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Tae Sung Kim, Yeung Bae Jin, Yi Sak Kim, Sup Kim, Jin Kyung Kim, Hye-Mi Lee, Hyun-Woo Suh, Jin Ho Choe, Young Jae Kim, Bon-Sang Koo, Han-Na Kim, Mingyu Jung, Sang-Hee Lee, Don-Kyu Kim, Chaeuk Chung, Ji-Woong Son, Jung-Joon Min, Jin-Man Kim, Chu-Xia Deng, Hyun Seok Kim, Sang-Rae Lee, Eun-Kyeong Jo
SIRT3 (sirtuin 3), a mitochondrial protein deacetylase, maintains respiratory function, but its role in the regulation of innate immune defense is largely unknown. Herein, we show that SIRT3 coordinates mitochondrial function and macroautophagy/autophagy activation to promote anti-mycobacterial responses through PPARA (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha). SIRT3 deficiency enhanced inflammatory responses and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to defective host defense and pathological inflammation during mycobacterial infection...
February 17, 2019: Autophagy
Chia-Hao Chang, Krikor Bijian, Dominik Wernic, Jie Su, Sabrina Daniela da Silva, Henry Yu, Dinghong Qiu, Mariana Asslan, Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali
Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) often have a poor prognosis largely due to lack of effective targeted therapy. Using a library of seleno-purines coupled to a high-throughput biochemical enzymatic assays we identified a potent pharmacological enhancer of autophagy (referred herein as SLLN-15) that selectively activated cytostatic macroautophagy/autophagy in TNBC preclinical models. SLLN-15 induced a dose-dependent anti-proliferative activity in the TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-231 and BT-20 via induction of autophagy and autophagic flux...
February 17, 2019: Autophagy
Madhuri Chaurasia, Swapnil Gupta, Asmita Das, B S Dwarakanath, Anne Simonsen, Kulbhushan Sharma
Cellular effects of ionizing radiation include oxidative damage to macromolecules, unfolded protein response (UPR) and metabolic imbalances. Oxidative stress and UPR have been shown to induce macroautophagy/autophagy in a context-dependent manner and are crucial factors in determining the fate of irradiated cells. However, an in-depth analysis of the relationship between radiation-induced damage and autophagy has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between radiation-induced oxidative stress, UPR and autophagy in murine macrophage cells...
February 17, 2019: Autophagy
Keigo Morita, Yutaro Hama, Noboru Mizushima
Macroautophagy/autophagy requires many autophagy-related (ATG) proteins. Most of the ATG genes were identified by genetic screening using simple model organisms. Recently, we performed a forward genetic screen in mammalian cells using the CRISPR-Cas9 system and our autophagic flux reporter GFP-LC3-RFP. One of the identified proteins was TMEM41B, an ER-localized multi-spanning membrane protein. TMEM41B has a characteristic transmembrane domain (the VTT domain), which is also found in VMP1, another protein involved in autophagy...
February 17, 2019: Autophagy
Zhiyuan You, Yinfeng Xu, Wei Wan, Li Zhou, Jin Li, Tianhua Zhou, Yin Shi, Wei Liu
TP53INP2/DOR (tumor protein p53-inducible nuclear protein 2) contributes to mammalian macroautophagy/autophagy by carrying nuclear deacetylated MAP1LC3/LC3 to the cytoplasm. Here, we report that in the cytoplasm, TP53INP2 further functions in autophagosome biogenesis by promoting LC3B-ATG7 interaction. Cytoplasmic expression of the N-terminal region of TP53INP2, which includes the LC3-interacting region, effectively triggered LC3B-PE production and autophagosome formation. In the cytoplasm, TP53INP2 colocalized to early autophagic membrane structures containing ATG14, ZFYVE1/DFCP1 or WIPI2...
February 15, 2019: Autophagy
Åsa Birna Birgisdottir, Stephane Mouilleron, Zambarlal Bhujabal, Martina Wirth, Eva Sjøttem, Gry Evjen, Wenxin Zhang, Rebecca Lee, Nicola O'Reilly, Sharon A Tooze, Trond Lamark, Terje Johansen
Autophagosome formation depends on a carefully orchestrated interplay between membrane-associated protein complexes. Initiation of macroautophagy/autophagy is mediated by the ULK1 (unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1) protein kinase complex and the autophagy-specific class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex I (PtdIns3K-C1). The latter contains PIK3C3/VPS34, PIK3R4/VPS15, BECN1/Beclin 1 and ATG14 and phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol to generate phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). Here, we show that PIK3C3, BECN1 and ATG14 contain functional LIR motifs and interact with the Atg8-family proteins with a preference for GABARAP and GABARAPL1...
