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Human Vaccines

Andreas Woerner, Marie-Josèphe Sauvain, Christoph Aebi, Margrit Otth, Isabel B Bolt
In children treated with immunosuppressive medication such as methotrexate and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors, additional immunizations are recommended because of increased susceptibility to infections. However, it is unclear if adequate antibody response to vaccinations can be established in children receiving methotrexate and/or TNF-α inhibitors. In a prospective open label study, we assessed seroprotection and seroconversion following influenza vaccination during 2 seasons (6 strains) in 36 children with autoimmune disease treated either with methotrexate (n=18), TNF-α inhibitors (n=10) or both (n=8) and a control group of 16 immunocompetent children...
December 2011: Human Vaccines
Christopher L Gilbert, Stephanie O Klopfer, Jason C Martin, Florian P Schödel, Prakash K Bhuyan
BACKGROUND: Generating protective immune responses in older adults (particularly ≥65 y) remains challenging for vaccines in general. This study examined the immune response engendered in older adults by RECOMBIVAX HB™ manufactured using a modified adjuvant (modified-process hepatitis B vaccine; mpHBV), RECOMBIVAX-HB™, and ENGERIX-B™. METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, multicenter study enrolled healthy, seronegative subjects (N=538) to receive mpHBV (10 µg hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]), RECOMBIVAX-HB™ (10 µg HBsAg), or ENGERIX-B™ (20 µg HBsAg) at Day 1, Month 1, and Month 6...
December 2011: Human Vaccines
Weidong Yin
Dr. Yin started his research on infectious disease prevention in the 1980s. In 1985, Dr. Yin sucessfully isolated the hepatitis A virus, after which, in 2002, he developed the first proprietary inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in China and soon launched it into the China market. Led by Dr. Yin, Sinovac successfully developed the vaccine prducts against SARS, H5N1, H1N1, hepatitis A and B and infleunza. Currently, Sinovac is working on the R&D of EV71 vaccine against hand, foot and mouth disease, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine...
December 2011: Human Vaccines
Ramesh Verma, Pardeep Khanna, Shankar Prinja, Meena Rajput, Suraj Chawla, Mohan Bairwa
Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. HBV is transmitted through contact with infected blood or body fluids, unprotected sexual intercourse and the perinatal route but not through casual contact. About two billion people worldwide have been infected with the virus, an estimated 360 million live with chronic infection, and at least 600,000 people die annually from acute or chronic consequences of Hepatitis B, such that Hepatitis B is a major public health problem worldwide...
December 2011: Human Vaccines
Subhash C Arya, Nirmala Agarwal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2011: Human Vaccines
Susan P Jacups
Prior to the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines, Hib was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children under five years of age worldwide. In countries that have adopted Hib vaccination schedules, invasive disease has reduced markedly. Oro-naso pharyngeal carriage is recognized as the most significant source of infection. Hib carriage is significantly associated with poverty, such as overcrowding, poor ventilation in houses, lack of running water, and high smoking rates...
December 2011: Human Vaccines
Baruch Velan
This review examines four events related to vaccination that have occurred in recent years: (a) the ongoing recovery from the MMR/Autism scare in the UK, (b) the upgrading of the Varicella vaccine to a universal childhood vaccine, (c) the major effort of authorities to provide a vaccine for A/H1N1 influenza and its rejection by the public, and, d) the current attempts to change the HPV vaccine target from girls only to boys and girls. All of these changes have been met with shifts in the public acceptance of the relevant vaccine...
December 2011: Human Vaccines
Gang Wang, Li Pan, Yongguang Zhang
Proper targeting of DNA vaccines has been identified as a crucial factor in improving the efficacy of DNA vaccines. In general, targeting measures affect either directly the DNA or the protein(s) expressed by DNA vaccines towards antigen-presenting cells (APC) to enable efficacious antigen presentation via MHC class I and II pathways. Improved targeting of the delivery of antigen can significantly increase the protective effects and reduce vaccination doses and toxicity. In this review, we summarize the targeting approaches reported in the scientific literature to improve DNA vaccine efficacy...
