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Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases

Maria L Beltran-Quintero, Nicholas A Bascou, Michele D Poe, David A Wenger, Carlos A Saavedra-Matiz, Matthew J Nichols, Maria L Escolar
BACKGROUND: Krabbe disease is a rare neurological disorder caused by a deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme, β-galactocerebrosidase, resulting in demyelination of the central and peripheral nervous systems. If left without treatment, Krabbe disease results in progressive neurodegeneration with reduced quality of life and early death. The purpose of this prospective study was to describe the natural progression of early onset Krabbe disease in a large cohort of patients. METHODS: Patients with early onset Krabbe disease were prospectively evaluated between 1999 and 2018...
February 18, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Sung-Shil Lim, Wanhyung Lee, Yeong-Kwang Kim, Jihyun Kim, Jong Heon Park, Bo Ram Park, Jin-Ha Yoon
BACKGROUND: The burden of rare diseases on society and patients' families has increased in Korea. However, because of the infrequency of rare diseases, there is a lack of resources and information to address these cases and inadequate funding for the management of these patients. We investigated the average annual cumulative incidence of rare diseases and the trends in annual cumulative incidence from 2011 to 2015 in Korea by using nationwide administrative data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database for patients registered with the co-payment assistance policy for rare and incurable diseases...
February 18, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Therese Conner, Francesca Cook, Vivian Fernandez, Karen Rascati, Vanessa Rangel-Miller
BACKGROUND: Severe mucopolysaccharidosis type I (also known as Hurler syndrome) is a rare devasting recessive genetic disease caused by the deficiency of an enzyme. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant is the standard of care in the United States, usually conducted before the child is 3 years of age, but little is known about the continued medical and educational needs of the child after transplant. A greater understanding of the burden of illness on the primary caregiver is also needed...
February 18, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Yue Song, Zhao Wang, Zengping Hao, Lihong Li, Junli Lu, Hongjun Kang, Yanping Lu, Yanqin You, Lijuan Li, Qingyun Chen, Bo Chen
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare severe clinical syndrome. HLH manifesting during pregnancy has been paid much attention in recent years. Despite the specificity of pregnancy-related HLH, there has not been any consensus regarding its treatment. According to a previous study, corticosteroid/IVIG is the mainstream therapy; however, the efficacy is controversial. Etoposide is an important agent in the HLH-94 regimen; nevertheless, its use is limited because of possible toxicity to the fetus...
February 18, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Marion Bourdoncle, Blandine Juillard-Condat, Florence Taboulet
BACKGROUND: Since incentives were introduced to promote orphan drugs in Europe, several dozens of drugs have been registered at the European level. However, patient access on a national level remains very heterogeneous across Europe. This can be explained by healthcare organization and drug reimbursement, which are within the purview of each Member State. We studied access to orphan drugs in France from the patients' point of view, including marketing but also ease of supply from patients' perspective, financial and time-based dimensions...
February 18, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
A Daly, S Evans, S Chahal, S Santra, A Pinto, R Jackson, C Gingell, J Rocha, F J Van Spronsen, A MacDonald
In phenylketonuria, casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) requires modification with the addition of some essential and semi essential amino acids to ensure suitability as a protein substitute. The optimal amount and ratio of additional amino acids is undefined. AIM: A longitudinal, parallel, controlled study over 12 months evaluating a CGMP (CGMP-AA2) formulation compared with phenylalanine-free L-amino acid supplements (L-AA) on blood Phe, Tyr, Phe:Tyr ratio, biochemical nutritional status and growth in children with PKU...
February 15, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Hui Tang, Jing Guo, Siyuan Linpeng, Lingqian Wu
BACKGROUND: Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) are both rare congenital multiple malformation disorders caused by genes associated with transcription. They share a number of similar features clinically. In addition, it is difficult to make a molecular diagnosis rapidly and detect the mosaic mutation when only sanger sequencing is taken. This study aims to report three novel mutations in three Chinese children identified by next generation sequencing...
