journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38884255/deciphering-hiv-associated-inflammation-microbiome-s-influence-and-experimental-insights
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ricky A Lippincott, John O'Connor, Charles P Neff, Catherine Lozupone, Brent E Palmer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review novel experimental approaches for studying host:microbe interactions and their role in intestinal and systemic inflammation in people living with HIV (PLWH). RECENT FINDINGS: Inflammation in PLWH is impacted by interactions between the microbiome, the intestinal epithelium, and immune cells. This complex interplay is not fully understood and requires a variety of analytical techniques to study. Using a multiomic systems biology approach provides hypothesis generating data on host:microbe interactions that can be used to guide further investigation...
June 14, 2024: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38874442/therapeutic-microbiome-modulation-new-frontiers-in-hiv-treatment
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Rene Bulnes, Netanya S Utay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysbiosis may be a key driver of systemic inflammation, which increases the risk of non-AIDS events in people living with HIV (PLWH). Modulation of the microbiome to reverse this dysbiosis may be a novel approach to decrease inflammation and therefore morbidity and mortality in PLWH. RECENT FINDINGS: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, postbiotics, and dietary modifications have the potential to modulate the microbiome...
June 14, 2024: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38874425/elite-controllers-microbiome-unraveling-the-mystery-of-association-and-causation
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Xiangning Bai, Anders Sönnerborg, Piotr Nowak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To unravel the current knowledge and possible link between the gut microbiome and HIV-1 virological control in elite controllers (EC), who can suppress viral replication in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. In addition, to discuss the limitations of current research and propose future research directions. RECENT FINDINGS: EC possess a different gut bacterial microbiota profile in composition and functionality from that of treatment-naive HIV-1 viremic progressors (VP)...
June 13, 2024: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38747727/immune-checkpoint-inhibition-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-for-hiv-eradication-current-insights-and-future-directions
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jina Lee, James B Whitney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-1 infection contributes substantially to global morbidity and mortality, with no immediate promise of an effective prophylactic vaccine. Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV replication, but latent viral reservoirs allow the virus to persist and reignite active replication if ART is discontinued. Moreover, inflammation and immune disfunction persist despite ART-mediated suppression of HIV. Immune checkpoint molecules facilitate immune dysregulation and viral persistence...
May 16, 2024: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38695148/recent-advances-on-anti-hiv-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-treatment-to-provide-sustained-hiv-remission
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Hang Su, April Mueller, Harris Goldstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Successful sustained remission of HIV infection has been achieved after CCR5Δ32/Δ32 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for treatment of leukemia in a small cohort of people living with HIV (PLWH). This breakthrough demonstrated that the goal of curing HIV was achievable. However, the high morbidity and mortality associated with bone marrow transplantation limits the routine application of this approach and provides a strong rationale for pursuing alternative strategies for sustained long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART)-free HIV remission...
May 2, 2024: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38686773/a-behavioral-economics-approach-to-enhancing-hiv-preexposure-and-postexposure-prophylaxis-implementation
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jingjing Li, Yaxin Liu, Eric Nehl, Joseph D Tucker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The 'PrEP cliff' phenomenon poses a critical challenge in global HIV PrEP implementation, marked by significant dropouts across the entire PrEP care continuum. This article reviews new strategies to address 'PrEP cliff'. RECENT FINDINGS: Canadian clinicians have developed a service delivery model that offers presumptive PEP to patients in need and transits eligible PEP users to PrEP. Early findings are promising. This service model not only establishes a safety net for those who were not protected by PrEP, but it also leverages the immediate salience and perceived benefits of PEP as a natural nudge towards PrEP use...
April 29, 2024: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38686850/gaining-momentum-stem-cell-therapies-for-hiv-cure
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Amanda M Buck, Brian H LaFranchi, Timothy J Henrich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Durable HIV-1 remission has been reported in a person who received allogeneic stem cell transplants (SCTs) involving CCR5 Δ32/Δ32 donor cells. Much of the reduction in HIV-1 burden following allogeneic SCT with or without donor cells inherently resistant to HIV-1 infection is likely due to cytotoxic graft-versus-host effects on residual recipient immune cells. Nonetheless, there has been growing momentum to develop and implement stem cell therapies that lead to durable long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART)-free remission without the need for SCT...
April 26, 2024: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38686856/utilizing-immunotherapy-towards-achieving-a-functional-cure-for-hiv-1
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Fabrícia Heloisa Cavicchioli Sugiyama, Lisa Loksø Dietz, Ole Schmeltz Søgaard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advancements in antiretroviral therapy (ART) have positively impacted the life expectancy and possibility of living a normal life for people with HIV-1. However, lifelong daily medication is necessary to prevent disease progression. To this end, immunotherapeutic strategies are being tested with the aim of developing a functional cure in which the immune system effectively controls HIV-1 in the absence of ART. RECENT FINDINGS: The most promising advances in achieving sustained HIV-1 remission or cure include broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that are administered alone or in combination with other agents...