February 15, 2019: Autophagy
Yang Liu, Jiou Wang
Cellular adaption to nutrient stress is exquisitely regulated, and its dysregulation could underlie human diseases including neurodegeneration. C9orf72 is linked to the most common forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) as well as rare cases of other neurological disorders. Recent studies have implicated C9orf72 functions in the autophagy-lysosome pathway, but the exact roles of C9orf72 remain unclear. We found that C9orf72 is required for the lysosomal targeting and degradation of CARM1, which is an important epigenetic regulator of macroautophagy/autophagy and lipid metabolism...
February 15, 2019: Autophagy
Xu-Jie Zhou, Daniel J Klionsky, Hong Zhang
Recent studies suggest that defects in macroautophagy/autophagy contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythamatosus (SLE), especially in adaptive immunity. The occurrence and progression of lupus nephritis (LN) is the end result of complex interactions between regulation of immune responses and pathological process by renal resident cells, but there is still a lot of missing information for establishing the role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of LN, and as a therapy target. In our recent study, we observed that autophagy is activated in LN, especially in podocytes...
February 13, 2019: Autophagy
Sataree Khuansuwan, Lisa M Barnhill, Sizhu Cheng, Jeff M Bronstein
The pathophysiology of most neurodegenerative diseases includes aberrant accumulation of protein aggregates. Recent evidence highlights the role of protein degradation pathways in neurodegeneration. Concurrently, genetic tools have been generated to enable zebrafish, Danio rerio, to be used as an animal model to study neurodegenerative processes. In addition to optical clarity and fast ex utero development, the zebrafish brain is relatively small and has conserved structures with its mammalian counterparts...
February 13, 2019: Autophagy
Changyi Ji, Maoping Tang, Claudia Zeidler, Jörg Höhfeld, Gail Vw Johnson
A major cellular catabolic pathway in neurons is macroautophagy/autophagy, through which misfolded or aggregation-prone proteins are sequestered into autophagosomes that fuse with lysosomes, and are subsequently degraded. MAPT (microtubule associated protein tau) is one of the protein clients of autophagy. Given that accumulation of hyperphosphorylated MAPT contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies, decreasing endogenous MAPT levels has been shown to be beneficial to neuronal health in models of these diseases...
February 11, 2019: Autophagy
Dongxue Mao, Guang Lin, Burak Tepe, Zhongyuan Zuo, Kai Li Tan, Mumine Senturk, Sheng Zhang, Benjamin R Arenkiel, Marco Sardiello, Hugo J Bellen
Mutations in the ER-associated VAPB/ALS8 protein cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy. Previous studies have argued that ER stress may underlie the demise of neurons. We find that loss of VAP proteins (VAPs) leads to an accumulation of aberrant lysosomes and impairs lysosomal degradation. VAPs mediate ER to Golgi tethering and their loss may affect phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) transfer between these organelles. We found that loss of VAPs elevates PtdIns4P levels in the Golgi, leading to an expansion of the endosomal pool derived from the Golgi...
February 11, 2019: Autophagy
Mark A Lampert, Amabel M Orogo, Rita H Najor, Babette C Hammerling, Leonardo J Leon, Bingyan J Wang, Taeyong Kim, Mark A Sussman, Åsa B Gustafsson
Cell-based therapies represent a very promising strategy to repair and regenerate the injured heart to prevent progression to heart failure. To date, these therapies have had limited success due to a lack of survival and retention of the infused cells. Therefore, it is important to increase our understanding of the biology of these cells and utilize this information to enhance their survival and function in the injured heart. Mitochondria are critical for progenitor cell function and survival. Here, we demonstrate the importance of mitochondrial autophagy, or mitophagy, in the differentiation process in adult cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs)...
February 11, 2019: Autophagy
Ben C King, Erik Renström, Anna M Blom
Complement component C3 is central to the complement system, a humoral effector mechanism of innate immune defense. When activated, C3 covalently binds to target particles, marking them for uptake and clearance by phagocytosis. We now show that C3 also exists within the cytosol where it interacts with ATG16L1, and is therefore involved in the intracellular clearance and recycling of material by macroautophagy/autophagy in pancreatic beta cells. C3 is highly expressed in isolated human islets, and its expression is upregulated in islets isolated from diabetic patients and rodents, and correlates with patient HBA1c and body mass index (BMI)...