February 15, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Zhiying Xie, Yue Hou, Meng Yu, Yilin Liu, Yanbin Fan, Wei Zhang, Zhaoxia Wang, Hui Xiong, Yun Yuan
BACKGROUND: Sarcoglycanopathies comprise four subtypes of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2C, LGMD2D, LGMD2E, and LGMD2F) that are caused, respectively, by mutations in the SGCG, SGCA, SGCB, and SGCD genes. Knowledge about the clinical and genetic features of sarcoglycanopathies in Chinese patients is limited. The aims of this study were to investigate in detail the clinical manifestations, sarcoglycan expression, and gene mutations in Chinese patients with sarcoglycanopathies and to identify possible correlations between them...
February 14, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Tímea Almási, Lin T Guey, Christine Lukacs, Kata Csetneki, Zoltán Vokó, Tamás Zelei
Propionic acidemia (PA, OMIM #606054) is a serious, life-threatening, inherited, metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme propionyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (EC The primary objective of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the epidemiology of PA. The literature search was performed covering Medline, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CRD Database, Academic Search Complete, CINAHL and PROSPERO databases. Websites of rare disease organizations were also searched for eligible studies...
February 13, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Min Li, Ying Zhou, Chaoyang Chen, Ting Yang, Shuang Zhou, Shuqing Chen, Ye Wu, Yimin Cui
BACKGROUND: The treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) using mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors is clinically promising. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mTOR inhibitors for improving the clinical symptoms of TSC. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of major electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and WanFang, CNKI, and VIP databases) to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized studies from the date of database inception to November 2017; the Chinese Food and Drug Administration and clinicaltrials...
February 13, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Maryam Najafi, Dor Mohammad Kordi-Tamandani, Farkhondeh Behjati, Simin Sadeghi-Bojd, Zeineb Bakey, Ehsan Ghayoor Karimiani, Isabel Schüle, Anoush Azarfar, Miriam Schmidts
BACKGROUND: Bartter Syndrome is a rare, genetically heterogeneous, mainly autosomal recessively inherited condition characterized by hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. Mutations in several genes encoding for ion channels localizing to the renal tubules including SLC12A1, KCNJ1, BSND, CLCNKA, CLCNKB, MAGED2 and CASR have been identified as underlying molecular cause. No genetically defined cases have been described in the Iranian population to date. Like for other rare genetic disorders, implementation of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies has greatly facilitated genetic diagnostics and counseling over the last years...
February 13, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Adrien Ben Hamou, Stéphanie Espiard, Christine Do Cao, Miriam Ladsous, Camille Loyer, Alexandre Moerman, Samuel Boury, Maéva Kyheng, Claire-Marie Dhaenens, Vincent Tiffreau, Pascal Pigny, Gilles Lebuffe, Robert Caiazzo, Sébastien Aubert, Marie Christine Vantyghem
BACKGROUND: Myotonic dystrophy (DM1), a neuromuscular disease related to DMPK gene mutations, is associated to endocrine disorders and cancer. A routine endocrine work-up, including thyroid ultrasound (US), was conducted in 115 genetically-proven DM1 patients in a neuromuscular reference center. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the causes of US thyroid abnormalities in DM1. RESULTS: In the whole population (age 45.1 ± 12.2 years, 61...
February 13, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Moritz Hebebrand, Ulrike Hüffmeier, Regina Trollmann, Ute Hehr, Steffen Uebe, Arif B Ekici, Cornelia Kraus, Mandy Krumbiegel, André Reis, Christian T Thiel, Bernt Popp
BACKGROUND: The TUBA1A-associated tubulinopathy is clinically heterogeneous with brain malformations, microcephaly, developmental delay and epilepsy being the main clinical features. It is an autosomal dominant disorder mostly caused by de novo variants in TUBA1A. RESULTS: In three individuals with developmental delay we identified heterozygous de novo missense variants in TUBA1A using exome sequencing. While the c.1307G > A, p.(Gly436Asp) variant was novel, the two variants c...
February 11, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Brittany Hornby, Rebecca McClellan, Lucy Buckley, Kimberley Carson, Tiffany Gooding, Hilary J Vernon
BACKGROUND: Barth syndrome (BTHS) is an X-linked disorder caused by defects in TAZ with key clinical features including cardiomyopathy, neutropenia and skeletal myopathy. In order to gain a better understanding of the range of clinical features, identify targets for monitoring, and increase knowledge of natural history of the disease, we conducted muscle strength testing, functional exercise capacity testing, physical activity assessment, balance assessment and motion reaction time testing in 33 affected individuals and 14 controls...
