Jun Yup Lee, Dylan J Harney, Jonathan D Teo, John B Kwok, Greg T Sutherland, Mark Larance, Anthony S Don
BACKGROUND: The risk for dementia increases exponentially from the seventh decade of life. Identifying and understanding the biochemical changes that sensitize the ageing brain to neurodegeneration will provide new opportunities for dementia prevention and treatment. This study aimed to determine how ageing and major genetic risk factors for dementia affect the hippocampal proteome and lipidome of neurologically-normal humans over the age of 65. The hippocampus was chosen as it is highly susceptible to atrophy with ageing and in several neurodegenerative diseases...
September 19, 2023: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Catherine R Wasser, Gordon C Werthmann, Eric M Hall, Kristina Kuhbandner, Connie H Wong, Murat S Durakoglugil, Joachim Herz
BACKGROUND: ApoE4, the most significant genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), sequesters a pro-synaptogenic Reelin receptor, Apoer2, in the endosomal compartment and prevents its normal recycling. In the adult brain, Reelin potentiates excitatory synapses and thereby protects against amyloid-β toxicity. Recently, a gain-of-function mutation in Reelin that is protective against early-onset AD has been described. Alternative splicing of the Apoer2 intracellular domain (Apoer2-ICD) regulates Apoer2 signaling...
September 19, 2023: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Arun Upadhyay, Deepak Chhangani, Nalini R Rao, Julia Kofler, Robert Vassar, Diego E Rincon-Limas, Jeffrey N Savas
BACKGROUND: The accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides in fibrils is prerequisite for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our understanding of the proteins that promote Aβ fibril formation and mediate neurotoxicity has been limited due to technical challenges in isolating pure amyloid fibrils from brain extracts. METHODS: To investigate how amyloid fibrils form and cause neurotoxicity in AD brain, we developed a robust biochemical strategy. We benchmarked the success of our purifications using electron microscopy, amyloid dyes, and a large panel of Aβ immunoassays...
September 14, 2023: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Konstantinos Chiotis, Charlotte Johansson, Elena Rodriguez-Vieitez, Nicholas J Ashton, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Caroline Graff, Agneta Nordberg
BACKGROUND: Plasma assays for the detection of Alzheimer's disease neuropathological changes are receiving ever increasing interest. The concentration of plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) has been suggested as a potential marker of astrocytes or recently, amyloid-β burden, although this hypothesis remains unproven. We compared plasma GFAP levels with the astrocyte tracer 11 C-Deuterium-L-Deprenyl (11 C-DED) in a multi-modal PET design in participants with sporadic and Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer's disease...
September 12, 2023: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Xavier Taylor, Isaiah M Clark, Griffin J Fitzgerald, Herold Oluoch, Justin T Hole, Ronald B DeMattos, Yaming Wang, Feng Pan
BACKGROUND: Amyloid-related imaging abnormalities (ARIA) have been identified as the most common and serious adverse events resulting from pathological changes in the cerebral vasculature during several recent anti-amyloid-β (Aβ) immunotherapy trials. However, the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying how amyloid immunotherapy enhances cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)-mediated alterations in vascular permeability and microhemorrhages are not currently understood...
August 30, 2023: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Shaopeng Wang, Shuying Sun
RNA translation is tightly controlled in eukaryotic cells to regulate gene expression and maintain proteome homeostasis. RNA binding proteins, translation factors, and cell signaling pathways all modulate the translation process. Defective translation is involved in multiple neurological diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and poses a major public health challenge worldwide. Over the past few years, tremendous advances have been made in the understanding of the genetics and pathogenesis of ALS...
August 25, 2023: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Virginia Estades Ayuso, Sarah Pickles, Tiffany Todd, Mei Yue, Karen Jansen-West, Yuping Song, Jesús González Bejarano, Bailey Rawlinson, Michael DeTure, Neill R Graff-Radford, Bradley F Boeve, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Dennis W Dickson, Keith A Josephs, Leonard Petrucelli, Mercedes Prudencio
BACKGROUND: Inclusions of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been designated limbic-predominant, age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy (LATE), with or without co-occurrence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Approximately, 30-70% AD cases present TDP-43 proteinopathy (AD-TDP), and a greater disease severity compared to AD patients without TDP-43 pathology. However, it remains unclear to what extent TDP-43 dysfunction is involved in AD pathogenesis. METHODS: To investigate whether TDP-43 dysfunction is a prominent feature in AD-TDP cases, we evaluated whether non-conserved cryptic exons, which serve as a marker of TDP-43 dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP), accumulate in AD-TDP brains...
