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J Graham Thomas, Dale S Bond, Hollie A Raynor, George D Papandonatos, Rena R Wing
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether weight losses from a primarily smartphone-based behavioral obesity treatment (SMART) differed from those of a more intensive group-based behavioral obesity treatment (GROUP) and a control condition (CONTROL). METHODS: A total of 276 adults with overweight/obesity were randomly assigned to 18 months of GROUP-based treatment with meetings weekly for 6 months, meetings biweekly for 6 months, and meetings monthly for 6 months and self-monitoring via paper diaries with written feedback; SMART-based treatment with online lessons, self-monitoring, and feedback plus monthly weigh-ins; or a CONTROL condition with self-monitoring via paper diaries with written feedback and monthly weigh-ins...
February 19, 2019: Obesity
Ashley Mulcahy Toney, Rong Fan, Yibo Xian, Virginia Chaidez, Amanda E Ramer-Tait, Soonkyu Chung
OBJECTIVE: Urolithin A (UroA) is a major metabolite of ellagic acid produced following microbial catabolism in the gut. Emerging evidence has suggested that UroA modulates energy metabolism in various cells. However, UroA's physiological functions related to obesity and insulin resistance remain unclear. METHODS: Male mice were intraperitoneally administrated either UroA or dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle) along with a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated via glucose and insulin tolerance tests and acute insulin signaling...
February 15, 2019: Obesity
Di Xiao, Lanjun Zhu, Indika Edirisinghe, Jawed Fareed, Yevgeniy Brailovsky, Britt Burton-Freeman
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of red raspberry intake on meal-induced postprandial metabolic responses in individuals who have overweight or obesity with prediabetes and insulin resistance (PreDM-IR), and in metabolically healthy individuals (Reference). METHODS: Thirty-two adults (PreDM-IR, n = 21; Reference, n = 11) were randomized to a controlled, three-arm, single-blinded, crossover trial. Participants were provided 0 g of frozen red raspberries (Control), 125 g of frozen red raspberries (RR-125) (~1 cup), or 250 g of frozen red raspberries (RR-250) (~2 cups), with a challenge breakfast meal (high carbohydrate/moderate fat) on three separate days...
February 14, 2019: Obesity
Michael J Raboin, John Letaw, Asia D Mitchell, David Toffey, Jessica McKelvey, Charles T Roberts, Joanne E Curran, Amanda Vinson
OBJECTIVE: Whereas the metabolic consequences of obesity have been studied extensively in the rhesus macaque, corollary genetic studies of obesity are nonexistent. This study assessed genetic contributions to spontaneous adiposity in this species. METHODS: Phenotypic variation by age class and sex for BMI, waist to height ratio, waist to thigh ratio, and waist circumference was assessed in 583 macaques. Total and sex-specific heritability for all traits was estimated, including waist to thigh ratio adjusted for BMI, as well as genotypic and phenotypic correlations...
February 11, 2019: Obesity
Sunil Sirohi, Elena Skripnikova, Jon F Davis
OBJECTIVE: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) are the most commonly performed bariatric procedures. Whereas studies report new-onset alcohol misuse following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, the impact of VSG on alcohol intake is less clear. Hedonic feeding, alcohol drinking, and hypothalamic obesity-related gene expression following VSG were evaluated. METHODS: Male Long-Evans rats underwent VSG or sham surgery. To evaluate hedonic feeding, rats received a high-fat diet following behavioral satiation on chow...
February 10, 2019: Obesity
Ameneh Madjd, Moira A Taylor, Alireza Delavari, Reza Malekzadeh, Ian A Macdonald, Hamid R Farshchi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different daily physical activity (PA) frequencies, while maintaining the same daily volume of PA, on weight loss, carbohydrate metabolism, and lipid metabolism in women with overweight or obesity throughout a 24-week intervention. METHODS: During their weight-loss plan, 65 women (BMI = 27-35 kg/m2 ; age = 18-40 years) who had a sedentary lifestyle were randomly allocated to the following groups: diet plus a long bout of moderate physical activity (LBP) (one 50-minute bout of moderate-intensity PA) 6 d/wk or diet plus short bouts of moderate physical activity (SBP) (two 25-minute bouts of moderate-intensity PA) 6 d/wk...