February 11, 2019: Autophagy
Ruifang Wang, Yinxing Zhu, Xian Lin, Chenwei Ren, Jiachang Zhao, Fangfang Wang, Xiaochen Gao, Rong Xiao, Lianzhong Zhao, Huanchun Chen, Meilin Jin, Wenjun Ma, Hongbo Zhou
Influenza A virus can evade host innate immune response that is involved in several viral proteins with complicated mechanisms. To date, how influenza A M2 protein modulates the host innate immunity remains unclear. Herein, we showed that M2 protein colocalized and interacted with MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein) on mitochondria, and positively regulated MAVS-mediated innate immunity. Further studies revealed that M2 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that was required for activation of macroautophagy/autophagy and enhancement of MAVS signaling pathway...
February 11, 2019: Autophagy
Pierce G Young, Michael J Passalacqua, Kevin Chappell, Roxanna J Llinas, Bonnie Bartel
Macroautophagy is a process through which eukaryotic cells degrade large substrates including organelles, protein aggregates, and invading pathogens. Over 40 autophagy-related (ATG) genes have been identified through forward-genetic screens in yeast. Although homology-based analyses have identified conserved ATG genes in plants, only a few atg mutants have emerged from forward-genetic screens in Arabidopsis thaliana. We developed a screen that consistently recovers Arabidopsis atg mutations by exploiting mutants with defective LON2/At5g47040, a protease implicated in peroxisomal quality control...
February 8, 2019: Autophagy
Claudio De Virgilio, Riko Hatakeyama
The evolutionarily conserved target of rapamycin kinase complex 1 (TORC1) regulates cell growth in a homeostatic manner by tuning anabolic and catabolic processes in response to nutritional and hormonal cues. Interestingly, rather than being localized at the plasma membrane as perhaps expected for an integrator of extracellular signals, TORC1 mainly localizes at vacuolar (in yeast) and lysosomal (in more complex eukaryotes) membranes where it seems optimally placed to sense both the nutrient status within the cytoplasm and the vacuolar/lysosomal compartment...
February 7, 2019: Autophagy
Meichao Zhang, Furao Liu, Pingting Zhou, Qian Wang, Ci Xu, Yan-Yan Li, Lei Bian, Yuanhua Liu, Jiaxi Zhou, Fei Wang, Yuan Yao, Yong Fang, Dong Li
Understanding of the mechanism for myeloid differentiation provides important insights into the hematopoietic developmental processes. By using an ESC-derived myeloid progenitor cell model, we found that CSF2/GM-CSF triggered macrophage differentiation and activation of the MTOR signaling pathway. Activation or inhibition of the MTOR signaling enhanced or attenuated macrophage differentiation, respectively, suggesting a critical function. We further showed that macroautophagy/autophagy was inhibited with the addition of CSF2...
February 6, 2019: Autophagy
Bin Ye, Quan Wang, Haixia Hu, Yilin Shen, Cui Fan, Penghui Chen, Yan Ma, Hao Wu, Mingliang Xiang
Macroautophagy/autophagy dysfunction is associated with many neurodegenerative diseases. TFEB (transcription factor EB), an important molecule that regulates lysosomal and autophagy function, is regarded as a potential target for treating some neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relationship between autophagy dysfunction and spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) degeneration and the role of TFEB in SGN degeneration has not yet been established. Here, we showed that in degenerated SGNs, induced by sensory epithelial cell loss in the cochlea of mice following kanamycin and furosemide administration, the lipofuscin area and oxidative stress level were increased, the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic TFEB ratio was decreased, and the late stage of autophagic flux was impaired...
February 1, 2019: Autophagy
Alexandre Benedetto, David Gems
A plethora of studies over several decades has demonstrated the importance of autophagy in aging and age-related neurodegenerative disease. The role of autophagy in damage clearance and cell survival is well established, and supports a prevailing view that increasing autophagic activity can be broadly beneficial, and could form the basis of anti-aging interventions. However, macroautophagy/autophagy also promotes some elements of senescence. For example, in C. elegans hermaphrodites it facilitates conversion of intestinal biomass into yolk, leading to sex-specific gut atrophy and senescent steatosis...
January 30, 2019: Autophagy
Vikramjit Lahiri, Daniel J Klionsky
In eukaryotes, TORC1/MTORC1 is a critical regulator of growth and proliferation. In response to nutrient abundance TORC1/MTORC1 favors anabolic processes and retards degradative ones. In S. cerevisiae, TORC1 is conventionally known to localize on the vacuolar membrane. In the course of their recent investigations, Hatakeyama et al. discovered a novel second site of TORC1 localization-the prevacuolar endosome. Their article, highlighted here, discusses the mechanism of TORC1 localization to the prevacuolar endosome and highlights a hitherto unappreciated mechanism by which 2 spatially separated pools of TORC1 execute the distinct functions of promoting anabolism and inhibiting degradation...
January 30, 2019: Autophagy
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