible for inclusion...
December 2, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Hidehisa Sekijima, Kenji Goto, Keiichi Hiramoto, Rio Komori, Kazuya Ooi
PURPOSE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) induces various dermatological conditions that can affect patient quality of life, including increased susceptibility to skin infections and dry skin. While the mechanisms that underlie the causes of dry skin in type 1 DM have been widely studied, how type 2 DM elicits similar effects is unclear. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate skin barrier and hydration function using a KK-Ay /TaJcl mouse model of type 2 DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: KK-Ay /TaJcl and control mice were housed separately for 4 weeks and then body weight, water intake, urine production, and blood glucose levels were measured...
December 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Jessica C Graham, Nathan Wilt, Gertrude-Emilia Costin, Caren Villano, Jackie Bader, Lindsay Krawiec, Elizabeth Sly, Janet Gould
INTRODUCTION: Irritation reactions are a frequently reported occupational illness. The potential adverse effects of pharmaceutical compounds (PCs) on eye and skin can now be assessed using validated in vitro methods. OBJECTIVES: Our overall aim is to reduce animal testing by replacing the historically utilized in vivo test methods with validated in vitro test methods which accurately determine the ocular and dermal irritation/corrosion potential of PCs to inform worker safety within the pharmaceutical space...
December 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Erel Icel, Turgay Uçak, Burcu Agcayazi, Yücel Karakurt, Hayati Yilmaz, Ferda Keskin Çimen, Halis Süleyman
AIM: To determine the effects of Pycnogenol on cisplatin-induced optic nerve damage. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Totally 18 albino Wistar male rats were assigned into three groups, with six rats in each group as follows: healthy controls (HC group), only cisplatin (2.5 mg/kg) administered group (CIS group) and Pycnogenol (40 mg/kg) + cisplatin (2.5 mg/kg) administered group (PYC group). We analyzed the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, total glutathione (tGSH) as a marker of antioxidant status, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as inflammatory markers, total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) on eye tissue together with histopathological evaluation of optic nerve in an experimental model...
December 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Yücel Karakurt, Turgay Uçak, NurdanGamze Tasli, Ibrahim Ahiskali, Sare Şipal, Nezahat Kurt, Halis Süleyman
AIM: Lutein is one of the most common carotenoids defined in human plasma as having potent anti-oxidant effects. We aimed to determine the biochemical and histopathological effects of lutein on cisplatin-induced oxidative retinal injury in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four rats were equally divided into four groups as healthy controls (HC group), only cisplatin (5 mg/kg) administered group (CIS group), Lutein (0.5 mg/kg) + cisplatin (5 mg/kg) administered group (LC group), and only Lutein (0...
December 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Lan-Hsin Chuang, An-Lun Wu, Nan-Kai Wang, Kuan-Jen Chen, Laura Liu, Yih-Shiou Hwang, Ling Yeung, Wei-Chi Wu, Chi-Chun Lai
PURPOSE: To perform preclinical studies to determine the efficacy and safety of anthocyanins as stains for the internal limiting membrane (ILM) of the eye. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cyanidin (Cya), delphinidin (Del), luteolinidin (Lut), peonidin (Peo) and pelargonidin (Pel) were evaluated. These natural dyes were used to stain the lens capsule and ILM of pig eyes. The effects of these dyes on retinal cell viability was determined using a water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay, and oxidative stress was measured in vitro...
December 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Zhan Song, Ting-Jun Fan
PURPOSE: Tetracaine is a local anesthetic widely used in ocular diagnosis and ophthalmic surgery and may lead to some adverse effects and complications at a clinical dose. To assess the cytotoxicity and molecular toxicity mechanisms of tetracaine, we used human corneal stromal (HCS) cells as an in vitro model to study the effects of tetracaine on HCS cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxicity of tetracaine on HCS cells was investigated by examining the changes of cell growth, morphology, viability and cell cycle progressing when HCS cells were treated with tetracaine at concentrations from 10 g/L to 0...
December 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Katarzyna Nowomiejska, Agnieszka Kiszka, Ryszard Maciejewski, Anselm Jünemann, Robert Rejdak
PURPOSE: To measure the area of central scotoma obtained with semi-automated kinetic perimetry (SKP) in patients suffering from tobacco-alcohol toxic neuropathy (TATN). METHODS: Twelve eyes of six patients with TATN were examined with SKP. Area of central scotoma was measured in square degrees (deg2 ). Additionally, static automated perimetry (SAP) within 60° was performed in each patient. RESULTS: Area of central scotoma was 41.8 deg2 for III4e isopter, 22...
December 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Ayşe Akbaş, Fadime Kilinç
BACKGROUND: Hyperhidrosis is a condition where the amount of sweat released to skin surface increases due to the over-active eccrine sweat glands. Hyperhidrosis causes considerable psychosocial distress in affected people. It affects the quality of life and leads to social anxiety disorders. AIMS: No study has been conducted in our country to investigate the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data of patients with hyperhidrosis. In this study, we aimed to retrospectively investigate the clinical and demographic characteristics, causes of sweating and laboratory findings in patients treated for hyperhidrosis at our outpatient clinic and to compare these data with the literature data...
December 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
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