February 9, 2019: Obesity
Barbara Choromańska, Piotr Myśliwiec, Hady Razak Hady, Jacek Dadan, Hanna Myśliwiec, Adrian Chabowski, Agnieszka Mikłosz
OBJECTIVE: Accelerated transmembrane transport of long-chain fatty acids dependent on fatty acid transporters is responsible for lipid accumulation and, eventually, the development of metabolic syndrome. This study determined the content of lipids (ceramide [CER], diacylglycerol [DAG], triacylglycerol, and free fatty acid [FFA]) and the expression of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) and plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue of women with morbid obesity without metabolic syndrome (MetSx-) or with metabolic syndrome (MetSx+) and compared the results with those of lean controls without metabolic syndrome...
February 5, 2019: Obesity
Kapria-Jad Josaphat, Thiffya Arabi Kugathasan, Ryan E R Reid, Mickael Begon, Pierre-Majorique Léger, Elise Labonté-Lemoyne, Sylvain Sénécal, Denis Arvisais, Marie-Eve Mathieu
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to collect existing literature and summarize the impact of active workstations on the health and work outcomes of participants with overweight or obesity. METHODS: Five databases were examined (until March 2018), and the keywords "desk," "workstation," "work station," and "work stations" were used with any one of the following terms: "active," "bik*," "cycling," "height adjustable," "stepping," "stand up," "standing," "treadmill*," "walk*," "elliptical," "bicycl*," "pedaling," "stability ball," "stability balls," "exercise ball," "exercise balls," "swiss ball," "swiss balls," "sit-to-stand," and "sit stand...
February 5, 2019: Obesity
Suresh Anand Sadananthan, Mya Thway Tint, Navin Michael, Izzuddin M Aris, See Ling Loy, Kuan Jin Lee, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek, Fabian Kok Peng Yap, Kok Hian Tan, Keith M Godfrey, Melvin Khee-Shing Leow, Yung Seng Lee, Michael S Kramer, Peter D Gluckman, Yap Seng Chong, Neerja Karnani, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry, Marielle Valerie Fortier, S Sendhil Velan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the independent associations between age-specific annual weight gain from birth to age 4 years and fat deposition in metabolically distinct compartments at age 4.5 years in a South Asian longitudinal birth cohort. METHODS: Volumetric abdominal magnetic resonance imaging with comprehensive segmentation of deep and superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissues (VAT) was performed in 316 children (150 boys and 166 girls in three ethnic groups; 158 Chinese, 94 Malay, and 64 Indian) aged 4...
February 1, 2019: Obesity
Takashi Abe, Scott J Dankel, Jeremy P Loenneke
Fat-free mass or lean tissue mass includes nonskeletal muscle components such as the fat-free component of adipose tissue fat cells. This fat-free component of adipose tissue may need to be taken into consideration when large changes in body fat occur following a weight loss intervention. It is not uncommon to see a loss of lean mass with interventions designed to promote the loss of large amounts of fat mass. However, after eliminating the influence of the fat-free component of adipose tissue on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived lean mass, the original loss of lean mass is no longer observed or is markedly reduced...
January 31, 2019: Obesity
Cristina Rabasa, Kaisa Askevik, Erik Schéle, Min Hu, Heike Vogel, Suzanne L Dickson
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine divergence regarding the impact of acute versus chronic repeated stress on energy balance. METHODS: Rats were exposed to either chronic repeated forced swim (FS) stress for 7 days or an acute stress (a single FS). Body weight and food intake were measured daily. Metabolic parameters explored included brown adipose tissue (BAT) weight and activity. RESULTS: Chronic repeated FS stress decreased body weight and caloric efficiency...
January 31, 2019: Obesity
Nan Wang, Ting-Ting Zhao, Si-Ming Li, Xu Sun, Zi-Cheng Li, Yan-Hua Li, De-Shan Li, Wen-Fei Wang
OBJECTIVE: Obesity-related, chronic, low-grade inflammation has been identified as a key factor in the development of many metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Adipocytes, preadipocytes, and macrophages have been implicated in initiating inflammation in adipose tissue. This study aims to investigate the effects of fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) on obesity-related inflammation and its mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) was used to induce obesity in mice and subsequently treated the mice with or without FGF-21...
January 31, 2019: Obesity
Kathryn M Ross, Abraham Eastman, Rena R Wing
OBJECTIVE: Greater frequency of self-weighing has been associated with greater weight loss in weight management interventions, but little is known regarding the accuracy of self-reported weight data. METHODS: Agreement between objective smart-scale and self-reported weight data was assessed in 74 adults (age = 50.7 years; BMI = 31.2 kg/m2 ) enrolled in a 12-week, Internet-based weight management program. Participants were asked to self-weight daily using a study-provided smart scale and to self-report weights via the study website...