December 2011: Human Vaccines
Hagai Levine, Shmuel Rishpon, Michael Huerta-Hartal, Nadav Davidovitch
Even among vaccinated cohorts, prevention and control of mumps outbreaks remain a challenge, owing to sub-optimal population immunity. This is especially true in confined settings, where a single case could be the index for an imminent outbreak. Efficacy of post-exposure prophylaxis has not been demonstrated, while early identification of mumps and comprehensive vaccination of populations in confined settings during outbreaks may enable containment of mumps and disrupt further spread. However, we are not aware of official international guidelines concerning vaccination of exposed individuals during an outbreak, especially in a confined setting...
December 2011: Human Vaccines
Christian Schaetti, Claire-Lise Chaignat, Raymond Hutubessy, Ahmed M Khatib, Said M Ali, Christian Schindler, Mitchell G Weiss
Despite improvements in sanitation and water supply, cholera remains a serious public health burden. Vaccination is included among recommendations for cholera control. Cultural concepts of illness are likely to affect vaccine acceptance. This study examined social and cultural determinants of anticipated acceptance of an oral cholera vaccine (OCV) prior to a mass vaccination campaign in Zanzibar. Using a cultural epidemiological approach, 356 unaffected adult residents were studied with vignette-based semi-structured interviews...
December 2011: Human Vaccines
Johan Vekemans, Yolanda Guerra, Marc Lievens, Sarah Benns, Didier Lapierre, Amanda Leach, Thomas Verstraeten
Prior to progression to Clinical Development Phase III, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals performed a pooled analysis of phase two safety data following administration of 8860 doses of RTS,S/AS to 2981 children under 5 years old. RTS,S/AS was associated with increased rates of non-serious URTI, rash and diaper dermatitis graded mild or moderate. There was no significant increased rate of overall or single SAEs. Two episodes of simple febrile seizure were estimated to be related to vaccination. Significant decreased relative risks of death, any SAE, any SAE excluding malaria and pneumonia were observed...
December 2011: Human Vaccines
Merle M Böhmer, Dietmar Walter, Gérard Krause, Stephan Müters, Antje Gösswald, Ole Wichmann
The primary objective of this study was to assess determinants of vaccine uptake in adults living in Germany exemplified by one standard vaccination (tetanus) and one vaccination targeting specific risk-groups (seasonal influenza). Data from 21,262 telephone household-interviews representative of the adult population in Germany were collected in 2009 and analysed. A total 73.1% of the adult population had a sufficient tetanus vaccination status according to national recommendations (i.e. last tetanus shot ≤10 years ago)...
December 2011: Human Vaccines
Krystle A Lang Kuhs, Roberta Toporovski, Arielle A Ginsberg, Abby L Olsen, Devon J Shedlock, Matthew P Morrow, Jian Yan, Rebecca G Wells, David B Weiner
It is believed that an effective HCV vaccine must induce strong HCV-specific cytotoxic IFN-γ⁺ CD8⁺ T cells able to migrate into and become fully activated within the liver, an organ known to suppress T cell responses and induce tolerance. Given the importance of intrahepatic HCV-specific T cells in the clearance of acute infection, the goal of this present study was to determine if peripheral immunization was able to induce functional intrahepatic HCV-specific T cell based immunity both in the presence and absence of HCV antigen expression within the liver...
December 2011: Human Vaccines
Catherine Yen, Jacqueline E Tate, Manish M Patel, Margaret M Cortese, Benjamin Lopman, Jessica Fleming, Kristen Lewis, Baoming Jiang, Jon Gentsch, Duncan Steele, Umesh D Parashar
Early rotavirus vaccine adopter countries in the Americas, Europe, and in Australia have documented substantial declines in rotavirus disease burden following the introduction of vaccination.  However, the full public health impact of rotavirus vaccines has not been realized as they have not been introduced into routine immunization programs in countries of Africa and Asia with the highest rotavirus disease morbidity and mortality burden.  In this article, we review the epidemiology of rotavirus disease, the development and current status of rotavirus vaccines including newly available vaccine impact data from early-introducer countries, and future priorities for implementation and monitoring of rotavirus vaccination programs in developing countries...