August 21, 2023: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Michele M Comerota, Manasee Gedam, Wen Xiong, Feng Jin, Lisheng Deng, Meng C Wang, Jin Wang, Hui Zheng
BACKGROUND: Age is the strongest risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Besides the pathological hallmarks of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, emerging evidence demonstrates a critical role of microglia and neuroinflammation in AD pathogenesis. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endogenous lipid amide that has been shown to promote lifespan and healthspan in C. elegans through regulation of lysosome-to-nucleus signaling and cellular metabolism...
August 15, 2023: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Shanon Rego, Guadalupe Sanchez, Sandro Da Mesquita
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an aging-related form of dementia associated with the accumulation of pathological aggregates of amyloid beta and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. These phenomena are accompanied by exacerbated inflammation and marked neuronal loss, which altogether contribute to accelerated cognitive decline. The multifactorial nature of AD, allied to our still limited knowledge of its etiology and pathophysiology, have lessened our capacity to develop effective treatments for AD patients. Over the last few decades, genome wide association studies and biomarker development, alongside mechanistic experiments involving animal models, have identified different immune components that play key roles in the modulation of brain pathology in AD, affecting its progression and severity...
August 14, 2023: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Hai-Shan Jiao, Peng Yuan, Jin-Tai Yu
BACKGROUND: Mutations of the gene TMEM106B are risk factors for diverse neurodegenerative diseases. Previous understanding of the underlying mechanism focused on the impairment of lysosome biogenesis caused by TMEM106B loss-of-function. However, mutations in TMEM106B increase its expression level, thus the molecular process linking these mutations to the apparent disruption in TMEM106B function remains mysterious. MAIN BODY: Recent new studies reported that TMEM106B proteins form intracellular amyloid filaments which universally exist in various neurodegenerative diseases, sometimes being the dominant form of protein aggregation...
August 10, 2023: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Aurelien Lathuiliere, Youhwa Jo, Romain Perbet, Cameron Donahue, Caitlin Commins, Noé Quittot, Zhanyun Fan, Rachel E Bennett, Bradley T Hyman
BACKGROUND: The prion-like propagation of tau in neurodegenerative disorders implies that misfolded pathological tau can recruit the normal protein and template its aggregation. Here, we report the methods for the development of sensitive biosensor cell lines for the detection of tau seeding activity. RESULTS: We performed the rational design of novel tau probes based on the current structural knowledge of pathological tau aggregates in Alzheimer's disease. We generated Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor stable cell lines and characterized their sensitivity, specificity, and overall ability to detect bioactive tau in human samples...
August 8, 2023: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Siwei Chu, Xinyi Xie, Carla Payan, Ursula Stochaj
The AAA+ ATPase valosin containing protein (VCP) is essential for cell and organ homeostasis, especially in cells of the nervous system. As part of a large network, VCP collaborates with many cofactors to ensure proteostasis under normal, stress, and disease conditions. A large number of mutations have revealed the importance of VCP for human health. In particular, VCP facilitates the dismantling of protein aggregates and the removal of dysfunctional organelles. These are critical events to prevent malfunction of the brain and other parts of the nervous system...
August 7, 2023: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Xi Chen, Elpida Tsika, Nathan Levine, Darren J Moore
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the vacuolar protein sorting 35 ortholog (VPS35) gene cause late-onset, autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD), with a single missense mutation (Asp620Asn, D620N) known to segregate with disease in families with PD. The VPS35 gene encodes a core component of the retromer complex, involved in the endosomal sorting and recycling of transmembrane cargo proteins. VPS35-linked PD is clinically indistinguishable from sporadic PD, although it is not yet known whether VPS35-PD brains exhibit α-synuclein-positive brainstem Lewy pathology that is characteristic of sporadic cases...
August 4, 2023: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Zahinoor Ismail, Rebeca Leon, Byron Creese, Clive Ballard, Philippe Robert, Eric E Smith
BACKGROUND: Disease-modifying drug use necessitates better Alzheimer disease (AD) detection. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) leverages cognitive decline to identify the risk group; similarly, mild behavioral impairment (MBI) leverages behavioral change. Adding MBI to MCI improves dementia prognostication over conventional approaches of incorporating neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). Here, to determine if adding MBI would better identify AD, we interrogated associations between MBI in MCI, and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers [β-amyloid (Aβ), phosphorylated-tau (p-tau), and total-tau (tau)-ATN], cross-sectionally and longitudinally...