January 31, 2019: Obesity
Bin Dong, Yan-Hui Dong, Zhao-Geng Yang, Xi-Jie Wang, Zhi-Yong Zou, Zhiqiang Wang, Jun Ma
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between birth weight (BW) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents and to further investigate whether having a healthy body weight could modify the potential adverse influence of abnormal BW on MetS risk. METHODS: A total of 6,206 participants aged 10 to 17 years were recruited using data from a Chinese national survey conducted in 2012. Gestational age-specific BW percentiles were used to classify small for gestational age (SGA), appropriate for gestational age, and large for gestational age (LGA)...
January 30, 2019: Obesity
Fiona Peris-Sampedro, Myriam Mounib, Erik Schéle, Christian E Edvardsson, Iris Stoltenborg, Roger A H Adan, Suzanne L Dickson
OBJECTIVE: Rats were exposed to free-choice diets (fat plus one of two different sugar solutions, glucose or sucrose), and the metabolic consequences and impact on locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior were explored. METHODS: For 3 weeks, 7-week-old male rats were offered either chow only or free-choice high-fat diets differing in their added sugar: no sugar, sucrose, or glucose. In a second experiment, after 2 weeks on the diets, rats were switched from high sucrose to high glucose for two additional weeks...
January 30, 2019: Obesity
Omayma Alshaarawy, Emily Kurjan, Nguyen Truong, L Karl Olson
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) activation is associated with increased food intake and body weight gain. Human epidemiological studies, however, show decreased prevalence of obesity in cannabis users. Given the overlapping and complementary functions of the cannabinoid receptors (CB1R and CB2R), mice lacking CB2R and mice lacking both CB1R and CB2R were studied. METHODS: A high-fat diet was used to study metabolic changes in male mice lacking CB2R (CB2-/- ) or lacking both CB1R and CB2R (double-knockout [CB-DKO]) compared with wild-type mice...
January 30, 2019: Obesity
Juen Guo, Jennifer L Robinson, Christopher D Gardner, Kevin D Hall
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare self-reported with objective measurements of energy intake changes (∆EI) during a 1-year weight-loss intervention with subjects randomized to low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diets. METHODS: Repeated body weight measurements were used as inputs to an objective mathematical model to calculate ∆EIModel and to compare with self-reported energy intake changes assessed by repeated 24-hour recalls (∆EIRecall ). RESULTS: ∆EIRecall indicated a relatively persistent state of calorie restriction of ~500 to 600 kcal/d at 3, 6, and 12 months with no significant differences between the diets...
January 22, 2019: Obesity
Anarina L Murillo, Olivia Affuso, Courtney M Peterson, Peng Li, Howard W Wiener, Carmen D Tekwe, David B Allison
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to illustrate the use and value of measurement error models for reducing bias when evaluating associations between body fat and having type 2 diabetes (T2D) or being physically active. METHODS: Logistic regression models were used to evaluate T2D and physical activity among adults aged 19 to 80 years from the Photobody Study (n = 558). Self-reported T2D and physical activity were categorized as "yes" or "no." Body fat measured by two-dimensional photographs was adjusted for bias using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans as a reference...
January 22, 2019: Obesity
Yun-Ui Bae, Yongjin Kim, Haekyung Lee, Hyoungnae Kim, Jin Seok Jeon, Hyunjin Noh, Dong Cheol Han, Seongho Ryu, Soon Hyo Kwon
OBJECTIVE: Exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) are potential biomarkers for obesity, in which they regulate biological processes. Bariatric surgery has health benefits for patients with obesity; however, the mechanisms of these benefits are not clear. This study attempted to identify the exosomal miRNA signature associated with obesity and how it changed after bariatric surgery. METHODS: Healthy volunteers (HVs) and nondiabetic patients with obesity were prospectively enrolled in the study...
January 9, 2019: Obesity
Alyssa J Moran, S V Subramanian, Eric B Rimm, Sara N Bleich
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe beverages purchased in restaurants among a nationally representative sample of US households. METHODS: Data were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey, 2012 to 2013. Survey-weighted multiple regressions assessed correlates of purchasing a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB), purchasing a low-calorie beverage, and per capita beverage calories and grams of sugar among purchases from US restaurants (n = 14,669)...
January 4, 2019: Obesity
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