December 2011: Human Vaccines
Ivana Rabbone, Andrea E Scaramuzza, Dario Iafusco, Riccardo Bonfanti, Fortunato Lombardo, Valentino Cherubini, Sonia Toni, Franco Cerutti, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti
The pandemic influenza vaccination coverage in children with type 1 diabetes has been analysed. 1461 charts have been reviewed (788 M and 673 F, ages 13.0±4.1 yrs, disease duration 6.0±4.8 yrs, HbA1c 7.9±1.2%). Among them, 428 patients (29.3%) underwent A/H1N1 vaccination. A special effort is required to implement an increased immunization rate.
December 2011: Human Vaccines
Mark H Einstein, Mira Baron, Myron J Levin, Archana Chatterjee, Bradley Fox, Sofia Scholar, Jeffrey Rosen, Nahida Chakhtoura, Dorothée Meric, Francis J Dessy, Sanjoy K Datta, Dominique Descamps, Gary Dubin
In this observer-blind study (NCT00423046), women (N=1,106), stratified by age (18-26, 27-35, 36-45 y), were randomized (1:1) to receive the HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Months 0, 1, 6) or the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (Gardasil® Merck & Co., Inc., Months 0, 2, 6). Month 7 results were previously reported; we now report Month 24 results. In the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity (seronegative and DNA-negative at baseline for HPV type analyzed), seropositivity rates of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) [pseudovirion-based neutralization assay] were, across all age strata, 100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 97...
December 2011: Human Vaccines
Mark H Einstein, Mira Baron, Myron J Levin, Archana Chatterjee, Bradley Fox, Sofia Scholar, Jeffrey Rosen, Nahida Chakhtoura, Marie Lebacq, Robbert van der Most, Philippe Moris, Sandra L Giannini, Anne Schuind, Sanjoy K Datta, Dominique Descamps
Protection against oncogenic non-vaccine types (cross-protection) offered by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines may provide a significant medical benefit. Available clinical efficacy data suggest the two licensed vaccines (HPV-16/18 vaccine, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK), and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine, Merck & Co., Inc.) differ in terms of protection against oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45. The immune responses induced by the two vaccines against these two non-vaccine HPV types (cross-reactivity) was compared in an observer-blind study up to Month 24 (18 mo post-vaccination), in women HPV DNA-negative and seronegative prior to vaccination for the HPV type analyzed (HPV-010 [NCT00423046])...
December 2011: Human Vaccines
Barbara Romanowski, Tino F Schwarz, Linda M Ferguson, Klaus Peters, Marc Dionne, Karin Schulze, Brian Ramjattan, Peter Hillemanns, Grégory Catteau, Kurt Dobbelaere, Anne Schuind, Dominique Descamps
The immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) administered according to its licensed vaccination schedule (3-dose, 3D) and formulation (20 μg of each HPV antigen; 20/20F) has previously been demonstrated. This partially-blind, controlled, randomized trial (NCT00541970) evaluated 2-dose (2D) schedules using the licensed 20/20F or an alternative formulation containing 40 μg of each antigen (40/40F), compared with the licensed 3D schedule...
December 2011: Human Vaccines
Florencia La Greca, Stefan Magez
To date, human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) still threatens millions of people throughout sub-Sahara Africa, and new approaches to disease prevention and treatment remain a priority. It is commonly accepted that HAT is fatal unless treatment is provided. However, despite the well-described general symptoms of disease progression during distinct stages of the infection, leading to encephalitic complications, coma and death, a substantial body of evidence has been reported suggesting that natural acquired immunity could occur...
November 2011: Human Vaccines
Brent Schneider, Amar R Jariwala, Maria Victoria Periago, Maria Flávia Gazzinelli, Swaroop N Bose, Peter J Hotez, David J Diemert, Jeffrey M Bethony
The human hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale remain among the most common infections of humans in areas of rural poverty in the developing regions of the world, with an estimated 1 billion people infected with one or more of these parasites. Herein, we review the nearly 100 years of research, development, animal testing, and fieldwork that have led to our current progress in recombinant hookworm vaccines. We begin with the identification of hookworm at the start of the 20th century in Southern US, then discuss the progress in developed countries to eliminate human hookworm infection, and then the industrial development and field use in the 1970s a canine hookworm vaccine(Ancylostoma caninum), and finally our progress to date in the development and clinical testing of an array of recombinant antigens to prevent human hookworm disease from N...
November 2011: Human Vaccines
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