February 11, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Andrew E Mulberg, Christina Bucci-Rechtweg, Joseph Giuliano, David Jacoby, Franklin K Johnson, Qing Liu, Deborah Marsden, Scott McGoohan, Robert Nelson, Nita Patel, Klaus Romero, Vikram Sinha, Sheela Sitaraman, John Spaltro, Vivian Kessler
Rare or orphan diseases often are inherited and overwhelmingly affect children. Many of these diseases have no treatments, are incurable, and have a devastating impact on patients and their families. Regulatory standards for drug approval for rare diseases must ensure that patients receive safe and efficacious treatments. However, regulatory bodies have shown flexibility in applying these standards to drug development in rare diseases, given the unique challenges that hinder efficient and effective traditional clinical trials, including low patient numbers, limited understanding of disease pathology and progression, variability in disease presentation, and a lack of established endpoints...
February 8, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Rana Yadak, Marjolein Breur, Marianna Bugiani
BACKGROUND: MNGIE is a rare and fatal disease in which absence of the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase induces systemic accumulation of thymidine and deoxyuridine and secondary mitochondrial DNA alterations. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are frequently reported in MNGIE patients, however, they are not resolved with the current treatment interventions. Recently, our understanding of the GI pathology has increased, which rationalizes the pursuit of more targeted therapeutic strategies. In particular, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) play key roles in GI physiology and are involved in the pathogenesis of the GI dysmotility...
February 8, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Márcia Waddington-Cruz, Hartmut Schmidt, Marc F Botteman, John A Carter, Michelle Stewart, Markay Hopps, Shari Fallet, Leslie Amass
We describe 542 cases of symptomatic hereditary transthyretin amyloid polyneuropathy (ATTR-PN) identified through a review of the literature published between 2005 and 2016. Approximately 18% of the cases were from countries where ATTR-PN is traditionally considered to be endemic (i.e., Portugal, Japan, and Sweden). East Asia (Japan, China, Taiwan, and South Korea) contributed a sizeable combined proportion (37.0%, n = 200) with Japan (n = 92) and China (n = 71) being the primary contributors. The most common genotypes among the 65 genotypes represented in the sample were Val30Met (47...
February 8, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Xiaohui Wu, Chunju Zhou, Ling Jin, Hui Liu, Jinrong Liu, Shunying Zhao
BACKGROUND: Primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL) is a rare disease, especially in children. We analyse the clinical features of PPL in 4 children to strengthen a understanding of it. RESULTS: We reported a case series of 4 pediatric patients with PPLs including three diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and one natural killer-T cell lymphoma. All patients presented with unknown fever and cough as well as weight loss and fatigue. The white blood cell count was reduced in three patients and increased in the other one...
February 8, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Irene C Huffnagel, Marcel G W Dijkgraaf, Georges E Janssens, Michel van Weeghel, Björn M van Geel, Bwee Tien Poll-The, Stephan Kemp, Marc Engelen
BACKGROUND: Over 80% of women with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) develop spinal cord disease in adulthood for which treatment is supportive only. For future clinical trials quantitative data on disease progression rates are essential. Moreover, diagnosis can be challenging in ALD women, as the most important diagnostic biomarker is normal in 15-20%. Better biomarkers are needed. The purpose of this single centre cross-sectional follow-up study in women with ALD was to assess whether Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), AMC Linear Disability Scale (ALDS) and Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) can detect disease progression and to model the effect of age and duration of symptoms on the rate of progression...
February 7, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Hao Chen, Xin Li, Xiaoliang Liu, Jian Wang, Zhen Zhang, Jinjin Wu, Meirong Huang, Ying Guo, Fen Li, Xiumin Wang, Lijun Fu
BACKGROUND: The RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has been frequently described in children with RASopathy, but only a minority of patients have received formal genotyping. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the genetic basis and clinical outcome of pediatric patients with RASopathy-associated HCM. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the mutation spectrum and clinical outcome of all the patients with RASopathy derived from 168 pediatric HCM cases referred to our institution between January 2012 and July 2018...
February 7, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
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