April 12, 2024: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38547338/humanized-mice-for-studying-hiv-latency-and-potentially-its-eradication
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Moa F Hasler, Roberto F Speck, Nicole P Kadzioch
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The quest for an HIV cure faces a formidable challenge: the persistent presence of latent viral infections within the cells and tissues of infected individuals. This review provides a thorough examination of discussions surrounding HIV latency, the use of humanized mouse models, and strategies aimed at eliminating the latent HIV reservoir. It explores the hurdles and advancements in understanding HIV pathogenesis, mainly focusing on establishing latent reservoirs in CD4+ T cells and macrophages...
March 28, 2024: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38841850/pediatric-immunotherapy-and-hiv-control
#10
REVIEW
Tehillah T Chinunga, Ann Chahroudi, Susan P Ribeiro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Highlighting opportunities/potential for immunotherapy by understanding dynamics of HIV control during pediatric HIV infection with and without antiretroviral therapy (ART), as modeled in Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and Simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected rhesus macaques and observed in clinical trials. This review outlines mode of transmission, pathogenesis of pediatric HIV, unique aspects of the infant immune system, infant macaque models and immunotherapies...
July 1, 2024: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38841849/editorial-introduction
#11
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2024: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38900029/editorial-introduction
#12
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2024: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38568102/editorial-putting-hiv-in-the-big-sleep-with-the-block-and-lock-strategy
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Eline Pellaers, Zeger Debyser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2024: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38547340/the-multifaceted-nature-of-hiv-tissue-reservoirs
#14
REVIEW
Riddhima Banga, Matthieu Perreau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To underline the complexity and the heterogeneity of the HIV reservoir. RECENT FINDINGS: While lymphoid tissues (spleen, lymph nodes, gut-associated lymphoid tissue) harbor specific subsets of specialized CD4 +  T cells enriched in HIV-infected cells, non-CD4 +  T cell reservoirs such as tissue-resident macrophages and dendritic cells have also been implicated to contribute to viral persistence. Moreover, studies have applied highly sensitive tools to detect transcriptional activity within HIV-infected cells during prolonged ART and revealed a broader spectrum of transcriptional activity for proviruses than previously thought...
May 1, 2024: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38547337/the-sounds-of-silencing-dynamic-epigenetic-control-of-hiv-latency
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Kien Nguyen, Jonathan Karn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights advances in understanding the epigenetic control mechanisms that regulate HIV-1 latency mechanisms in T-cells and microglial cells and describes the potential of current therapeutic approaches targeting the epigenetic machinery to eliminate or block the HIV-1 latent reservoir. RECENT FINDINGS: Large-scale unbiased CRISPR-Cas9 library-based screenings, coupled with biochemical studies, have comprehensively identified the epigenetic factors pivotal in regulating HIV-1 latency, paving the way for potential novel targets in therapeutic development...
March 13, 2024: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38502547/persistent-hiv-1-transcription-during-art-time-to-reassess-its-significance
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Céline Fombellida-Lopez, Ben Berkhout, Gilles Darcis, Alexander O Pasternak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-1 reservoirs persist and reignite viral replication if therapy is interrupted. Persistence of the viral reservoir in people with HIV-1 (PWH) is the main obstacle to an HIV-1 cure. The reservoirs are not transcriptionally silent, and viral transcripts can be detected in most ART-treated individuals. Here, we review the recent progress in the characterization of persistent HIV-1 transcription during ART. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence from several studies indicates that, although cell-associated unspliced (US) HIV-1 RNA is abundantly expressed in ART-treated PWH, intact full-length US transcripts are rare and most US RNA is derived from defective proviruses...
March 7, 2024: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38547339/what-s-in-a-cure-designing-a-broad-spectrum-hiv-gene-therapy
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Rachel E Berman, Will Dampier, Michael R Nonnemacher, Brian Wigdahl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The leading gene editing strategy for a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) cure involves the delivery of SaCas9 and two guide RNAs (gRNAs) in an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector. As a dual-component system, CRISPR is targeted to a genetic locus through the choice of a Cas effector and gRNA protospacer design pair. As CRISPR research has expanded in recent years, these components have been investigated for utilization in cure strategies, which will be discussed in this article...
March 4, 2024: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38457227/strategies-to-target-the-central-nervous-system-hiv-reservoir
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Andrea Mastrangelo, Lucio Gama, Paola Cinque
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The central nervous system (CNS) is an hotspot for HIV persistence and may be a major obstacle to overcome for curative strategies. The peculiar anatomical, tissular and cellular characteristics of the HIV reservoir in the CNS may need to be specifically addressed to achieve a long-term HIV control without ART. In this review, we will discuss the critical challenges that currently explored curative strategies may face in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), targeting latent HIV in brain-resident myeloid reservoirs, and eliminating the virus without eliciting dangerous neurological adverse events...
March 1, 2024: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38314604/towards-an-hiv-cure-one-cell-at-a-time
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Alberto Bosque
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2024: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38314603/editorial-introduction
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2024: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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