July 29, 2023: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Sen Yang, Jung Hyun Park, Hui-Chen Lu
Human studies consistently identify bioenergetic maladaptations in brains upon aging and neurodegenerative disorders of aging (NDAs), such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Glucose is the major brain fuel and glucose hypometabolism has been observed in brain regions vulnerable to aging and NDAs. Many neurodegenerative susceptible regions are in the topological central hub of the brain connectome, linked by densely interconnected long-range axons...
July 20, 2023: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Erica S Modeste, Lingyan Ping, Caroline M Watson, Duc M Duong, Eric B Dammer, Erik C B Johnson, Blaine R Roberts, James J Lah, Allan I Levey, Nicholas T Seyfried
BACKGROUND: Despite being twice as likely to get Alzheimer's disease (AD), African Americans have been grossly underrepresented in AD research. While emerging evidence indicates that African Americans with AD have lower cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of Tau compared to Caucasians, other differences in AD CSF biomarkers have not been fully elucidated. Here, we performed unbiased proteomic profiling of CSF from African Americans and Caucasians with and without AD to identify both common and divergent AD CSF biomarkers...
July 19, 2023: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Yingbin Lin, Anlan Lin, Lili Cai, Weibin Huang, Shanzhi Yan, Yuanxiang Wei, Xinglin Ruan, Wenting Fang, Xiaoman Dai, Jinbo Cheng, Jie Zhang, Wanjin Chen, Qinyong Ye, Xiaochun Chen, Jing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Nuclear acetyl-CoA pools govern histone acetylation that controls synaptic plasticity and contributes to cognitive deterioration in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nuclear acetyl-CoA pools are generated partially from local acetate that is metabolized by acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2). However, the underlying mechanism of histone acetylation dysregulation in AD remains poorly understood. METHODS: We detected ACSS2 expression and histone acetylation levels in the brains of AD patients and 5 × FAD mice...
July 12, 2023: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Yasuteru Inoue, Francis Shue, Guojun Bu, Takahisa Kanekiyo
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is commonly caused by vascular injuries in cerebral large and small vessels and is a key driver of age-related cognitive decline. Severe VCID includes post-stroke dementia, subcortical ischemic vascular dementia, multi-infarct dementia, and mixed dementia. While VCID is acknowledged as the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD) accounting for 20% of dementia cases, VCID and AD frequently coexist. In VCID, cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) often affects arterioles, capillaries, and venules, where arteriolosclerosis and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) are major pathologies...
July 11, 2023: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Sidhanth Chandra, Antonio Di Meco, Hemraj B Dodiya, Jelena Popovic, Leah K Cuddy, Ian Q Weigle, Xiaoqiong Zhang, Katherine Sadleir, Sangram S Sisodia, Robert Vassar
BACKGROUND: Previous studies show that antibiotic-mediated (abx) alteration of the gut microbiome (GMB) results in a reduction of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and proinflammatory microglial phenotype in male APPPS1-21 mice. However, the effect of GMB perturbation on astrocyte phenotypes and microglial-astrocyte communication in the context of amyloidosis has not been examined. METHODS: To study whether the GMB modulates astrocyte phenotype in the context of amyloidosis, APPPS1-21 male and female mice were treated with broad-spectrum abx leading to GMB perturbation...
July 6, 2023: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Yogesh Singh, Christoph Trautwein, Joan Romani, Madhuri S Salker, Peter H Neckel, Isabel Fraccaroli, Mahkameh Abeditashi, Nils Woerner, Jakob Admard, Achal Dhariwal, Morten K D Dueholm, Karl-Herbert Schäfer, Florian Lang, Daniel E Otzen, Hilal A Lashuel, Olaf Riess, Nicolas Casadei
BACKGROUND: Braak's hypothesis states that sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) follows a specific progression of pathology from the peripheral to the central nervous system, and this progression can be monitored by detecting the accumulation of alpha-Synuclein (α-Syn) protein. Consequently, there is growing interest in understanding how the gut (commensal) microbiome can regulate α-Syn accumulation, as this could potentially lead to PD. METHODS: We used 16S rRNA and shotgun sequencing to characterise microbial diversity...
July 4, 2023: Molecular Neurodegeneration
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